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# POWER FACTOR

CORRECTION

ϕ mean
What does Cosϕ 1

## Power Factor Correction using Capacitors 2

Centralised Compensation 2

## Power Factor Components 3

- Capacitors 4-7

- Contactors 4-5

- Fuse Protection 5

- Isolating 6

## Rack System Components 8-10

- Capacitors 9

- Contactors 9

- Fuse Protection 9

- Busbars 9

Harmonics 11

## Series 7000 Harmonic Systems 12

Power Factor Correction
What is power factor correction? Disadvantages of Low Power Factor

Power factor is simply a name given to the ratio of “actual” power 1. Increased authorities cost since more current has to be transmitted,
(active power) being used in a circuit, expressed in watts or more and this cost is directly billed to consumers on maximum demand
commonly kilowatts (kW), to the power which is “apparently” being kVA systems.
drawn from the mains, expressed in volt-ampere or more commonly
kilo volt-ampere (kVA). 2. Causes overloaded generators, transformers and distribution lines
within a plant, resulting in greater voltage drops and power losses, all
P.F. = Active Power (kW) representing waste, inefficiency and needless wear and tear on
Apparent Power (kVA) industrial electrical equipment.

All modern industries utilise electrical energy in some form or other. 3. Reduces load handling capability of the plants electrical system.
Two basic categories of load are encountered in alternate current
(AC) networks. Most electrical supply authorities have changed to kVA demand
systems from the inefficient kW demand system. Consumers are
1. Resistive Loads now billed and penalised for their inefficient systems according to the
apparent power being used. In future, consumers will be penalised
Devices containing only resistance e.g. incandescent lamps, heaters, for plants with power factor below a pre-determined value.
soldering irons, ovens, etc.

The current drawn from the supply is directly converted into heat or Improving Power Factor
light. Since the voltage is assumed to be constant, the actual power
(kW) being used is identical to the apparent power (kVA) being drawn The most practical and economical power factor improvement device
from the line. The power factor is therefore unity or 1. In these purely is the capacitor. As stated previously, all inductive loads produce
resistive circuits, the current and voltage sinewave peaks occur inductive reactive power (lagging by a phase angle of 90°).
simultaneously and are said to be “in phase”. Capacitors on the other hand produce capacitive reactive power,
which is the exact opposite of inductive reactive power. In this
2. Inductive Loads instance, the current peak occurs before the voltage peak, leading by
a phase angle of 90°. By careful selection of capacitance required, it
All motors and transformers depend on magnetism as the basis of is possible totally cancel out the inductive reactive power when
their operation. Magnetism is a force and in the physical sense is not placed in circuit together.
consumed. In AC motors and transformers, magnetic forces are only
required periodically. Consequently, a permanent magnet cannot be kW
used and the necessary magnetism is produced by electrical means.
ϕ2
The electrical current needed for this purpose is not fully utilised. ϕ1
Having produced the magnetic force, the current flows back to the
power station again. This current is called the reactive current in con- KVA2
trast to the active current which performs work and is fully utilised in
so doing. Although the reactive current is not utilised, it imposes a KV
load on the electrical distribution system and supply authorities A1
Capacitor
demand payment for this load according to specific tariffs. kVAr
Required
The current drawn from the supply is made up of two separate kinds
of current “power producing current” and “magnetising current”.
Therefore the current flowing in an AC circuit (unless corrected) is Cosϕ1 is the kVA used before Power Factor Improvement equipment
generally larger than is necessary to supply the power being by the was added to the network.
expended point. Cosϕ2 is the kVA used after Power Factor improvement equipment

ϕ mean?
What does Cosϕ To prevent the continual flow of reactive current back and forth
between the load and power station, a capacitor, which is in effect a
Reactive power and active power flow through the motor or trans- reactive current storage device, is connected in parallel with the load.
former. Geometrical calculation of these two powers yield the apparent The reactive current supplied by the power station and used for the
power. The ratio of the active and apparent power is denoted by magnetic force when the load is switched on does not now return to
cosϕ and indicates what fraction of apparent power flowing is actually the power station but instead flows into the capacitor and merely
used by the motor. circulates between the latter and the load. Consequently the distribu-
tion lines from the power station are relieved of the reactive current.
Active Power (kW)
ϕ Capacitors can therefore be utilised to reduce kVA and electrical
costs. Improved power factor results in:
App Inductive Reactive
aren Power (kVAr) 1. Reduced kVA charges
Fig. 1 t Po
wer
(kVA
) 2. Improved plant efficiency

As can be seen from Fig. 1, the apparent power is greater than the 4. Reduced overloading of cables, transformers,
active power and hence the power factor is a value considerably less switchgear, etc.
than unity.
5. Improved starting torque of motors
P.F. = Reactive Power (kW) = ϕ
Cosϕ
Apparent Power (kVA) 6. Reduce fuel requirements to generate power due to lower losses.

1
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Correction
Power Factor Correction using Capacitors Centralised Compensation
(Automatic Power Factor Correction)
Two methods of improving power factor using capacitors are:
In large industrial plants where many motors are generally in use or,
a) Individual motor compensation (static capacitors) when the main reason for power factor is to obtain lower electricity
b) Centralised compensation (automatic capacitor banks) bills, then centralised compensation is far more practical and eco-
nomical than individual motor compensation.

Individual Motor Compensation In this instance, large banks or racks of capacitors are installed at the
main incoming distribution boards of the plant and are sub-divided
Most effective correction is obtained by connecting individual capac- into steps which are automatically switched in or out depending on
itors directly to the terminals of each motor. The motor and capaci- specific load requirements by means of an automatic control system,
tor can be controlled jointly by the motor switchgear. The capaci- improving the overall power factor of the network.
tor rating should be matched as closely as possible so that the power
factor of the entire plant can be corrected to the optimum value, Utilising Table 4 for calculating capacitor kVAr size requirements for
irrespective of the number of motors switched on. power factor correction. The following information must be known
beforehand.
The size of capacitor required may be determined from Table 3 by
taking the motor kW and speed into consideration. Table 3 is a guide a) The average plant power factor
only and no guarantee of correct power factor. The correct method b) The maximum running load of the plant in kW
of maximum capacitor rating can be determined by using the following
formula: To avoid ferro-resistance and dangerous voltage rises, the total kVAr
required should never exceed 65% of incoming transformer kVA. In
Qc = 0.9Io V√3 practice, to be absolutely safe, this limit should be set at approx. 50%.
where Io = motor magnetising current Generally an automatic power factor system consist of:
Qc = capacitor power in VAr
a) a main load-break isolator (or circuit breaker)
If the magnetising current is not known, 95% of the motor no-load b) an automatic reactive control relay
current can be used as an approximate value. Care should be taken c) power factor capacitors backed by suitable fuse protection
not to exceed the value calculated to avoid dangerous overvoltages d) suitably rated contactors for capacitor switching
and possible self excitation of motors at switch-off.
The automatic reactive control relay monitors the total network and
Over compensation can cause higher supply voltages which can will switch-in the required capacitor banks at pre-determined inter-
cause consequent break down of motor insulation and flashover at vals compensating for capacitor discharge times and load dependant
motor terminals. To be safe, rather use standard capacitor sizes (as requirements.
indicated below). For this reason, individual motor compensation is
not recommended for motors which are rapidly reversed e.g. cranes, As capacitor switching subjects components to exceptionally high
hoists, etc. stresses it is imperative to correctly size and rate all components
utilised in a system.

Table 3
Substantiating Power Factor Correction Costs
Individual Capacitor Rating in kVAr to improve Power Factor to 0.95
or better at all loads. This question can best be answered by an example. Assuming a
plant has a total load of 500 kW and a power factor (cosϕ) of say 0.75
Motor Rating 2 Pole 4 Pole 6 Pole
lagging. Supply authorities kVA demand charge is approximately
kW 3000 rpm 1500 rpm 1000 rpm
R40.00 per kVA (actually above R50.00 in most areas.
0.75 0.5 kVAr 0.5 kVAr 0.5 kVAr Johannesburg is currently R53.10).
1.1 0.5 kVAr 0.5 kVAr 1.0 kVAr
1.5 0.5 kVAr 1.0 kVAr 1.0 kVAr kW 500 kW
= kVA = 666 kVA
PF 0.75 PF
2.2 1.0 kVAr 1.0 kVAr 1.5 kVAr
4.0 1.5 kVAr 1.5 kVAr 2.0 kVAr Total costs @ R40.00/kVA = R26,640.00/month
5.5 2.0 kVAr 2.0 kVAr 3.0 kVAr By installing capacitors to improve power factor (cosϕ) to 0.98 lagging
7.5 2.0 kVAr 2.0 kVAr 3.0 kVAr new costs are;

## 11.0 3.0 kVAr 4.0 kVAr 5.0 kVAr 500 kW

= 510 kVA
15 4.0 kVAr 5.0 kVAr 6.0 kVAr 0.98 PF
18.5 5.0 kVAr 7.0 kVAr 8.0 kVAr
Total costs @ R40.00/kVA = R20,400.00/month
22 6.0 kVAr 8.0 kVAr 9.0 kVAr
30 8.0 kVAr 10.0 kVAr 12.0 kVAr therefore savings monthly = R6,240.00
37 10.0 kVAr 12.0 kVAr 14.0 kVAr
45 12.0 kVAr 14.0 kVAr 16.0 kVAr A complete system required to effect power factor from 0.75 to 0.98
(as in above example) would require a system of 360 kVAr which
55 16.0 kVAr 22.0 kVAr 25.0 kVAr
would currently cost approximately R43,000.00
75 18.0 kVAr 25.0 kVAr 30.0 kVAr
90 20.0 kVAr 30.0 kVAr 35.0 kVAr Power factor correction usually pays for itself well within 12 months
110 25.0 kVAr 30.0 kVAr 40.0 kVAr of the initial purchase (7 months in above example ) and continues
saving indefinitely. It therefore stands to reason that more significant
132 35.0 kVAr 40.0 kVAr 40.0 kVAr savings can be anticipated with the ever increasing escalation costs
160 40.0 kVAr 45.0 kVAr 50.0 kVAr of electricity in the future.
2
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Correction
Calculating Capacitor Requirements Table 4

It is imperative that correct capacitor sizes be selected when calcu- Existing PF Target Power Factor
lating capacitor requirements. In the case of centralised compensa- Cosϕ Required Cosϕ
tion, it is recommended that the first capacitor step be equal to half Before applying
the value of the following steps, to allow a smooth overall linear cor- capacitors 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.92 0.95 0.98 1.0
rection system.
0.40 1.54 1.67 1.81 1.87 1.96 2.09 2.29
Table 4 (right) will assist in calculating capacitor values in specific 0.42 1.41 1.54 1.68 1.73 1.83 1.96 2.16
applications. 0.44 1.29 1.42 1.56 1.61 1.71 1.84 2.04
Prior knowledge of the following is required: 0.46 1.18 1.31 1.45 1.50 1.60 1.73 1.93
0.48 1.08 1.21 1.34 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.83
a) Power factor before applying capacitors (left vertical column)
b) Required power factor (top horizontal row) 0.50 0.98 1.11 1.25 1.31 1.40 1.53 1.73
c) Total consumption in kW 0.52 0.89 1.02 1.16 1.22 1.31 1.44 1.64
0.54 0.81 0.94 1.07 1.13 1.23 1.36 1.56
The correct capacitor size can be calculated by multiplying the factor
when crossing the horizontal and vertical columns in the table below 0.56 0.73 0.86 1.00 1.05 1.15 1.28 1.48
by kW.
0.58 0.65 0.78 0.92 0.98 1.08 1.20 1.40
0.60 0.58 0.71 0.85 0.91 1.00 1.13 1.33
Example: 0.61 0.55 0.68 0.81 0.87 0.97 1.10 1.30

1. Convert the plant load to kW (kVA x PF = kW) 0.62 0.52 0.65 0.78 0.84 0.94 1.06 1.27
666 kVA x 0.75 Pf = 500 kW (useful power) 0.63 0.48 0.61 0.75 0.81 0.90 1.03 1.23

2. To correct a load of 500 kW at 0.75 PF to 0.98 PF. 0.64 0.45 0.58 0.72 0.77 0.87 1.00 1.20
Follow the 0.75 value (in left vertical column) 0.65 0.42 0.55 0.68 0.74 0.84 0.97 1.17
horizontally until below the 0.98 value (in top
0.66 0.39 0.52 0.65 0.71 0.81 0.94 1.14
horizontal row). The factor value is 0.68.
0.67 0.36 0.49 0.63 0.68 0.78 0.90 1.11
3. Capacitor required to correct from 0.75 to 0.98
0.68 0.33 0.46 0.59 0.65 0.75 0.88 1.08
(power x capacitor from the table value)
500 kW x 0.68 = 340 kVAr 0.69 0.30 0.43 0.56 0.62 0.72 0.85 1.05
0.70 0.27 0.40 0.54 0.59 0.69 0.82 1.02
savings: 500 kW @ 0.75 PF = 666 kVA
500 kW @ 0.98 Pf = 510 kVA 0.71 0.24 0.37 0.51 0.57 0.66 0.79 0.99
Reduction of 156 kVA 0.72 0.21 0.34 0.48 0.54 0.64 0.76 0.96

(23.4% less of transformer load) 0.73 0.19 0.32 0.45 0.51 0.61 0.73 0.94
0.74 0.16 0.29 0.42 0.48 0.58 0.71 0.91
0.75 0.13 0.26 0.40 0.46 0.55 0.68 0.88
0.76 0.11 0.24 0.37 0.43 0.53 0.65 0.86
0.77 0.08 0.21 0.34 0.40 0.50 0.63 0.83
0.78 0.05 0.18 0.32 0.38 0.47 0.60 0.80
0.79 0.03 0.16 0.29 0.35 0.45 0.57 0.78
0.80 0.13 0.27 0.32 0.42 0.55 0.75
0.81 0.10 0.24 0.30 0.40 0.52 0.72
0.82 0.08 0.21 0.27 0.37 0.49 0.70
0.83 0.05 0.19 0.25 0.34 0.47 0.67
0.84 0.03 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.44 0.65
0.85 0.14 0.19 0.29 0.42 0.62
0.86 0.11 0.17 0.26 0.39 0.59
0.87 0.08 0.14 0.24 0.36 0.57
0.88 0.06 0.11 0.21 0.34 0.54
0.89 0.03 0.09 0.18 0.31 0.51
0.90 0.06 0.16 0.28 0.48
0.91 0.03 0.13 0.25 0.46
0.92 0.10 0.22 0.43
0.93 0.07 0.19 0.40
0.94 0.03 0.16 0.36
0.95 0.13 0.33

3
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Components
Power Factor Components, Systems and 3 Phase Monobloc Capacitors 440V
Specifications “H” Type 440V, 50 Hz, 3 Phase
(Maximum Voltage 520V - 50Hz)
Electromechanica have been involved in all aspects of power factor
Alpivar heavy duty capacitors are totally dry units with no impregna-
correction in our specific environment for some 20 years now, and it tion or insulation liquid.
is with this experience gained, that we can confidently recommend,
specific components required in power factor correction, and
complete ready to connect automatic power factor systems.

## Electromechanica offers a complete range of components and equip-

ment for power factor correction viz.

## a) Power factor capacitors 400-550 volt

b) Contactors specifically for capacitor switching
c) Fuse protection components for capacitor banks
d) Automatic reactive control relays
e) Special rack systems incorporating capacitors, contactors, fuse
protection and busbars
f) Complete power factor systems 30-1500 kVAr Alpivar monoblock capacitors utilise windings insulated by a self-
extinguishing casing, immersed in thermosetting polyurethane resin
applied under vacuum with excellent heat dissipation qualities
(measured internal temperature is <3°C of ambient).
Capacitors
The unique vacuum potting technique ensures that Alpivar capacitors
Traditionally power factor capacitors are made up of single phase have excellent resistance over time and much longer service life than
conventional capacitors.
metalized polypropylene windings, placed into a plastic cylinder
impregnated with epoxy resin. These cylinders (windings) are coupled
in a delta configuration (to offer a 3 phase system) and placed into Capacitor windings incorporate the following internal protection:
an enclosed sheet metal box which offers desired protection in the
event of explosion due to undue stresses placed on the capacitor • Self healing dielectric (metalized s film)
• Electrical fuse (per winding)
through potential exposure to overvoltage, increased frequency, • Effective overpressure disconnecting device (per winding)
harmonic effects and over temperature.

## This conventional system of capacitor manufacture in no way takes

heating into consideration, (undoubtedly the single most important
factor effecting the overall life of the capacitor). Capacitors have
power losses of ±0.05% (0.5 watts per kVAr) which stands to reason
that a 60 kVAr capacitor for instance, would have to dissipate ±30
watts of generated heat inside a enclosed sheet metal enclosure.
Temperatures measured inside these enclosures could reach 15-
20°C higher than the ambient temperature that they are exposed to,
drastically effecting the overall life of the capacitor.

## The use of 440V capacitors is highly recommended, which generally

accommodate overvoltages in systems due to the presence of har-
monics (becoming more prevalent in electrical networks today). In the event of element failure, only the effected element is discon-
nected from the power circuit, ensuring maximum safety conditions
This, in effect, permits a permanent 20% overvoltage factor without and leaving unaffected capacitors still in service.
any negative effects on the capacitor itself. (IEC requirements
already anticipate a tolerance of +10%).
Main Factors Effecting Capacitor Life
Care should be taken when calculating capacitor kVAr require-
Faults Cause Solution
ments in 400V systems as the kVAr rating will be slightly lower when
440V capacitors are utilised. Small Faults 15% Break down of dielectric Manufactured with self-
within capacitor windings healing metalized poly-
caused by overvoltages. propylene film which
Selection criteria for suitable capacitors: Dielectric is perforated vapourises the metal
when overvoltage occurs. around the short circuit to
a) Rated at 440V (in low voltage applications) restore electrical isolation.
b) All capacitors utilised within a system should comply fully with Medium Faults 70% Over current / voltages Gas build up within the
requirements of IEC60831-1/2 and CEI-EN60831-1/2 caused by harmonic capacitor when emitted
c) Have a tolerance of -5 ÷ +10% presence and over caused the deformation
d) Be rated for operational temperature of at least 50°C temperature which cannot of a membrane which
e) Offer permanent overvoltage tolerances of at least 1.15 Un be overcome by the self- effectively disconnects
healing dielectric. the defective coil from
f) Offer permanent overcurrent tolerances of at least 1.7 In
the circuit.
g) Capacitors should incorporate effective overpressure disconnector
High Faults 15% Short circuits. An independent internal
h) Capacitors should be provided with discharge resistors effectively
electrical fuse disconnects
reducing terminal voltages to less than 50V within 1 minute. the effected coil.
i) Incorporate internal independent fusing
Alpivar capacitors associated with patented vacuum potting technique
The inclusion of internal fusing does not substitute the necessity of form a highly advanced unit and incorporate all of the above protec-
external safety devices such as fuse cut-outs or circuit breakers. tions.

Electromechanica offers a range of Alpivar capacitors far exceeding The capacitors comply fully with international requirements of
all of the above requirements. IEC60831-1/2, CEI-EN60831-1/2, NF C54 108/9, CSA 22-2 No.190,
UL810.
4
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Components
Capacitors are rated at 440V to accommodate overvoltages in sys- Contactors
tems due to the presence of harmonics (becoming more prevalent in
electrical networks today). This accommodates a further 10% over-
voltage factor above the 10% tolerance anticipated by IEC require- Selection criteria for suitable contactors:
ments. Alpivar capacitors withstand overvoltages of 1.18 Un contin-
uously (24h/24) effectively offering a 30% overvoltage factor when a) Contactors utilised within a system should comply fully with
applied in a 400V system and can operate effectively up to 520V, 50 requirements of IEC/EN60947-4-1
Hz. b) Should be rated for operational temperatures of 50°C (ratings
higher than 50°C to 70°C should be reduced by a percentage
Standard maximum permissible current requirements for conventional equal to the difference between the ambient temperature and
capacitors is 1.3 In. 50°C)
Alpivar capacitors are designed to withstand up to 2.0 In. c) It is recommended to underrate the contactors by 10%
d) Contactors should be limited to ≤ 120 cycles per hour with an
electrical life of 200,000 cycles
Specifications e) Effective limiting inductances should be incorporated
f) Consideration must be made for capacitor discharge times and
Rated Voltage : 440V, 50 Hz three-phase reactive control relays should incorporate sufficient delay to
Internal Protection : - Self Healing Dielectric ensure that capacitors are sufficiently discharged before they
- Electric Fuse (per are reconnected.
element)
- Overpressure disconnecting The contactor during the closing transition is influenced by electrical
device (per element) currents having high frequencies and high amplitudes. The frequencies
Tolerance : ±5% capacitance of these currents range between 1 and 10 kHz; the amplitudes must
Max. Voltage Overload : 1.18 Un continuous (24h/24) have values lower than the maximum permissible current peak of the
Max. Current Overload : 2.0 In contactor to be used.
Loss Factor : <0.3W per kVAr (including
discharge resistors) If this condition cannot be verified, it is necessary to use limiting
Operating Temperature : -40 - +55°C inductances or special capacitor switching contactors.
Insulation Class : 6 kV for 1 minute at 50 Hz
(25kV 1.2/50mµS shockwave) Lovato contactors utilised in our systems
L1 L2 L3
Discharge Resistors : Incorporated (<50 within 1 min) are specially designed for capacitor 1 3 5
Standards : IEC60831-1 and 2 switching and are equipped with early-
EN60381-1 and 2 make contacts which introduce resistors to
NFC54108-9 limit the connecting current of capacitors
CSA22-2No.190 for a very brief interval, (2-3 ms) during the A1

## UL810 contactor closing. These resistors are

then disconnected from the circuit once A2

## the contactor closing operation is completed

(1) (2) (3) and the current capacity is then conveyed
kVAr kVAr Current (A) Dimension through the main contacts of the contactor,
Type 440V 400V per phase H x W x D dramatically reducing wear of contactors, 2 4 6
T1 T2 T3
VCB1544 15 12 20 275 x 90 x 225 capacitors and fuses, ensuring longer life
VCB2044 20 17 26 275 x 90 x 255 and reliability of the system.
VCB2544 25 21 33 275 x 90 x 225
VCB3044 30 25 39 275 x 180 x 225
VCB4044 40 33 52 275 x 180 x 225
VCB5044 50 41 66 275 x 180 x 225
VCB6044 60 50 79 275 x 270 x 225
VCB7544 75 62 98 275 x 270 x 225
VCB8044 80 66 105 275 x 360 x 225
VCB9044 90 74 118 275 x 360 x 225
VCB10044 100 83 131 275 x 360 x 225

## (1) Actual Capacitor Rating

(2) Equivalent kVAr Rating
(3) Supply Voltage is 440V
Lovato BF..K Contactors
Max. operating Power at Rated Fuse
230V 400V 440V Current gG
type kVAr kVAr kVAr (A) (A)
BF25K00 11 20 22 30 40
BF40K00 17 30 33 43 63
BF65K00 26 45 50 70 100
BF80K00 34 60 65 90 125

5
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Components
Fuse Protection Mains Isolators
The use of a main incoming isolator is highly recommended, prefer-
Selection criteria for suitable fuses: ably door interlocked to prevent opening of the enclosure with power
applied to the components. As circuit breakers have been known to
a) Should conform fully to requirements of IEC60269-1, cause unnecessary nuisance tripping in many instances the use of
IEC60269-2-1 fuses or a fuse switch should be considered if protection of the mains
b) Should be gl-gG type high rupturing capacity supply cable is required additionally.
c) Offer protection for overcurrents and short circuits with
fault levels of up to 50kA
d) Fuse bases should be highly resistant to temperature
withstand up to 120°C and be self-extinguishing - UL94Vo
with a creepage resistance of CTI = 600V.

## DF DIN type (knife) fuses have been found to be particularly

suitable for protection of capacitor banks in systems.

## Specific fuse protection is essential for each capacitor bank

of a system. Exposure to overvoltage, increased frequency
and the effects of harmonics, permit capacitors to be
continuously overloaded at up to 1.35 times their nominal
rating. This overload as well as high initial switching currents
of the capacitors must be considered when calculating fuse
requirements for capacitor bank protection.

## Table 5 (below) will assist in correctly specifying standard fuses as

well as recommended cable sizes for capacitor banks. Selection criteria for suitable mains isolator:

## a) Must be fully compliant with requirements of IEC60947-1/3 as

well as IEC60664, 60269 and 60204

## b) Control circuit should be wired through a mounted “early make-

late break” auxiliary, effectively allowing the making and break-
ing action of the isolator to switch “off-load” thus preventing
potential operation of the isolator on fully charged capacitors.

## c) Should be door interlocked with enclosure, preventing opening

of enclosure door with live components exposed.

## d) Must be sized correctly to accommodate total system current

carrying capacity.

Fuse Bases
Table 5
Rating Rated Voltage 440VAC
Selection criteria for fuse bases:
Rated Fuse Cable
Current Rating Cross Section a) Should be fully compliant with the requirements of IEC/EN
kVAr A A mm2 60269-1/2, VDE0636, DIN43620.
2 2.9 10 1.5
2.5 3.6 10 1.5 b) Should be made of self-extinguishing material UL94 VO.
3 4.3 10 1.5
c) Be rated for voltages up to 690V.
4 5.8 10 1.5
5 7.2 16 2.5
7.5 8.6 20 2.5 The df range of polyester fuse bases offer a very high insulation and
are able to withstand extremely high temperatures.
10 14.4 25 4
15 21.5 40 10 The insulation (IP) protection can be enhanced by additional fuse
20 28.5 40 10 and terminal covers.
25 33.0 63 16
30 39.2 63 25
35 46.5 80 35
40 53.5 80 35
50 66.0 100 50
60 80.0 125 70
70 93.0 160 70
80 108.0 160 95

6
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Components
Reactive Control Relay The capability of performing complex calculations regarding reactive
power, permits the rapid switching of capacitor banks in a timeous,
Selection criteria for suitable control relays: explicit manner, resulting in a drastic reduction in the number of
operations and their homogeneous use.
a) Must be compliant with requirements of IEC/EN60255-5/6,
IEC60068-2-61/6 Besides instantaneous power factor indication, the large LED digital
b) Should incorporate an accurate power factor indicator display also indicates:
c) Offer clear indication of steps switched-in
d) Must facilitate a suitable delay between disconnection and recon-
nection of the same step (min 60 sec) even when operated in • Voltage (True RMS)
manual mode • Current (True RMS)
e) Have a contact rating of at least Ith: 5A-250V (AC1) • ∆ kVAr (Indicating the required reactive power to correct to pre-set
f) Ensure balanced/equally distributed use of switching steps value)
g) Be configurable for stepping 1-1-1.../1-2-2.../1-2-4
h) Allow accurate readings and indication even in the presence of A configurable alarm function indicates the following:
high harmonic content or waveform distortions.
Over/Under Voltage (A.HU/A.LU)
The Lovato DCRE range of reactive control relays more than meet Over/Under Current (A.HI/A.LI)
the above requirements. They perform the control and adjustment Over/Under Compensation (A.HC/A.LC)
functions in a totally digital manner and incorporating latest micro-
processor technology, facilitating accurate, reliable power factor The trend in the market place is to supply systems with separate
control. An appropriate algorithm ensures accurate operation even
in systems characterised by high harmonic content. auto-off-man selector switches and pilot lights. This trend should be
strongly discouraged as this method of switching overrides the inherent
safety delays incorporated in the controller (which is able to perform
the same function) and exposes contactors to undue stress and a
potentially dangerous situation when operated inadvertently on fully
charged capacitors.

DCRE12
L1 L2 L3

VOLTAGE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

CURRENT
380-415V

/5A
OV

S1 S2 14 15 C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

QS1

FU1
R
FU2
R
FU12
R

R R R

## Supply Voltage Ue 380-415 VAC

Operating Limits -15% ... +10% Ue LOAD
TC1

## Rated Frequency 50 (or) 60Hz (self configuring)

Maximum Power Consumption 5.4 VA 2.6 VA K1 K2 K12

Current Limit
Note
Rated Current Ie 5A
Operating Limits 0.125 ... 5.5A 1) Always ensure that C.T. is connected to the phase not utilised for
Overload Capacity 1.1 Ie supply voltage to controller.
Overload Peak 10 x Ie 1s
2) Ensure that C.T. is correctly rated for system requirements and
Reading and Control Range connected in the correct direction.
Voltage Reading Limits -15% ... +10% Ue
Current Reading Limits 2.5 ... 110% Ie
Type of Voltage/Current Reading True RMS
Power Factor Adjustment 0.85 Inductive - 0.95 Capacitive
Re-connection Time of Same Step 5-240 sec
Switching Sensitivity 5-600 sec

Relay Output

No. of Outputs
(1 x Isolated can be Alarm Relay) 5 7 or 12
Contact Arrangement 1 x NO
Rated Capacity Ith 5A-250V (AC1)
Rated Operating Voltage 250 VAC
Maximum Switching Voltage 440 VAC

Housing

## Version Flush Mounting

Dimensions 96x96x62mm 144x144x32mm
Protection (IP54 with t/parent cover) IP41
Type of Termination Plug-in / screw

7
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Series 4000 Rack
The Series 4000 rack system is a convenient all-in-one component kit for mounting into a standard enclosure to complete a system. The
system incorporates latest developments in capacitor, contactor and fuse technology.

Contactors

## Are special capacitor switching type

equipped with early make contacts which
Busbars
introduce limiting resistances during the
contactor closing operation, whereafter
Are incorporated on
they are completely disconnected from the
the racks by insulat-
circuit. Drastically reducing stress and
ed supports, offering
wear of the contactors, capacitors and
very high fault levels
fusegear, ensuring longer life and overall
suitable for currents
reliability.
of up to 630A. The
system is expanded
by merely coupling to
busbars of another
rack

Capacitors
Fuseholder
Are potted in thermoset polyurethane
resin under vacuum offering excellent Fuses utilised in the rack sys-
heat dissipation qualities. They are tem provide effective protec-
mounted onto the rack exposed, tion from short circuits and
permitting effective airflow from all overload conditions. They
sides. The capacitors incorporate the are specially designed for
following internal protections: direct mounting onto busbars,
which are incorporated in the
• Self Healing Dielectric Discharge Resistors rack.
• Electrical Fuse
• Overpressure Disconnecting Device Enable the capacitors to be
discharged in compliance with
Capacitors are rated at 55°C and can applicable standards. They are
operate at voltages of up to 520V and mounted externally to enable
are designed to withstand up to 2.0 In. ease of visual inspection.

8
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Components
Series 4000 Rack System As contactors are wired in the delta loop, current requirements are
lower, thereby decreasing the contacting ratings by √3.
The Series 4000 rack system has recently been developed as a
convenient all-in-one component for inclusion into a standard The table below indicate contactor requirements with 6 terminal
enclosure or as a complete system. The design combines many capacitors and conventional 3 phase capacitors.
years experience gained in power factor and its application in very
Standard 6 Terminal
harsh local conditions. Incorporating latest up-to-date technology in
kVAr 415V 3ph Capacitor Capacitor
capacitor, contactor and reactive control relay developments.
12.5 BF12K10 BF9K10
25 BF40K10 BF20K10
30 BF40K BF25K10
40 BF65K BF40K
50 BF65K BF40K
60 BF80K BF65K
75 BF65K
100 BF80K

## Fuses and Fuse Bases

Racks are supplied with capacitor sizes from 25 to 100 kVAr in various Fuses utilised in the 4000 series rack system are DIN (blade type)
configurations. They incorporate capacitors, special capacitor Class gl-gL-gG HRC fuses. They provide effective protection from
switching contactors and fuse protection. short circuits and overload conditions for all 3 phases of the capaci-
tor bank and conform fully to requirements of IEC60269, CEE16,
Fuse bases are directly mounted onto a suitably rated, incorporated VDE0636 and DIN57363.
busbar system suitable for capacities up to 500 kVAr, offering simple
expansion capabilities by merely coupling to busbars of another rack. Fuse-link Capacitor Breaking
Type In (A) Size (kVAr) Capacity
300063 63A 25 kVAr 80 kA
Capacitors 300100 100A 50 kVAr 80 kA
300160 160A 75 kVAr 80 kA
Capacitors utilised in the Series 4000 rack system are the Alpivar
300160 160A 100 kVAr 80 kA
heavy duty types. They are self-healing and incorporate independent
internal fusing, overpressure protection facilities and are able to with-
stand permanent overvoltages up to 520V and over current at 2.0 x
In (see pages 4 and 5 for detailed technical specifications).
Capacitors are designed to withstand undue stresses caused by
potential exposure to overvoltage, increased frequency and limited
harmonic effects.

## Capacitors are mounted, exposed, offering all-round ventilation with

excellent heat dissipation, ensuring longer life.

## The specially designed 6 terminal capacitors utilised in the rack sys-

tem allow contactors to be wired in the delta loop, reducing current
carrying by 30% on contactors.

## L1 Fuse bases are specially designed to directly mount onto busbars

R
5 6 T1 L1 which are incorporated in the rack system. They provide independent
L2
fuse protection of all three phases of each capacitor bank (up to two
S banks per rack).
3 4 T2 L2

L3
T
1 2 T3 L3 Busbars

## Busbars are incorporated on the racks and supported by high

class insulated 3 phase supports, incorporating termination
Contactors at the top or bottom of the rack. Standard supplied busbars
are suitable for currents in excess of 630A. Systems are
Contactors utilised on the 4000 Series rack system are specifically expanded by merely coupling busbars to those of another
designed for capacitor switching. They are equipped with early- rack.
make auxiliary contacts which temporarily introduce limiting
resistances (effectively absorbing peak in-rush currents) during the
contactor closing operation. These resistors are disconnected from
the circuit once the contactor closing operation has been completed
and the capacitor current capacity is then conveyed through the main
contacts of the contactor. This method of operation drastically
reduces wear of contactors, capacitors and fuses, ensuring longer
life and overall reliability of the entire system.

9
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Components
Series 4000 Rack System Series 5000 Complete Power Factor Systems

kVAr Configurable The Series 5000 Power Factor Correct System encompasses
Type 440V 400V (kVAr) all the advantages of the 4000 Series rack system in a pur-
pose built, floor standing enclosure. The racks are securely
40025 25 21 1 x 25
mounted into the enclosure (measuring 550mm wide x
40050 50 41 1 x 50 400mm deep) and coupled together via the incorporated bus-
42050 50 41 1 x 25 + 1 x 25 bars of the racks. A mains isolator is included (for top or
40075 75 62 1 x 75 bottom entry) and the reactive control relay, door mounted
and connected to the circuit.
42075 75 62 1 x 25 + 1 x 50
40100 100 83 1 x 100 The panel is supplied as a complete floor standing “ready to
42100 100 83 1 x 50 + 1 x 50 connect” system providing effective ventilation and dissipa-
tion of heat build-up within the panel. An additional fan
cooling facility can be included for applications where the
environment provides very low airflow.
Dimensions

500

400 550

## a) The rack offers good, effective ventilation for capacitors

b) Capacitor windings (cells) are incased in thermosetting
resin, housing forming (better heat dissipation) longer life
c) Windings independently
1) Internally fused
2) Equipped with an effective internal overpressure device
effectively disconnecting only a damaged cell from the
system leaving remaining good cells still operational
(minimum reduction in overall capacitance)
d) Alpivar heavy duty capacitors are rated at 55°C.
1.18 Un (30% overrating in 400V systems)
2.0 In Series 5000 Floor Standing Complete Systems
e) Special capacitor switching contactors incorporating initial
limiting resistances increase contactor and capacitor life
kVAr kVAr Steps Dimension
f) Busbar system incorporated onto rack convenient
Type 440V 400V (kVAr) H x W x D
expansion capabilities by simply coupling to busbars of
another rack 50150 150 124 25-25-50-50 1500 x 600 x 500
g) Easy access to all components for maintenance and repair 50175 175 145 25-50-100 1500 x 600 x 500
purposes 50200 200 165 25-25-50-100 1500 x 600 x 500
50250 250 207 25-25-50-50-100 1500 x 600 x 500
50275 275 227 25-50-100-100 1500 x 600 x 500
50300 300 248 50-50-100-100 1500 x 600 x 500
50350 350 289 50-3 x 100 2100 x 600 x 500
50375 375 310 25-50-3 x 100 2100 x 600 x 500
50400 400 331 50-50-3 x 100 2100 x 600 x 500
50450 450 372 50-4 x 100 2100 x 600 x 500
50475 475 393 25-50-4 x 100 2100 x 600 x 500
50500 500 413 50-50-4 x 100 2100 x 600 x 500

## * Larger sizes available on request

Sizes above 540 kVAr are readily available but in this case
two standard systems with their independent isolators are
utilised, with only one reactive control relay to maintain the
current ratings of incorporated busbars on the racks.

10
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Systems
HARMONICS (curve x c). For the 5th harmonic there is an absorption effect
which is more intense at a resonance frequency of 204 Hz
than at 189 Hz.
What are harmonics?
For the 7th harmonic (=350 Hz) and even more for higher fre-
Harmonics are undesired signals which are present in electrical quencies there is a block effect caused by the filter circuit as
networks that have a frequency multiple of the fundamental: can be seen on the diagram.
as they overlap they create a new distorted wave shape
which is no longer sinusoidal. Electromechanica offer combined solutions for harmonics in
our Series 6000 racks which incorporate capacitors with high
Most modern factories are making increasing use of modern overvoltage and overcurrent capabilities allowing application
power electronics. A feature of semi-conductor controlled into networks, with a degree of interference up to 25%, with-
devices and drives is to generate a high content of harmonics out the need for reactance. Should the interference be high-
in the mains. The result is that resonance occur which leads er, racks incorporating inductances are also offered.
to dangerous excess currents which overload capacitors,
cables, fuses and especially contactors.
Degree of
Harmonics do not originate from power generators but are Interference
produced by non-linear loads which can be divided into three
main groups: SH
ST
• Loads with variable impedance i.e. arc furnaces, fluorescent
lighting, etc. ≤ 25% > 25%
• Loads with saturated magnetic circuits i.e. reactors, satura-
tion transformers, induction furnaces, etc.
H SAH
• Loads that make use of semi-conductor devices i.e. static
rectifiers, static frequency converters, static uninterruptible
power supplies, static induction regulators. SH (kVA) The weighted total of the harmonic generators present
at the transformer secondary.
Non-linear loads are therefore typical harmonic generators. ST (kVA) The power rating of the HV / LV transformer
Harmonic currents are load independent and are caused by
the harmonic generator which is dependent on the phase
angle of the power supply. The frequencies occurring form
multiples of the mains rated frequency, since impedance of
Series 6000 Rack incorporate:
the line system rises during increased frequency (whereas te
impedance of capacitors falls). The harmonic current flow
• capacitors 25-50-100 kVAr
through capacitors installed in the vicinity of the harmonic
• capacitor switching contactors
generator.
• anti-harmonic reactor with thermal protection
• fuses and fuse holders
As a remedy each capacitor can be in series with a reactance.
• suitably rated busbars
The inductance is so designed that series resonance fre-
quency below the 5th harmonic results. Usual values are 189
Hz or 205 Hz.

## The capacitor / reactance combination is inductive at any

frequency above the series resonance. Consequently, a
resonance between mains reactance and capacitor can no
longer occur at a higher mains harmonic.

## Reactance XC in Relation to Frequency f Fig. 3

XC (%) 100
Z (%) 90
z
80 9H
18 z
Z
70 4H
20
Z
60 The Series 6000 racks slide into position and are designed
50 with metallic shielding of the reactor from the capacitors.
40
kVAr Dimensions
30 Type 440V 400V H x W x D
20 60025 25 21 325 x 700 x 460
X C(%) 60050 50 41 325 x 700 x 460
10
60100 100 83 325 x 700 x 460
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
f (Hz)
The racks can be simply mounted into standard enclosures of
800mm width to be included into systems to be manufactured
Fig. 3 above indicates the reactance x c in relation to fre-
or added to existing systems and can be expanded by mere-
quency f. From this it can be seen that in the range of the 5th
ly coupling to busbars of another rack.
harmonic (=250 Hz) the reactance of the capacitor and filter
circuit is lower than that of a capacitor without filter circuit
11
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Systems
The Series 7000 Floor Standing Complete
Systems (incorporating anti-harmonic reactors)

## Is a complete ready-to-connect enclosed system control

relay, mains isolator all mounted into a suitably ventilated

## Series 7000 Complete System

kVAr Dimensions
Type 440V 400V H x W x D
7125 125 103 2100 x 800 x 600
7150 150 124 2100 x 800 x 600
7175 175 145 2100 x 800 x 600
7200 200 165 2100 x 800 x 600
7250 250 207 2100 x 800 x 600
7275 275 227 2100 x 800 x 600
7300 300 248 2100 x 800 x 600
7350 350 289 2100 x 800 x 600
7400 400 331 2100 x 800 x 600
Larger sizes available on request

12
Contents are illustrative only - final details must be checked when placing orders
Power Factor Equipment

• Fusegear

## • Capacitor Rack Systems

• Anti-harmonic Reactors

(www.em.co.za)

## (Gauteng) (Cape Province) (Kwazulu Natal)

9/11 Data Crescent, 2 Woodbridge Business Park 17 Mc Donald Rd,
Ormonde Ext 8 Koeberg Road, Montague Gardens Congella
P O Box 38980, Booysens 2016 P O Box 200, Milnerton 7435 P O Box 17317, Congella 4013

Telephone: (011) 249-5000 / 496-2773 Telephone: (021) 529-7000 Telephone: (031) 205-1571
Telefax: (011) 496-2779 Telefax: (021) 552-0331 Telefax: (031) 205-1625
E-mail: info@em.co.za E-mail: info@em.co.za E-mail: info@em.co.za