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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Introduction to
Different
Construction
Materials and
Testing

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Introduction to Construction Materials & Testing

Construction Materials – any material that is used for construction.

1. Timber

It is refers to wood which is used for the construction works.

Uses of timbers

- for making doors, window, engraving works, as frame work and


for construction of temporary bridges.

2. Asphalt

It is the artificial mixture of bitumen & inert matter like


alumina, lime, silica etc.

Uses of asphalt as a construction material:

- used as damp proofing, roads & pavements

3. Soil

Produced by the disintegration of rocks, over lying hard rock.

Applications of soil in construction field

- construction of canals and earthen dams


- as of now, it used as foundation of the infrastructures

4. Sand

The natural product which is obtained as river sand & pit sand
is called sand.

Uses of sand

- used in mortars and as binding materials in the form of paste

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

5.Clay

An earth material with ductile quality.

Uses of clay

- used for manufacturing clay bricks, perforated bricks


and hollow bricks
- For manufacturing pavement blocks and floor tiles

6. Bricks

A hardened rectangular block of mud ,clay or etc,

Uses of Bricks

- construction of walls, floors, and as alternative of


stones in construction purpose

7. Tiles

A regularly shaped slab of clay or other material.

Uses of tiles

- as finish surface for floors of houses, walls of kitchen


and bath-room
- for decoration of walls and roofs.

8. Cement:

A powdered substance that develops strong adhesive


properties when mixed with water.

Uses of Cement:

- used in mortar for plastering


- used in concrete for laying floors, beams, stairs and
pillars

9. Plywood

Boards which are prepared from thin layers of wood


or veneers.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Uses of plywood:

- for partitions and concrete framework

10.Paints

The coatings of fluid materials

Use of Paints

- are applied as a final finish to all surfaces, such as walls,


ceilings, wood work, metal work etc.

11. Plastics

A material that can shange its shape and lightweight.

Uses of plastics:

- as a substitute of glass for doors and windows.


- for manufacturing of drainage pipes, floor finishes and
emulsion paints.

12. Rubber Wastes

Rubbers that are no longer suitable for use

Uses of rubber waste:

- used in concrete for making polymer concrete.


- used for manufacturing rubber tiles for rubber floors.

Testing:

Compressive Strength Test

- A simple brick is placed on a compression testing machine


and pressure is applied until it falls.

-The compressive strength of


the concrete is defined as the
ability of the concrete to
withstand specific
compressive force.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Water absorption
test

- The less water is


absorbed the
greater the
quality.

Now we put each sample in Now we immerse cube in distilled water


Weight of each sample is 50 g oven at 105 °C for 72 hours for 24 hours

Now we clean the surface of sample


%Absorbed of 𝒘𝟐 −𝒘𝟏
with absorbent cloth Now we weight again water
=
𝒘𝟏
x 100

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Size, shape and colour test


Bricks inspected for uniformity of shape, size and colour.

Red Brick VS Fly Ash Brick

Red Brick
- Uneven shape as handmade
- Lightly bonded
- Plastering required

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

- Heavier in weight
- Compressive strength is around 35 Kg/cm^2

Fly Ash Brick

- Uniform in shape and smoothly finished


- Dense composition
- No plastering required
- Lighter in weight
- Compressive strength is around 100 Kg/cm^2

Soundness Test

- Bricks should not break and a clear metallic ringing sound


should be made if they are good quality.

Silt test

- This test is used to measure the cleanliness of a sand sample


by establishing the percentage of the silt present.

PROCEDURE

• First, we have to fill the measuring cylinder with 1% solution of salt and water up to 50
ml
• Add sand to it until the level reaches 100 ml.
• Cover the cylinder and shake it well
• After 3 hours, the silt content settled down over the sand layer
• Now note down the silt layer alone volume as V1 ml 𝑉
• Then note down the sand volume as V2 ml Silt Content = 1 𝑋 100
𝑉2
• Repeat the procedure 2 more times to get the average

Slump test

- This can be used to ensure that subsequent concrete mixes are of the same consistency.

Four Layers
(1/4 of the
height of the
mould)

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Penetration test - this is a measure of the penetration of a steel alloy rod, fired by a
predetermined amount of energy, into a concrete sample.

Vibration test - This uses an ultrasonic pulse to


measure vibrations through a concrete sample.

Why is testing necessary?

- As part of quality control system


- To achieve certification
- To demonstrate compliance with building
regulations

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Properties of
Materials

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Properties of Materials
Natural materials:

The materials which are obtained from natural sources like earth, plants, and animals are
called natural materials.

Timber

 Timber is a type of wood which has been processed into beams and planks.
 It denotes wood which is suitable for building or carpentry and for various
engineering and other purposes.
Properties of Timber:
1. Color
Color is a uniform property by which most trees are characterized as they
show variation from tree to tree.
2. Hardness
For the resistance of any kind of damage, hardness is an obvious property.
3. Strength
Strength means capable to bear loads.
4. Density
Higher the density, stronger is the timber.
5. Toughness
Timber has to have the capability to bear shocks, jerk.
6. Elasticity
Elasticity means timber should attain its own shape after use.
7. Durability
A good quality timber has the property to resist the attack the infection of
fungus or other insects.
8. Defect less
This property is gained if the timber is from a sound tree. A defect less
tree is free from sap, shakes, and dead knots.
9. Workability
A good timber is always easy to work on it.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

10. Texture
The texture of good timber is fine and even.
11. Free of Abrasion
Timber should not be damaged by the external environment. It has to gain
the ability to protect its skin.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Aggregates

 Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to


medium grained particulate material used in construction,
including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic
aggregates.
 Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Aggregates are a
component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete; the
aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material.

Properties:

1. Surface Moisture

The amount of water in excess of the water required for the SSD condition
is referred to as the surface moisture.

2. Specific Gravity

It is defined as the density of the material including the internal pores.

3. Bulk Density

It is defined as the mass of the aggregate fragments that would fill a unit
volume.

4. Soundness

An aggregate is considered unsound when the volume changes in


aggregate induced by weather (e.g., alternate cycles of wetting and drying, or
freezing and thawing), result in the deterioration of concrete.

5. BIS limit

Crushing and Impact Value:


Wearing surface = 30% & Non-wearing surface = 45%.
Abrasion Resistance:
Wearing surface = 30% & Non-wearing surface = 50%.
6. Size and Grading

Grading is the distribution of particles of a granular material among


various size ranges, usually expressed in terms of cumulative percentage larger or

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

smaller than each of a series of sizes of sieve openings, or the percentage between
certain ranges of sieve openings.

7. Fineness Modulus

Empirical factor called the fineness modulus is, often used as an index of
the fineness of aggregate, a very important factor when making selection for a
source/type of fine aggregates.

8. Silt Content

Material finer than 75-µm (No. 200) sieve are generally called silt. They
affect the workability as water demand increases; strength is also influenced
(lowered) along with bonding. BIS limit is 3% by weight.

Pipes

 A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily


of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow liquids
and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used
for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid
members.

Properties:

1. Strength
Concrete pipe is a rigid pipe system that relies mostly on the strength of
the pipe and is only slightly dependent on the strength derived from the soil
envelope.

2. Joints
Concrete pipes offer a variety of joints. They are not affected by the type
of backfill used for the installation. Joint performance must be demonstrated in
the plant prior to pipe installation, and joint integrity can be field tested in a
variety of ways.

3. Durability
There are a number of concrete properties that influence the durability of
the product. These properties include compressive strength, density, water
absorption, water/cement ratio, alkalinity (the amount of cement in the concrete),
cement type, and aggregates.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Lime

 The removal of mixture and carbon dioxide by the calcinations of lime stone.

Properties:

1. Lime possesses good plasticity properties.

2. It stiffens easily

3. It has excellent cementing properties

4. It shrinks on drying

Asphalt

 It is the artificial mixture of bitumen and inert matter like alumina, lime, silica etc.
Properties:
1. It is water proof and easily cleaned.
2. It is durable and tough material.
3. It is resilient and elastic nature.
4. It is good insulator of electricity, heat and sound.
5. It is good water resistance.
6. It is not affected by certain chemicals.
7. It is corrosion resistance.

Soil
 The loose, unconsolidated, inorganic material on the earth crust produced by the
disintegration of rocks, overlying hard rock’s is known as soil.
Properties:
1. Texture
It refers to the relative proportions of particles of various sizes such as
sand, silt and clay in the soil.
2. Structure
The term texture is used in reference to the size of individual soil particles
but when the arrangement of the particles is considered the term structure is used.

3. Soil porosity

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

It refers to the pores within the soil. Porosity influences the movement of
air and water.

4. Soil chemistry

Clays and organic matter in the soil carry negative charges. Water in the
soil dissolves nutrients and other chemicals. Nutrients like potassium
and ammonium have positive charges.

5. Soil color

Soil colors range from black to red to white. Sometimes it can even be
blue! Soil color mostly comes from organic matter and iron. Topsoil is often dark
because of organic matter.

Clay
 The earthen mineral mass of fragmentary rocks capable of mixing with water and
forming a plastic vicious mass which has a property of retaining its shape when
molded and dried.
Properties:
1. Versatile
Clay building materials can be used for a variety of applications. They can
be used for walls, facades and roofs as well as for gardens, terraces and open
spaces.
2. Energy-efficient
Owing to their excellent insulation properties and their heat storage
capacity clay building materials help to reduce the energy consumption of
buildings.
3. Durable
Clay building materials are durable their lifespan is more than 100 years.
Bricks buildings, which have lasted for centuries, can be discovered all around the
world.
4. Aesthetic
Clay aesthetic and versatile and thanks to a wide range of available
colours, shape and surfaces, the number of possible designs and variations.
5. Economic

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

A solid building envelope made of brick can be constructed quickly and


flexibility this saves both time and money.
6. Natural
Clay blocks, facing bricks and clay roof tiles as well as pavers are
particularly sustainable and natural building materials because they consist of the
natural raw materials clay and water.
7. Stable in value
Even after many years, buildings made of clay building materials retain
their value or it even increases.

Bricks
 A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements
in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed
of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units lay in mortar. A brick can
be composed of clay-bearing soil, sand, and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are
produced in numerous classes, types, materials, and sizes which vary with region and
time period, and are produced in bulk quantities.
Properties:
1. Strength
Brick has good compressive strength which makes it popular in construction
world.
2. Absorption
Dry brick absorbs too much water from mortar. It’s why the mortar cannot
be cured properly and develops weak bond-strength.
3. Weather Resistance
Brick is made from clay and it’s burned at high temperature which capable
it to withstand severe weathering impact.

Steel
 Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements because of its high tensile
strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools,
ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.
Properties:
1. Tensile Strength

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

It is the amount of stress that a substance can take before becoming structurally
deformed.
2. Ductility
It is the ability to change shape on the application of force to it, without
resulting in a fracture.
3. Malleability
It is closely linked with ductility, and allows steel to be deformed under
compression.
4. Durability
The hardness of this alloy is high, reflecting its ability to resist strain.
5. Conductivity
Steel is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
6. Luster
One of the physical properties of steel is its attractive outer appearance. It
is silvery in color with a shiny, lustrous outer surface.
7. Rust Resistance
Steel is resistant to rust.
Several materials are required for construction. The materials used in the construction of
Engineering Structures such as buildings, bridges and roads are called Engineering Materials or
Building Materials. They include Bricks, Timber, Cement, Steel and Plastics. It is necessary for
an engineer to be conversant with the properties of engineering materials. Right selection of
materials can be made for a construction activity only when material properties are fully
understood.

Some of the most important properties of building materials are grouped as follows:

A. Physical
B. Mechanical
C. Thermal
D. Chemical

Why study Properties of Materials?

 To be able to select a material for a given use based on considerations of cost and
performance.
 To understand the limits of materials and the change of their properties with use.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 To be able to create a new material that will have some desirable properties.

A. Physical Property

It is any property that is measurable; whose value describes a state of a physical


system. The changes in the physical properties of a system can be used to describe its
changes between momentary states. Physical properties are often referred to as observables.

Shape, Color and Size


Shape is the external form or appearance characteristic of something; Size means the
thing's overall dimensions or magnitude; Color is the characteristic of human visual
perception described through color categories, with names such
as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

Density
It is defined as mass per unit volume. It is expressed as kg/m3.

Specific Gravity
It is the ratio of density of a material to density of water.
B. Mechanical Property

Mechanical properties are physical properties that a material exhibits upon the
application of forces. This is a property that involves a relationship between stress and strain
or a reaction to an applied force.

Strength
Strength of a material has been defined as its ability to resist the action of an
external force without breaking.

Elasticity
It is the property of a material which enables it to regain its original shape and
size after the removal of external load.

Plasticity
It is the property of the material which enables the formation of permanent
deformation.

Hardness
It is the property of the material which enables it to resist abrasion, indentation,
machining and scratching.

Ductility

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

It is the property of a material which enables it to be drawn out or elongated to an


appreciable extent before rupture occurs.

Brittleness
It is the property of a material, which is opposite to ductility. Material, having
very little property of deformation, either elastic or plastic is called Brittle.

Creep
It is the property of the material which enables it under constant load to deform
slowly but progressively over a certain period.

Stiffness
It is the property of a material which enables it to resist deformation.
Fatigue
The term fatigue is generally referred to the effect of cyclically repeated stress. A
material has a tendency to fail at lesser stress level when subjected to repeated loading.

Impact strength
The impact strength of a material is the quantity of work required to cause its
failure per its unit volume. It thus indicates the toughness of a material.

Toughness
It is the property of a material which enables it to be twisted, bent or stretched
under a high stress before rupture.
C. Thermal Property

Thermal conductivity
It is the property of a material to conduct heat. In the International System of
Units (SI), thermal conductivity is measured in watts per meter-kelvin (W/(m⋅K))

Thermal resistivity and capacity


It is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an
object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal
conductance. The SI units of thermal resistance are kelvins per watt or the equivalent
degrees Celsius per watt (the two are the same since the intervals are equal: Δ1 K = Δ1
°C).
D. Chemical Property

It is a property or characteristic of a substance that is observed during a reaction in


which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is changed.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Also, a chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or
after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a
substance's chemical identity. Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by
viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected greatly for
its chemical properties to be investigated.

Properties of Commonly used Construction Materials


Cement
It is a material, which is produced by calcining an intimate mixture of calcareous,
siliceous and aluminous substances at high temperature and crushing the resultant
clinkers to a fine powder.

Chemical ingredients / constituents of cement

Sr. No. Name of the Formula Percentage


constituents
1 Lime CaO 60-67 %
2 Silica SiO2 17-25 %

3 Alumina Al2O3 3-8 %


4 Iron Oxide Fe2O3 0.5-6 %
5 Magnesia MgO 0.1-4 %

6 Sulphur trioxide SO3 1-2 %

7 Soda & Potash Na2O + K2O 0.5-1.3%

8 Gypsum CaSO4.2H2O 3 – 4%
(Calcium Sulphate)

Important properties of good cement:

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 It gives strength to the masonry.


 It is an excellent binding material. 3) It is easily workable.
 It has good resistance to the moisture.
 It possesses a good plasticity.
 It solidifies or hardens quickly.
 It is fire proof.

Plywood: Plywood is boards which are prepared from thin


layers of wood or veneers.

Properties of Plywood

 They possess uniform tensile strength in all


directions.
 They are light in weight.
 They are not easily affected by moisture.
 Their expansion and shrinkage are very
low.
 They do not split in an axial direction.
Tiles
Different types of tiles:
1. Clay tiles
These tiles are made from good clay of even texture. These are made in
various shapes and sizes according to their uses. They are used for roofing &
flooring purposes.
2. Quarry tiles
These tiles are also made from clays. Quarry tiles can be made in
different colors and mosaic. These tiles are suitable for flooring in residential,
public and industrial building where floor comes in contact with acid or alkalies.
3. Glazed earthenware tiles
These are made of earthenware covered by a glaze. These tiles are
generally used in finishing floor s and walls of kitchens, bathrooms, water closets
etc.

4. Cement tiles
These tiles are made from cement. These tiles possess uniform texture,
high strength, and good weather resistance property & water tightness. These are
used for roofing and flooring purposes.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Properties of a good tile:

 It should be free from any cracks.


 It should be regular in shape and size.
 It should be sound, hard and durable.
 It should have uniform texture and color.
 It should have low water absorption (less than 15%)
 It should have sufficient resistance to atmosphere and dampness.
Paints
The paints are the coatings of fluid materials which are applied as a final
finish to all surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, wood work, metal work etc. The
process of application of paint as a coating is termed as painting.

Constituents of paints
Base
A base is a solid substance of a metallic oxide in fine state of division. It is a
principal constituent of paint.

Vehicle
A vehicle is a liquid substance which keeps the ingredients of paint in liquid
suspension.

Drier
A drier is a substance which accelerates the process of drying of a paint film

Coloring pigment
Coloring pigment gives required color for paints.

Solvent
It is a liquid which is mixed in a paint to make the paint thin so that it can be
easily applied on the surface.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Properties of an ideal paint

 It should be possible to apply easily and freely.


 It should dry in a reasonable time.
 It should form hard and durable surface.
 It should not be easily affected by atmosphere.
 It should possess attractive and pleasing appearance.
 It should not be harmful to be health of workers.
Nails
The easiest way to fasten two pieces of wood together is with nails. They are
manufactured in a variety of shapes, sizes, and metals to complete almost any fastening
job. Most commonly, nails are made of steel, but other types -- aluminum, brass, nickel,
bronze, copper, and stainless steel -- are available for use where corrosion could occur. In
addition, nails are manufactured with coatings -- galvanized, blued, or cemented -- to
prevent rusting and to increase their holding power.

Different Types of Nails


Common Nails
Used for most
medium to heavy
construction work, this type of nail has a thick head and can be driven into tough
materials. Common nails are made from wire and cut to the proper length
Box Nails
Lighter and smaller in diameter than common nails, box nails are designed
for light construction and household use.
Finishing Nails
Finishing nails are lighter than common nails and have a small head. They
are often used for installing paneling and trim where you do not want the nail
head to show.

Masonry Nails
These are harder and thicker nails with small heads, typically made of
hardened zinc which is stronger, enabling them to be driven into masonry surfaces
effectively. They are often used to attach timber to stone or brick

Drywall Nails

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Nails made for drywall installation are often ringed and have an indented
head. Annular-ring nails have sharp ridges all along the nail shaft, providing
greater holding power.

Properties of good Nails

 Provides superior holding power


 They have high ductility and tensile strength
 They should be durable
 It should be strong enough to resist the stresses
 It has high compressive strength

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Different
Testing
Equipments

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Different Testing Equipment


Basic Testing Equipment and Apparatus

Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit

These are widely used in the classification and characteristic of soil.

Equipments:

 Liquid Limit Device


It is used to determine the moisture content at
which clay soils pass from a plastic to a liquid state.

 Standard Sieves # 40
It is a sieve, or sifter, is a device for separating
wanted elements from unwanted material or for
characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample,
typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net or
metal.

 Evaporating Dish
It is used to evaporate excess solvents – most commonly
water – to produce a concentrated solution or a solid precipitate
of the dissolved substance.

 Grooving Tool
It is used for recessing operations (permit intricate
shapes to be produced). Grooving tools are usually ground to
the dimensions and shape required for a particular job.

 Spatula, Flexible
It is a hand-held tool that is used for lifting,
flipping, or spreading. Flexible spatulas are
typically made of silicon plastics or rubber.

 Graduated Cylinder
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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

It is used for measuring volumes (amounts) of liquids.

 Moisture Cans
It is used to determine moisture contents in soil and other material. These
are made from aluminum or stainless steel.

 Triple Beam Balance, 0.01g or 0.1g sensitivity


It is used to measure masses very
precisely. A triple-beam is the best all-
around mechanical balance with good
sensitivity and high capacity.

 Glass Plate
It is used for mixing surface, cover, etc.

 Oven with temperature control

 Hard Towel
Sieve Analysis Test

It determines the particle size distribution of a given soil. The gradation


test is widely used in the classification and identification of soils.

Equipments:

 Standard Sieve 200 diameter opening 75mm (3”)


 63mm (2.5”)  2.36mm (No.8)
 50mm (2”)  2.00mm (No.10)
 37.5mm (1.5”)  1.180mm (No.16)
 25mm (1”)  0.600mm (No.30)
 19mm (0.75”)  0.425mm (No.40)
 12.5mm (0.5”)  0.300mm (No.50)
 9.50mm (3/8”)  0.150mm (No.100)
 4.75mm (No.4)  0.075mm (No.200)

 Pan, Brass 200 mm diameter x 50.0mm deep


It is used as the receiver or collector of fine
material through the bottom sieve.

 Wet Washing Sieve 200 diameter x 100mm high

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 Pan (rectangular)

 Oven with temperature control

 Sieve Shaker
It is used to expose the particles in a sample to all the
openings in each sieve in a stack.

 Cover, Brass sieve


 Triple Beam Balance with Digital Balance

Abrasion Test

This test determines the hardness property of coarse aggregates.

Equipments:

 Abrasion Machine
It is a machine for measuring
abrasion resistance or toughness.

 Standard Sieves no. 1.5” (37mm); 1” (25mm);3/4”


(19mm);0.5”(12mm); 3/8” (9.50mm) ; No.10 (2mm);
pans and cover

 Weighing scales and weight

 Pan

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It is necessary to collect the fine material passing

through the bottom sieve in a sieve stack.

Specific Gravity (Coarse Aggregate)

Equipments:

 Wire mesh basket


It is used in testing the specific gravity of
coarse aggregate.

 Balance and weights


It is a device for weighing. It has a
balanced beam and two pans. When the pans
contain exactly the same mass the beam is in
balance.

 Pans

 Cloth  Water bucket

Miscellaneous Apparatus

 Heavy duty oven


These ovens come with heavy duty
fittings and furnishings and the cabinets are
generally more robust. Uses/applications
include ‘batch curing’ and ‘drying
properties’ and ‘dye penetrant inspection’.

 Mixing pans

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 Wash bottles
It is used to rinse pieces of glassware and to add small quantities of water.

 Beakers
It is used to hold, mix, and heat liquids

 Graduated Cylinder
It is used to measure a precise volume of a
liquid.

 Triple beam balance


Is an instrument used to
measure mass very precisely.
The device has reading error of
+/- 0.05 gram.

 Analytical Balance
(It is often called a "lab balance") is a class of
balance designed to measure small mass in the sub-
milligram range.

 Soil Extruder
It is used to extrude soil samples

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 Asphalt Centrifuge Extractor


It is designed for determining the
percentage of bitumen in asphaltic
mixtures.

 Erlenmeyer Flask
It is used to hold and mix chemicals. The small
neck is to facilitate mixing without spilling.

 Pycnometer bottle
It is a device used to determine the density of a
liquid.

 Test tubes
Used to hold and mix liquids.

 Filter paper

 Desiccators
It is a laboratory tool that is used to measure the
properties of substances.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Furnace
It is used for drying, heating, testing
environmental stresses, such as changes
in temperature, light and humidity.
 Compression Testing Machine
It is used to establish the compressive
force or crush resistance of a material and the
ability of the material to recover after a
specified compressive force is applied and
even held over a defined period of time

 Digital Vernier Caliper


It is a precision instrument that
can be used to measure internal and
external distances extremely accurately.

 Flexural Machine
These machines are designed to test the
flexural strength of concrete beams.

Laboratory Compaction

It is a method of test that is intended for determining the relationship between the
moisture content of soils and resulting densities when the soil is compacted in the
laboratory.

Equipments:

 Compaction Mold
It is used to determine the relationship between
molding water content and dry unit weight of soils. Soil
placed as engineering fill is compacted to a dense state to
obtain satisfactory engineering properties such as, shear
strength, compressibility, or permeability.

 Standard Sieve No. 19 mm (3/4”)

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Rammer
 Graduated Cylinder
 Mixing Pan
 Scoop
 Moisture Cans
 Oven with temperature control

 Straightedge
It is a tool used for drawing straight lines, or
checking their straightness. If it has equally spaced
markings along its length, it is usually called a ruler.

 Solution Balance and Triple beam balance


It is a dual-beam mechanical balance, offering precision and high-capacity
weighing. The base and
beam are cast aluminum
with an epoxy powder
coating that resists common
acids.

 Sample Extruder
It is used to extract the sample from its mold.

Field Density Test

It is widely used as a control test in embankment construction to ensure adequate


compaction or it is intended for determining the in-place density of soil.

EQUIPMENT

 Jug, glass or plastics, 4L cap

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Sand Density Cone


It determines the in-
place density of soils
 Balance and weights
 Straightedge
It is a bar with one accurately
straight edge, used for testing whether
something else is straight.
 Spoon
It is used in laboratory
procedures for transferring small
amounts of substances, such as
powders, semi-solids, or viscous
liquids, from one place to another.
 Chisel
It is a long-bladed hand
tool with a beveled cutting edge
and a plain handle that is struck
with a hammer or mallet, used to
cut or shape wood, stone, metal, or
other hard materials.

 Moisture Cans
It is used to determine
moisture contents in soil and
other material. These are made
from aluminum or stainless steel

 Mallet
It is a hammer with a large, usually
wooden head, used especially
for hitting a chisel.

 Scoop
It is used to transfer solids: to a
weigh paper for weighing, to a cover slip
to measure melting point, or a graduated
cylinder, or to a watch glass from a flask
or beaker through scraping.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Oven with temperature control or speedy moisture tester


It is a temperature controller is an instrument used to control temperature
calculating the difference between a set point and a measured temperature.

 Calibrated sand passing sieve no. 10 retained no. 200

Speed Moisture Tester

It is used to determine the moisture content of the soil with the use of calcium
carbide as reagent.

Equipments:

 Speedy moisture tester


It is a well established portable test method for
the determination of moisture content of soils, sand and
fine aggregates.

 Weighing scales
 Moisture Can
 Spoon / Scoop
 Reagent-Calcium Carbide
It is a chemical compound with the
chemical formula of CaC2. Its main use
industrially is in the production of acetylene
and calcium cyanamide.

California Bearing Ratio

It is used to evaluate the potential strength or the bearing capacity of soil.

Equipments:

 CBR Machine
It is used for measuring the load-bearing
capacity of soils used for building roads.

 Molds

 Rammer

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

It is an instrument for ramming, or driving by


impact and usually used to compact loose earth or soil.

 Spacer Disc, Metal/Slotted weights


It is an instrument for ramming, or
driving by impact and usually used to compact
loose earth or soil.

 Swell plate with adjustable stem and tripod

 Balances and weights


 Soaking Tank
It is used to allow the CBR mold with base-
plate to be submerged.

 Dial indicators
They are typically used to measure deck
clearances, crankshaft thrust and straightness, lifter
travel and other measurements that involve the distance
between two surfaces or small amounts of component
travel.

 Oven with temperature control


 Mixing pans, scoop, straightedge, and graduated cylinder

 Filter paper
It is a semi-permeable paper
barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or
air flow. It is used to separate fine
substances from liquids or air.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Compression Strength Test

It is a very common testing method that is used to establish the compressive force
or crush resistance of a material and the ability of the material to recover after a specified
compressive force is applied and even held over a defined period of time. Compression
tests are used to determine the material behavior under a load. The maximum stress a
material can sustain over a period under a load (constant or progressive) is determined.

Equipments:

 Compression Testing Machines


These are universal testing machines specially configured to evaluate
static compressive strength characteristics of materials, products, and
components.

Water Absorption Test

This test method is used to determine the rate of absorption (sorptivity) of water
by hydraulic cement concrete by measuring the increase in the mass of a specimen
resulting from absorption of water as a function of time when only one surface of the
specimen is exposed to water.

Equipments:

 Oven with Temperature Control


 Weighing Scale
 Water Bucket

Efflorescence Test

It is crystalline, salty deposit that can occur on the surfaces of bricks. If the
whitish layer is not visible on the surface then it demonstrates an absence of alkalis in the
brick.

Equipments:

 Distilled Water
 Sponge

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Evaporating Dish
Soundness Test

The test conducted to identify the excess amount of lime in cement.

Equipments:

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Le-Ch-atelier's Apparatus
It is the standard apparatus prescribed as per IS:5514 -1969 to check the
presence of the impurities in cement.
 Weighing balance
 Measuring cylinder
It is a common piece of laboratory equipment used to measure the volume
of a liquid. It has a narrow cylindrical shape.
 Trowel
It is a tool with a pointed, scoop-shaped metal blade and wooden, metal, or
plastic handle. It is used for planting and weeding, mixing in fertilizer or other
additives and transferring plants to pots.
 Mixing pans
 Heater
 Thermometer
It is a device that measures temperature.

Slump Test

It is used to determine the consistency of concrete mixes having medium


and high workability.

Equipment

 Slump Cone
It is also known as Abram’s cone. Is made of steel, plastic, etc. Its heights
is 12 inches (30 cm). The diameter of the base opening is 8 inches (20 cm) and
top opening is 4 inches (10 cm)
 16mm Rod
 Funnel
It is a tube or pipe that is wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, used
for guiding liquid or powder into a small opening.
 Trowel
Penetration Test

It is used as a measure of consistency. A higher value of penetration


indicates softer consistency. The test is widely used all over the world for
classifying bituminous materials into different grades.

Equipments:

 Penetration Test Apparatus


These are used for testing bitumen, tar, cement and soils. A Chosen force
is applied over a given area for a known period of time and the depth of

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

penetration or the depression made in the sample is measured in tenths of a


millimeter which is expressed as a penetration number.
 Needle
 Container
 Water Bath
It is laboratory equipment made from a container filled with heated water.
It is used to incubate samples in water at a constant temperature over a long
period of time. It is also used to enable certain chemical reactions to occur at high
temperature.
 Stop watch
It is a watch that can be instantly started and stopped by pushing a button
and used to measure an exact duration of time.

Silt Test

Excessive quantity of silt not only reduces the bonding of cement and fine
aggregates but also affects the strength and durability of work. This test is used to
measure the cleanliness of a sand sample by establishing the percentage of the silt
present.

Equipments:

 Graduated cylinder
 Sand box
It is a rectangular shear box with inside dimension of 41 cm in length and
28 cm in width. The front wall, basal plate and sidewalls of the sandbox made of
1 cm thick glass and fixed in position.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Concrete
Technology

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Concrete technology
Concrete

It is the mixture of cement, sand, crushes stones or bricks chips and water.

Cement

Is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to
other materials to bind them together.

Early History of Cement

In ancient times, egyptians mostly used material


obtained by burning gypsum.

Greeks and Romans used th material obtained by


burning limestone.

First cement was invented by Joseph Aspidin on 21st of


October 1824.

First cement factory was started at Portland in England.

In India, cement was first manufactured in 1904 in


Madras by South India Industrial Ltd.

Manufacture of Cement

Two ways of manufacturing cement

 Dry process

 Wet process ( addition of water )

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Process of Manufacturing Concrete

1. Batching

 Volume batching

 Weigh batching

2. Mixing

 Machine mixing

 Hand mixing

3. Transportation

 Pump and Pipelines

4. Placing

 Form work

 Under water concreting

5. Compaction

 Hand compaction

 Internal vibrator

 Vibratory Rollers

6. Curing

 Water curing

 Steam curing

 Electrical curing

7. Finishing

 Form work finishes

 Applied finish

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Grinding and polishing

Types of Concrete

 Normal concrete

The concrete in which common ingredients i.e. aggregate water cement


are used is known as normal concrete.

 High Strength concrete

It is a type of high performance concrete generally with a specified


strength of 6000 psi (40 mpa) or greater.

 High Performance concrete


It is a concrete mixer which posses high durability and high strength when
compared to conventional concrete.

 Air Entrained concrete

It is a concrete contains billions of microscopic air cells per cubic foot.

 Light weight concrete

It is define as the concrete of substantially unit lower unit than that made
from gravel or crushed stones.

 Self Compacting concrete

It is commonly abbreviated to is a concrete mix which low yield stress,


high deformability, good segregation of resistance ( prevents separation of
particle in the mix ) and moderate viscosity necessary to ensure uniform
suspension of solid particle.

 Shotcret

It is concrete or sometimes mortar conveyed through and pneumatically


projected at high velocity onto a surface, as a construction technique.

 Pervious concrete

It is a permeable concrete, no fines concrete and porous pavement) Is a


special type of concrete with high porosity used for concrete flat work application
that allows water from precipitation and other sources to past directly through,
thereby reducing runoff from a sight.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Uses of Concrete

• Plain concrete

It is used a concrete cementing materials for the construction of roads and


air field for foundation, dams etc.

• Reinforce concrete

If steel rods are embedded the plain cement concrete it is termed as


reinforce cement – concrete (RCC). In the construction of slab, bean, column
structural concrete are used.

• Pre-stressed concrete

It is also reinforced cement concrete but steel rods are stressed before
embedding in the concrete. This rods remain pre- stressed even after the concrete
has fully set.

Setting of Concrete

 The hardening of concrete before its hydration is known as setting of concrete.

 The hardening of concrete before it gains strength.

Factors Affecting Concrete

 Water cement ratio

 Suitable temperature

 Cement content

 Fineness of cement

 Relative Humidity

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Methods for Measuring Workability of Concrete


A. Concrete Slump Test

Slump is a measurement of concrete's workability, or fluidity.It's an indirect


measurement of concrete consistency or stiffness. The slump test result is a measure of the
behavior of a compacted inverted cone of concrete under the action of gravity. It measures
the consistency or the wetness of concrete.

 Fill the concrete into frustum of a steel cone in three layers compaction.
 Hand Tap concrete in each layer
 Lift cone up

Three types of slump

1. True slump

In a true slump concrete just subsides shortly and more or less maintain the mould
shape. This type of slump is most desirable.

2. Shear slump

If one-half of the cone slides down in an inclined plane, it is called a shear slump.
Shear slump indicates lack of cohesion in the concrete mix. Shear slump may occur in the
case of a harsh mix.

3. Collapse slump

In this case, fresh concrete collapses completely.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

B. Compacting factor test

It is used to distinguish between


low slump mixes.

The ratio of the weight of partially compacted


concrete to the weight of the concrete when fully
compacted in the same mould.
The Compacting Factor Apparatus is used to
determine the compaction factor of concrete with low,
medium and high workability. Comprising two conical
hoppers having a hinged trap door attached to the lower
end of each hopper, allowing the concrete sample to flow freely into the cylindrical
mould. The hoppers and the mould are mounted onto a rigid steel frame and are easily
removable for cleaning.
 Concrete is placed in an upper
 Dropped into a lower hopper to bring it to a standard state and then allowed to fall into a
standard cylinder.
 The cylinder and concrete weighed (partially compacted weight)
 The concrete is fully compacted, extra concrete added and then concrete and cylinder
weighed again (fully compacted weight)

C. Vebe Test

Vebe time is defined as the time taken to complete covering of the underside of
the disc with concrete container.

The apparatus is paced


on top of a vibrating table.
The fresh concrete is
compacted into a conical
slump mould. The mould is
removed and a clear plastic
disc is placed on the top of the
concrete. The vibrating table
is started and the time taken
for the transparent disc to be
fully in contact with the
concrete (the Vebe time), is
measured.
The main advantage of
this test is that it is a dynamic test and can be used on concretes that are too stiff for a
slump test.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 A slump test is performed in a container


 A clear perspex disc, free to move vertically,is lowered onto the concrete surface
 Vibration at a standard rate is applied

D. Flow table test

The flow table test or flow test is a


method to determine consistency of
fresh concrete. Flow table test is also used
to identify transportable moisture limit of
solid bulk cargoes. It is used primarily for
assessing concrete that is too fluid
(workable) to be measured using
the slump test, because the concrete will
not retain its shape when the cone is
removed.

It is used to differentiate between


high workability mixes.

 A conical mould is used to


produce a sample of concrete in
the centre of a 700 mm square
board, hinged along one edge
 The free edge of the board is
lifted against the stop and
dropped 15 times

Flow = final diameter of the


concrete (mean of two measurements at
right angles

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Timber
Technology

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

TIMBER TECHNOLOGY

What is timber?
 Timber denotes wood which is suitable for building or carpentry and for various
engineering and other purposes.
 One of the oldest construction materials.

Types of Trees:

 Endogenous
These are tress that grows inwards in longitudinal fibrous mass.

 Exogenous
These are trees that grows in an out wards across horizontal section of
stem.

Two Types of Exogenous:

1. Conifer or Evergreen
They give soft wood and have pointed leaves.
Ex. Sal tree and chir pine
2. Decidous
They give hardwood and have broad leaves.
Ex. Teak and toona

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Structure of tree
From the visibility aspect, the structure of a tree can be divided into two
categories:
A. Macro structure
B. Micro structure
A. Macro structure
The structure of wood visible to the naked eye or at a small magnification is
called macro structure. The following figure shows the macro structure of exogenous
tree.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Pith
It is the inner most portion of the tree, its size, shape and color varies from
tree to tree. it is also called medulla, it is responsible for the nutrition the plant at
young age and after a long time the pith dies.
 Heart Wood
It is annual inner rings which is outer portion of pith and formed annually.
it dead after formation of outer ring so dark in color and responsible for the
stability of tree, due to hard property.
 Sap Wood
It is the outer annual rings and it is active part which moves sap upward.
due to activeness it is light in color and indicates freshly made.
 Cambium Layer
It gives sap to sap wood, it contains fresh shape which is responsible for
the life of tree. it is middle part of sap wood and inner bark, if bark is removed
then cambium fail to provide sap to tree, and tree would be dead.
 Inner Bark
It protects the cambium layer.
 Outer Bark
It is outermost part of tree which protect tree from any damage and
withstand property with any weather, it also protect inner portion. it is also called
cortex.
 Medullary Rays
These are radial rays fromed from pith to cambium layer. it holds the sap
wood and heart wood. in some tree it can be seen as broken.

B. Micro structure

The structure of wood apparent only at great magnifications is called


micro structure.
 Conductive cells
 Mechanical cells
 Storage cells

Characteristics of good timbers

 Appearance
A freshly cut surface of timber should exhibit hard and of shining
appearance.
 Colour
A colour should preferably be dark
 Defects
A good timber should be free from series defects such as knots, flaws,
shakes etc
 Durability
A good timber should be durable and capable of resisting the action
of fungi, insects, chemicals, physical agencies, and mechanical agencies.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Elasticity
The timber returns to its original shape when load causing its
deformation is removed
 Fibres
The timber should have straight fibres.
 Fire resistance
A dense wood offers good resistance to fire
 Mechanical wear
A good timber should not deteriorate easily due to mechanical
wear or abrasion
 Shape
A good timber should be capable of retaining its shape during conversion
or seasoning
 Smell
A good timber should have sweet smell. Unpleasant smell indicates
decayed timber
 Sound
A good timber should give a clear ringing sound when struck
 Strength
A good timber should be sufficiently strong for working as structural
member such as joist, beam, rafter etc.
 Structure
The structure should be uniform
 Toughness
A good timber should be tough (i.e.) capable of offering resistance to
shocks due to vibration
 Water permeability
A good timber should have low water permeability, which is measured by
the quantity of water filtered through unit surface area of specimen of wood.
 Weathering effects
A good timber should be able to stand reasonably the
weathering effects (dry & wet)
 Weight
The timber with heavy weight is considered to be sound and strong.
 Working conditions
Timber should be easily workable. It should not clog the
teeth of saw.

Seasoning of Timber

Wood drying (seasoning of timber) reduces the moisture content of wood before
it is use. As fresh timber which is obtained from tress contains about 30 to 40% sap or
moisture. This sap is very harmful for the life of a timber. Therefore, it is necessary to
remove that sap by applying some special methods. All those methods which are used for
removing the sap from timber are collectively termed as seasoning timber of.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Advantages of Seasoned Timber

 It has reduced weight.


 It is strong and durable.
 It has resistance to decay or not.
 It takes high polish.
 It is easier to work.
 It is more.
Types of Timber Seasoning

1. Natural Seasoning
It is the process in which timber is seasoned by subjecting it to the natural
elements such as air and water.
a. Water Seasoning
It is the process in which timber is immersed
in water flow which helps to remove the sap
present in the timber. It will take 2 to 4 weeks of
time and after that the timber is allowed to dry.
Well-seasoned timber is ready to use.

b. Air seasoning
Logs are arranged in layers in a shed. The
arrangement is done by maintaining some gap
with the ground. So, platform is built on ground
at 300 mm height from ground. The logs are
arranged in such a way that air is circulated
freely between logs. By the movement of air, the
moisture content in timber slowly reduces and
seasoning occurs. Even though it is a slow
process it will produce well-seasoned timber.

2. Artificial Seasoning
a. KilnmSeasoning
The timber is placed in a chamber with some
special heating arrangement. In this process one
thing should be kept in mind that heating system
should be under control, otherwise timber will
be crack or wrap. The time required for this
seasoning is 3 to 12 days. This is quick process.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

b. Chemical Seasoning
Carbon dioxide, ammonium carbonate or
urea are used as agents for seasoning, those are
applied in dry state, the inter surface of timber
dries first than outer side. This ensures uniform
seasoning. The time required for this seasoning
is 30 to 40 days.

c. Electric Seasoning
Electric current is passed through the
timber logs. The time required for this
seasoning is 5 hours to 8 hours.

Uses of Timber

 Building construction
 Construction of house posts
 Construction of beams
 Construction of bridges
 Construction of rafters
 Construction of piles, poles and railway sleepers
 For furniture making
 For light packing cases
 For high packing cases (machinery and similar stores)
 For manufacturing of agricultural implements
 For making toys
 For manufacturing of veneers and ply woods

Defects in Timber

The followings are the five main types of defects in timber:

1. Defects due to Natural Forces


2. Defects due to Attack by Insects
3. Defects due to Fungi
4. Defects due to Defective Seasoning
5. Defects due to Defective Conversion

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

1. Defects in Timber due to Natural Forces


a. Knots
Knots are the most common defects caused due to natural forces. During the
growth of a tree, branches close to the ground or lower branches die. Bases of
those branches remain in the tree as the trees grow. These bases may create
imperfection known as knots.

Types of Knots

 Dead knots
The remains of damaged
branches after drying out they become
loose and fall out.

 Live knots
They are sound and firm. If
small, are not great of a defect.

b. Twist
Twist in timber rotates the ends of the
timber in opposite directions. The main
reason behind this defect is twisting of the
trees by the strong wind.

c. Shakes
Shakes are timber defects that occur
around the annual ring or growth ring of a
timber. In other words, cracks or splits in
the woods are called shakes.

Types of shakes

 Star Shakes

This type of shake starts propagating from the bark


towards the sapwood and sometimes even towards
the heartwood along the lines of medullar rays.
Cracks are wider on the outer edge or bark and
narrower on the inside (usually sapwood, sometimes
heartwood).

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

The main reasons behind star shakes are extreme heat or frosting during the
growth of the trees and rapid or uneven seasoning after cutting off the timber.
Extreme heat or frost causes temperature difference, which causes shrinkage
leading to the crack.

 Cup and/or Ring Shakes


Cup shakes follow the annual growth ring. It is
capable to separate the growth ring partially or
completely. When the crack separates the annual ring
completely, it is called ring shakes. So, all ring shakes
are cup shakes, but all cup shakes are not a ring shape.
Excessive frost action is the main reason for this type
of crack.

 Heart Shakes
Unlike star shakes, heart shakes start propagating
from the pith to the sapwood along the lines of
medullary rays. Shrinkage of the interior part of the
timber causes this crack.

 Rind Galls
The meaning of rind is bark and gall is abnormal
growth. So abnormal growth of the bark of the trees is
called rind galls. Improper cutting of branches causes
this abnormal growth. Wood from this portion of the
timber lacks strength and desirable in structure.

 Upsets
Upsets in various wood indicate that the tree was
subjected to crushing or compression. Improper felling
of trees, heavy wind blowing during the young age of
the tree these are the main reasons behind this type of
defect.
2. Defects of Timber due to Attack by Insects

Insects like beetles, termites or marine boars eat wood, make holes and
weaken the strength of the wood. Beetles are small insects that make holes in
almost all the sapwoods. The larvae make tunnels through the sapwood in all
directions and turn wood into powder.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

3. Defects in Timber due to Attack by Fungi


 Stain
When fungi feed only on sapwood, where the
food materials are stored, it causes a stain.
Heartwood doesn’t contain these kinds of food
materials and is not affected by it. Stain action
causes color but does not affect the strength of
the wood.

 Decay
Wood eating or wood destroying fungus is
responsible for this type of defect in wood. This
type of fungi breaks down the cell structure.
Both sapwood and heartwood are affected by
them. Considerable strength reduction occurs.

4. Defect in Timber due to Defective Seasoning

 Bow
Curvature formed in direction of the
length of the timber is called bow.

 Cup
Curvature formed in the transverse direction of
the timber is called a cup.

 Check
Check is a kind of crack that separates fibers,
but it doesn’t extend from one end to another

 Split
Split is a special type of check that
extends from one end to another.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 Honey Combing
Stress is developed in the heartwood
during the drying process or seasoning. For
these stresses, cracks are created in the form
of honeycomb texture.

5. Defects of Timber due to Defective Conversion

a. Boxed Heart

This term is applied to the timber,


which is sawn in a way that the pith or
the center heart falls entirely within the
surface throughout its length.

b. Machine Burnt

Overheating is the main reason for


his defect.

c. Machine Notches

this defect.

d. Miscut

Erroneous cutting or sawing of wood causes this defect. Lack of


experience in sawing and carelessness is the main reason for erroneous
cutting.

e. Imperfect Grain

Mismatch in grain alignment.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Preservation of Timber

 Coal Tar Treatment


Hot coal tar is applied to
timber with brush. The coating of tar
protects the timber from attack of
fungi and insects. It is a cheapest way
of protecting timber.

 Paints Treatment
Two or three coats of oil paints
are applied on clean surface of wood.
The paint protects the timber from
moisture. The paint is applied from time
to time.

 Chemical Salt Treatment


These are the preservatives
made by dissolving salts in water. The
salts used are copper sulphate, masonry
chloride, zinc chloride. After treating
the timber with these chemical salt
paints and varnishes can be applied to
get good appearance.

 Creosote Oil Treatment


It is the process of vacuum and
pressure impregnation of wood with
hot creosote oil. Creosote oil is a
quality preservative made from coal
tar; the coal tar itself is released from
the coal during the coking process as
part of the high oven process during the
production of steel.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

 ASCU Treatment
This preservative is developed by the Forest Research Institute,
Dehradun. It consists of 1 part by weigh of hydrated arsenic pent-oxide, 3
parts by weight of copper sulphate and 4 parts by weight of potassium
dichromate or sodium dichromate. This preservative is available in powder
form. By mixing six parts of this powder with 100 parts of water, the
solution is prepared. The solution is the sprayed over the surface of timber.
This treatment prevents attack from termites. The surface may be painted
to get desired appearance.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Laboratory
Reports

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

LABORATORY No. 1

January 26, 2019

Slump Testing

Group No. 1

I. Group Members:
 Alabado, Rubelyn  Lumingkit, Krista Nikki E.
 Drilon, Shaira  Maldo, Princess Mae
 Jalandoni, Jay-R  Paculanang, Joann Day
 Juliano, Jasper T.  Toledo, John Rey C.
 Leong, Geo Vincent C.  Tumala, Arah Mae
 Luciano, Sam E.

II. Materials Needed

 Portland Cement  ¾ Gravel


Type 1  Water
 Washed Sand
III. Tools Needed

 Slump Cone  16mm Tamping Rod


 Ruler  Graduated Cylinder
 Scoop  Shovel
 Weighing Scale  Gloves
 Water Container
IV. Procedure

1. Clean the cone. Dampen with water and place on the slump plate. The slump
plate should be clean, firm, level and non-absorbent. Collect a sample of
concrete to perform the slump test.
2. Stand firmly on the foot pieces and fill 1/3 the volume of the cone with the
concrete sample. Compact the concrete by rodding 25 times. Always rod in a
definite pattern, working from outside into the middle.
3. Now fill to 2/3 and again blow rod 25 times, just into the top of the first layer.
4. Fill to overflowing, rodding again this time just into the top of the second
layer. Top up the cone till it overflows.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

5. Level off the surface with the steel rod using a rolling action. Clean concrete
flowing from around the base and top of the cone, push down on the handles
and step of the foot piece.
6. Carefully lift the cone straight up making sure not to move the sample.
7. Turn the cone upside down and place the rod across the upturned cone.
8. Take three measurements and report the average distance from the top of the
sample to the top of the inverted cone. If the sample fails by being outside the
tolerance (ie the slump is too high too low), another must be taken. If this also
fails the remainder of the batch should be rejected.

FORMULAS:

VOLUME OF SLUMP CONE, CONCRETE


𝜋H
Vcone = Vc = x (R2 + Rr + r2 )
3

VOLUME EXPECTED

VEXP = Vc x (1 + WATER-CEMENT RATIO)

QTY OF CEMENT
VEXP
Qc = x Density of Cement x 1
Mixture Proportion

QTY OF FINE AGGREGATES, SAND


VEXP
QFA = x Density of Fine Aggregates x 2
Mixture Proportion

QTY OF COARSE AGGREGATES, GRAVEL


VEXP
QCA = x Density of Coarse Aggregates x 4
Mixture Proportion

VOLUME OF WATER

Vw = WATE -CEMENT RATIO x Qc

DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATES = 1620 kg/cu.m

DENSITY OF COARSE AGGREGATES = 1528 kg/cu.m

DENSITY OF CEMENT = 1506 kg/cu.m

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

TYPES OF MIXTURE:

CLASS A

Use: All superstructure and heavy reinforced sub structure sub-structure; slab,
beam, girder, column, arch ribs, box culture, reinforce abutments, retaining walls,
reinforced footings, pre-cast piles and cribbing

Mixture: 1:2:4 (cement: sand: gravel)

Maximum Water Cement Ratio: 0.53

Minimum Compressive Strength: 3,000 psi (20.7 Mpa)

Size of Coarse Aggregates: 1 ½ “ or 37.5 mm

Slump: 50 – 100mm (2-4 in)

CLASS B

Use: Footing, pedestral, massive pier shaft, pipe bedding and gravity walls,
unreinforced or with only small amount of reinforcement

Mixture: 1: 1 ½ : 5 (cement: sand: gravel)

Maximum Water Cement Ratio: 0.58

Minimum Compressive Strength: 2,400 psi (16.5 Mpa)

Size of Coarse Aggregates: 2” or 50mm

Slump: 50 – 100mm (2-4 in)

CLASS C

Use: Thin Reinforcement Section, Railing and for filler in steel grid floors

Mixture: 1: 2 ½ : 5 (cement : sand : gravel)

Maximum Water Cement Ratio: 0.55

Minimum Compressive Strength: 3,000 psi (20.7 Mpa)

Size of Coarse Aggregates: ½” or 12.5 mm

Slump: 50 – 100 mm (2 - 4 in)

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

SOLUTION FOR CLASS A

Given:

H = 0.3 m

R = 0.11 m

r = 0.0525 m

VOLUME OF SLUMP CONE, CONCRETE


𝜋H
Vcone = Vc = x (R2 + Rr + r2)
3

𝜋 (0.3)
= x [(0.11)2 + (0.11) (0.0525) + (0.0525)2]
3

Vcone = 0.006481 m3

VOLUME EXPECTED

VEXP = Vc x (1 + WATER-CEMENT RATIO)

= 0.006481 x (1 + 0.53 )

VEXP = 0.00916 m3

QTY OF CEMENT
VEXP
Qc = x Density of Cement x 1
Mixture Proportion

0.00916
= 1 + 2+ 4 x 1506 x1

Qc = 1.971 kg

QTY OF FINE AGGREGATES, SAND


VEXP
QFA = x Density of Fine Aggregates x 2
Mixture Proportion

0.00916
= 1+ 2 + 4 x 1620 x 2

QFA = 4.240 kg

QTY OF COARSE AGGREGATES, GRAVEL

VEXP
QCA = x Density of Coarse Aggregates x 4
Mixture Proportion
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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

0.00916
QCA = 1 + 2 + 4 x 1528 x 4

QCA = 7. 998 kg

VOLUME OF WATER

Vw = WATER-CEMENT RATIO x Qc

= (0.53)(1.971)

Vw = 1.0446 kg

Note: water became 1.650 liters.

DOCUMENTATION

Materials Needed:

Shovel

Graduated Digital weighing


Scoop 67
Cylinder scale
CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

16mm Tamping rod


Rulers

Gloves Coarse Aggregates/ Gravel Fine Aggregates /Washed Sand

Slump cone
Portland cement Type 1

1.971 kg of cement
4.240 kg of sand 7.998 kg of gravel
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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

LABORATORY NO. 2

February 9, 2019

Concrete Sampling

Group NO. 1

I. Group Member

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

II. Materials Needed

Portland Cement Type 1

Washed Sand

Gravel

Water

Form Oil

III. Tools Needed

3 – Concrete Cylinder

Graduated Cylinder

Scoop

Weighing Scale

Water container

16mm Tamping Rod

Shovel

Gloves

Curing pond

IV. Procedure
1. Clean the concrete cylinder mold and coat the inside lightly with form oil, then place on
clean level and firm surface (i.e. steel plate/ plywood)
2. Fill 1/3 the volume of the mold with concrete then compact by rodding 25 times.
3. Fill 2/3 the volume of the mold with concrete then compact by rodding 25 times.
4. Fill the cone to overflowing and rod 25 times into the top of the first layer, then top the
mold till overflowing.
5. Level off the top with the steel float and clean any concrete from around the mold.
6. Tag cylinder and put it in a cool dry place to set for at least 24 hrs.
7. After 24 hrs remove concrete sample from the mold and immersed the sample into the
curing pond.
8. After 7 days remove one concrete sample for compression testing.
9. After 14 days remove one concrete sample for compression testing.
10. After 28 days remove one concrete sample for compression testing.

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

FORMULAS

VOLUME OF SLUMP CONE, CONCRETE

Vcylinder = Vc = 𝜋r2h

VOLUME EXPECTED

VEXP = Vc x (1 + WATER-CEMENT RATIO)

QTY OF CEMENT
VEXP
Qc = x Density of Cement x No. of Cylinder
Mixture Proportion

QTY OF FINE AGGREGATES, SAND


VEXP
QFA = x Density of Fine Aggregates x FA Proportion x No. of Cylinder
Mixture Proportion

QTY OF FINE AGGREGATES


VEXP
QCA = x Density of Fine Aggregates x CA Proportion x No. of Cylinder
Mixture Proportion

VOLUME OF WATER

Vw = WATER-CEMENT RATIO x Qc

DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATES = 1620 kg/cu.m

DENSITY OF COARSE AGGREGATES = 1528 kg/cu.m

DENSITY OF CEMENT = 1506 kg/cu.m

TYPES OF MIXTURE

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

CLASS A

Use: All superstructure and heavy reinforced sub structure sub-structure; slab, beam, girder,
column, arch ribs, box culture, reinforce abutments, retaining walls, reinforced footings, pre-cast
piles and cribbing

Mixture: 1:2:4 (cement: sand: gravel)

Maximum Water Cement Ratio: 0.53

Minimum Compressive Strength: 3,000 psi (20.7 Mpa)

Size of Coarse Aggregates: 1 ½ “ or 37.5 mm

Slump: 50 – 100mm (2-4 in)

CLASS B

Use: Footing, pedestral, massive pier shaft, pipe bedding and gravity walls, unreinforced or with
only small amount of reinforcement

Mixture: 1: 1 ½ : 5 (cement: sand: gravel)

Maximum Water Cement Ratio: 0.58

Minimum Compressive Strength: 2,400 psi (16.5 Mpa)

Size of Coarse Aggregates: 2” or 50mm

Slump: 50 – 100mm (2-4 in)

CLASS C

Use: Thin Reinforcement Section, Railing and for filler in steel grid floors

Mixture: 1: 2 ½ : 5 (cement : sand : gravel)

Maximum Water Cement Ratio: 0.55

Minimum Compressive Strength: 3,000 psi (20.7 Mpa)

Size of Coarse Aggregates: ½” or 12.5 mm

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

Slump: 50 – 100 mm (2 - 4 in)

SOLUTION FOR CLASS A

Given:

Diameter (d) = 16 cm = 0.16 m

Radius (r) = 0.08 m

Height (h) = 30 cm = 0.3m

FA = 2

No. of Cylinder = 3

VOLUME OF SLUMP CONE, CONCRETE

Vcylinder = Vc = 𝜋r2h

= 𝜋(0.08)2(0.3)

Vcylinder = Vc = 0.00603 m3

VOLUME EXPECTED

VEXP = Vc x (1 + WATER-CEMENT RATIO)

= 0.00603 (1+ 0.53)

VEXP = 0.00923 m3

QTY OF CEMENT
VEXP
Qc = x Density of Cement x No. of Cylinder
Mixture Proportion

0.00923
= ( 1+2+4 ) (1506) (3)

Qc = 5.957 kg

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CE 422 – CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING

QTY OF FINE AGGREGATES, SAND


VEXP
QFA = x Density of Fine Aggregates x FA Proportion x No. of Cylinder
Mixture Proportion

0.00923
= ( 1+2+4 ) (1620) (2) (3)

QFA = 12.817 kg

QTY OF FINE AGGREGATES


VEXP
QCA = x Density of Fine Aggregates x CA Proportion x No. of Cylinder
Mixture Proportion

0.00923
= ( 1+2+4 ) (1528) (4) (3)

QCA = 24.117 kg

VOLUME OF WATER

Vw = WATER-CEMENT RATIO x Qc

= (0.53) (5.957)

Vw = 3.157 kg or 3.157 li

Note: Water became 3.650 li

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