Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28
DigitalDigital MeterMeter Digital meters are the product of the latest developments in electronic technology Digital

DigitalDigital MeterMeter

Digital meters are the product of the latest developments in electronic technology

Digital meters are the product of the latest developments in electronic technology

so it is to be expected that they will incorporate many features that are not available

so it is to be expected that they will incorporate many features that are not available

on the typical moving-coil meter.

on the typical moving-coil meter.

RelatedRelated terms:terms:

LearnLearn moremore aboutabout DigitalDigital MeterMeter

DigitalDigital metersmeters

A A

chapter. Instead of a dial with a pointer, a digital meter has a display consisting

chapter. Instead of a dial with a pointer, a digital meter has a display consisting

typical digital meter is illustrated in the photograph at the beginning of this

typical digital meter is illustrated in the photograph at the beginning of this

of four (in some cases more) digits, together with polarity symbols (+ and –) and

of four (in some cases more) digits, together with polarity symbols (+ and –) and

a a

decimal point that automatically appears between the correct pair of digits. The

decimal point that automatically appears between the correct pair of digits. The

display also shows the units of measurement, such as ‘V’, ‘mV’ or ‘Ω’. The display

display also shows the units of measurement, such as ‘V’, ‘mV’ or ‘Ω’. The display

is is

a liquid crystal display and is updated at intervals of a few seconds. Although

a liquid crystal display and is updated at intervals of a few seconds. Although

the display may be the most obvious difference between this type of meter and the

the display may be the most obvious difference between this type of meter and the

moving-coil meter, there is a much more fundamental difference between the two

moving-coil meter, there is a much more fundamental difference between the two

types. The input terminals of the moving-coil meter connect the test circuit to the

types. The input terminals of the moving-coil meter connect the test circuit to the

coil and possibly a shunt or series resistor. The input terminals of a digital meter

coil and possibly a shunt or series resistor. The input terminals of a digital meter

connect the test circuit to an operational amplifier (p. 192), with FET inputs. The

connect the test circuit to an operational amplifier (p. 192), with FET inputs. The

result of this is that the digital meter draws virtually no current from the test circuit.

result of this is that the digital meter draws virtually no current from the test circuit.

The actual resistance of a moving-coil meter depends to a large extent on the quality of the meter movement. A low-cost meter usually has a coil of relatively low resistance and the series resistor has a correspondingly low value. The resistance of an inexpensive moving-coil meter is 20 kΩ when switched to its 10 V range. Such a meter draws an appreciable current from a high-resistance test circuit. On page 61, we showed how connecting a low-resistance circuit to a potential divider results in a fall in potential at the connection point. The same happens when a low-cost meter is used for measuring potential in a test circuit. The meter draws excessive current from the circuit, leading to a fall in potential at the point to which it is connected. It reduces the potential that it is trying to measure, giving a falsely low reading. This effect is much less important when using an expensive meter with a high-resistance coil (typically, 200 kΩ on the 10 V range), but with any moving-coil meter this effect can lead to errors. By contrast, a digital multimeter with its FET input presents an input resistance of at least 2 MΩ and, more usually, as high as a million megohms. Such a meter has almost no effect on the test circuit and an accurate reading of potential is obtained.

The actual resistance of a moving-coil meter depends to a large extent on the quality of the meter movement. A low-cost meter usually has a coil of relatively low

resistance and the series resistor has a correspondingly low value. The resistance of an inexpensive moving-coil meter is 20 kΩ when switched to its 10 V range. Such a meter draws an appreciable current from a high-resistance test circuit. On page 61, we showed how connecting a low-resistance circuit to a potential divider results in

a fall in potential at the connection point. The same happens when a low-cost meter

is used for measuring potential in a test circuit. The meter draws excessive current from the circuit, leading to a fall in potential at the point to which it is connected. It reduces the potential that it is trying to measure, giving a falsely low reading. This effect is much less important when using an expensive meter with a high-resistance coil (typically, 200 kΩ on the 10 V range), but with any moving-coil meter this effect can lead to errors. By contrast, a digital multimeter with its FET input presents an input resistance of at least 2 MΩ and, more usually, as high as a million megohms. Such a meter has almost no effect on the test circuit and an accurate reading of potential is obtained.

Digital meters are the product of the latest developments in electronic technology so

it

is to be expected that they will incorporate many features that are not available on

Digital meters are the product of the latest developments in electronic technology so

it is to be expected that they will incorporate many features that are not available on

the typical moving-coil meter. As well as a wide selection of voltage, current and re-

the typical moving-coil meter. As well as a wide selection of voltage, current and re-

sistance ranges (including accurate low-resistance range) many of these meters also

sistance ranges (including accurate low-resistance range) many of these meters also

provide for measurements of capacitance and frequency. A continuity tester, which

provide for measurements of capacitance and frequency. A continuity tester, which

produces a ‘beep’ when there is an electrical connection between the probes is almost

a

display the temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. The more expensive digital

produces a ‘beep’ when there is an electrical connection between the probes is almost

standard feature. The meter may have a temperature probe (a thermocouple) and

standard feature. The meter may have a temperature probe (a thermocouple) and

a

display the temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. The more expensive digital

meters include circuits for testing diodes and transistors, including measurement

meters include circuits for testing diodes and transistors, including measurement

of transistor gain. of transistor gain.

As well as indicating instantaneous readings, the more expensive digital meters have

As well as indicating instantaneous readings, the more expensive digital meters have

the ability to process a series of readings taken over a given period of time. At the end

the ability to process a series of readings taken over a given period of time. At the end

of the period they can display the minimum, the maximum, the difference between

of the period they can display the minimum, the maximum, the difference between

the minimum and maximum, and the average of the readings it has taken since it

was last reset.

the minimum and maximum, and the average of the readings it has taken since it

was last reset.

In spite of the advantages of the digital meter, some engineers prefer the mov-

In spite of the advantages of the digital meter, some engineers prefer the mov-

ing-coil meter for investigating fluctuating p.d.s and currents. Useful information

ing-coil meter for investigating fluctuating p.d.s and currents. Useful information

may be gained by watching the way the needle moves across the scale. It is far

may be gained by watching the way the needle moves across the scale. It is far

from easy to extract this information from a set of rapidly changing digits. However,

from easy to extract this information from a set of rapidly changing digits. However,

the more expensive digital meters have a way of presenting this information as a

the more expensive digital meters have a way of presenting this information as a

bargraph. Watching the end of the bar moving to and fro is equivalent to watching

bargraph. Watching the end of the bar moving to and fro is equivalent to watching

the needle of the moving-coil meter.

the needle of the moving-coil meter.

inherently more accurate than some analogue types, this form of display enables measurements to be recorded with much greater accuracy than that obtainable by reading an analogue meter scale.

inherently more accurate than some analogue types, this form of display enables measurements to be recorded with much greater accuracy than that obtainable by reading an analogue meter scale.

Digital voltmeters differ mainly in the technique used to affect the analogue-to-dig-

Digital voltmeters differ mainly in the technique used to affect the analogue-to-dig-

ital conversion between the measured analogue voltage and the output digital

ital conversion between the measured analogue voltage and the output digital

reading. As a general rule, the more expensive and complicated conversion methods

reading. As a general rule, the more expensive and complicated conversion methods

achieve a faster conversion speed. Some common types of DVM are discussed here.

achieve a faster conversion speed. Some common types of DVM are discussed here.

7.2.1 Voltage-to-Time7.2.1 Voltage-to-TimeConversion DigitalConversionVoltmeterDigital Voltmeter

This is the simplest form of DVM and is a ramp type of instrument. When an

This is the simplest form of DVM and is a ramp type of instrument. When an

unknown voltage signal is applied to input terminals of the instrument, a negative

slope ramp waveform is generated internally and compared with the input signal.

slope ramp waveform is generated internally and compared with the input signal.

When the two are equal, a pulse is generated that opens a gate, and at a later point in

When the two are equal, a pulse is generated that opens a gate, and at a later point in

time a second pulse closes the gate when the negative ramp voltage reaches zero. The

time a second pulse closes the gate when the negative ramp voltage reaches zero. The

length of time between the gate opening and closing is monitored by an electronic

length of time between the gate opening and closing is monitored by an electronic

counter, which produces a digital display according to the level of the input voltage

counter, which produces a digital display according to the level of the input voltage

signal. Its main drawbacks are nonlinearities in the shape of the ramp waveform

signal. Its main drawbacks are nonlinearities in the shape of the ramp waveform

used and lack of noise rejection; these problems lead to a typical inaccuracy of ±

used and lack of noise rejection; these problems lead to a typical inaccuracy of ±

0.05%. It is relatively inexpensive, however.

0.05%. It is relatively inexpensive, however.

7.2.2 Potentiometric7.2.2 DigitalPotentiometricVoltmeterDigital Voltmeter

This uses a servo principle, in which the error between the unknown input voltage

This uses a servo principle, in which the error between the unknown input voltage

level and a reference voltage is applied to a servo-driven potentiometer that adjusts

level and a reference voltage is applied to a servo-driven potentiometer that adjusts

the reference voltage until it balances the unknown voltage. The output reading is

the reference voltage until it balances the unknown voltage. The output reading is

produced by a mechanical drum-type digital display driven by the potentiometer.

produced by a mechanical drum-type digital display driven by the potentiometer.

This is also a relatively inexpensive form of DVM that gives excellent performance

for its price.

This is also a relatively inexpensive form of DVM that gives excellent performance

for its price.

7.2.3 Dual-Slope7.2.3IntegrationDual-SlopeDigitalIntegrationVoltmeterDigital Voltmeter

This is another relatively simple form of DVM that has better noise-rejection capabil-

This is another relatively simple form of DVM that has better noise-rejection capabil-

ities than many other types and gives correspondingly better measurement accuracy

ities than many other types and gives correspondingly better measurement accuracy

(inaccuracy as low as ± 0.005%). Unfortunately, it is quite expensive. The unknown

(inaccuracy as low as ± 0.005%). Unfortunately, it is quite expensive. The unknown

voltage is applied to an integrator for a fixed time, T1, following which a reference

voltage is applied to an integrator for a fixed time, T1, following which a reference

voltage of opposite sign is applied to the integrator, which discharges down to a zero

voltage of opposite sign is applied to the integrator, which discharges down to a zero

output in an interval, T2, measured by a counter. The output–time relationship for

output in an interval, T2, measured by a counter. The output–time relationship for

the integrator is shown in Figure 7.1, from which the unknown voltage, Vi, can be

the integrator is shown in Figure 7.1, from which the unknown voltage, Vi, can be

calculated geometrically from the triangle as

calculated geometrically from the triangle as

Figure 7.1. Output–time relationship for an integrator in a dual-slope digital volt- Figure 7.1. Output–time

Figure 7.1. Output–time relationship for an integrator in a dual-slope digital volt-

Figure 7.1. Output–time relationship for an integrator in a dual-slope digital volt-

meter.

meter.

(7.1)

(7.1)

7.2.4 Voltage-to-Frequency7.2.4 Voltage-to-FrequencyConversion DigitalConversionVoltmeterDigital Voltmeter

In this instrument, the unknown voltage signal is fed via a range switch and an

In this instrument, the unknown voltage signal is fed via a range switch and an

amplifier into a converter circuit whose output is in the form of a train of voltage

amplifier into a converter circuit whose output is in the form of a train of voltage

pulses at a frequency proportional to the magnitude of the input signal. The main

pulses at a frequency proportional to the magnitude of the input signal. The main

advantage of this type of DVM is its ability to reject a.c. noise.

advantage of this type of DVM is its ability to reject a.c. noise.

7.2.5 Digital Multimeter7.2.5 Digital Multimeter

This is an extension of the DVM. It can measure both a.c. and d.c. voltages over

This is an extension of the DVM. It can measure both a.c. and d.c. voltages over

a number of ranges through inclusion within it of a set of switchable amplifiers

a number of ranges through inclusion within it of a set of switchable amplifiers

and attenuators. It is used widely in circuit test applications as an alternative to the

and attenuators. It is used widely in circuit test applications as an alternative to the

analogue multimeter and includes protection circuits that prevent damage if high

analogue multimeter and includes protection circuits that prevent damage if high

voltages are applied to the wrong range.

voltages are applied to the wrong range.

Alan S. Morris, Reza Langari, in Measurement and Instrumentation (Second Edi-

tion), 2016

tion), 2016

9.2.1 Digital Meters9.2.1 Digital Meters

All types of digital meters are basically modified forms of the digital voltmeter

(DVM), irrespective of the quantity that they are designed to measure. Digital meters

(DVM), irrespective of the quantity that they are designed to measure. Digital meters

designed to measure quantities other than voltage are in fact DVMs that contain

designed to measure quantities other than voltage are in fact DVMs that contain

appropriate electrical circuits to convert current or resistance measurement signals into voltage signals. Digital multimeters are also essentially DVMs that contain several conversion circuits, thus allowing the measurement and display of voltage, current, and resistance magnitudes within one instrument.

that opens a gate, and at a later point in time a second pulse closes the gate when the negative ramp voltage reaches zero. The length of time between the gate opening and closing is monitored by an electronic counter, which produces a digital display according to the level of the input voltage signal. Its main drawbacks are nonlinearities in the shape of the ramp waveform used and lack of noise rejection, and these problems lead to a typical inaccuracy of ±0.05%. It is relatively cheap, however.

that opens a gate, and at a later point in time a second pulse closes the gate when the negative ramp voltage reaches zero. The length of time between the gate opening and closing is monitored by an electronic counter, which produces a digital display according to the level of the input voltage signal. Its main drawbacks are nonlinearities in the shape of the ramp waveform used and lack of noise rejection, and these problems lead to a typical inaccuracy of ±0.05%. It is relatively cheap, however.

Potentiometric DVM: This uses a servo principle, in which the error between the

Potentiometric DVM: This uses a servo principle, in which the error between the

unknown input voltage level and a reference voltage is applied to a servo-driven

unknown input voltage level and a reference voltage is applied to a servo-driven

potentiometer that adjusts the reference voltage until it balances the unknown

potentiometer that adjusts the reference voltage until it balances the unknown

voltage. The output reading is produced by a mechanical drum-type digital display

voltage. The output reading is produced by a mechanical drum-type digital display

driven by the potentiometer. This is also a relatively cheap form of DVM that gives

driven by the potentiometer. This is also a relatively cheap form of DVM that gives

excellent performance for its price.

excellent performance for its price.

Dual-slope integration DVM: This is another relatively simple form of DVM that has

Dual-slope integration DVM: This is another relatively simple form of DVM that has

better noise-rejection capabilities than many other types and give correspondingly

better noise-rejection capabilities than many other types and give correspondingly

better measurement accuracy (inaccuracy as low as ±0.005%). Unfortunately, it is

better measurement accuracy (inaccuracy as low as ±0.005%). Unfortunately, it is

quite expensive. The unknown voltage is applied to an integrator for a fixed time

quite expensive. The unknown voltage is applied to an integrator for a fixed time

T1, following which a reference voltage of opposite sign is applied to the integrator,

T1, following which a reference voltage of opposite sign is applied to the integrator,

which discharges down to a zero output in an interval T2 measured by a counter. The

which discharges down to a zero output in an interval T2 measured by a counter. The

output time relationship for the integrator is shown in Figure 9.1, from which the

output time relationship for the integrator is shown in Figure 9.1, from which the

unknown voltage Vi can be calculated geometrically from the triangle as:

unknown voltage Vi can be calculated geometrically from the triangle as:

Vi can be calculated geometrically from the triangle as: Figure 9.1. Output–timeFigurerelationship9.1.

Figure 9.1. Output–timeFigurerelationship9.1. Output–timefor integratorrelationshipin a dual-slopefor integratordigitalin avoltmeter.dual-slope digital voltmeter.

(9.1)

(9.1)

Voltage-to-frequency conversion DVM: In this instrument, the unknown voltage

Voltage-to-frequency conversion DVM: In this instrument, the unknown voltage

signal is fed via a range switch and an amplifier into a converter circuit whose

signal is fed via a range switch and an amplifier into a converter circuit whose

output is in the form of a train of voltage pulses at a frequency proportional to the

output is in the form of a train of voltage pulses at a frequency proportional to the

magnitude of the input signal. The main advantage of this type of DVM is its ability

magnitude of the input signal. The main advantage of this type of DVM is its ability

to reject AC noise. to reject AC noise.

Digital multimeter: This is an extension of the DVM. It can measure both AC and

Digital multimeter: This is an extension of the DVM. It can measure both AC and

DC voltages over a number of ranges through inclusion within a set of switchable

DC voltages over a number of ranges through inclusion within a set of switchable

amplifiers and attenuators. It is widely used in circuit test applications as an alterna-

amplifiers and attenuators. It is widely used in circuit test applications as an alterna-

tive to the analog multimeter, and includes protection circuits that prevent damage if high voltages are applied to the wrong range.

tive to the analog multimeter, and includes protection circuits that prevent damage if high voltages are applied to the wrong range.

>

Smart metersSmart meters

SEG will replace analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record usage in

SEG will replace analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record usage in

real time. These digital meters, which are installed at all customer service locations,

real time. These digital meters, which are installed at all customer service locations,

will have two-way communications to get the data back to the utility (ie, wires, fiber,

will have two-way communications to get the data back to the utility (ie, wires, fiber,

Wi-Fi, cellular, or power line carrier). This technology is referred to as advanced

Wi-Fi, cellular, or power line carrier). This technology is referred to as advanced

metering infrastructure (AMI), which allows utilities to detect outages, accurately

metering infrastructure (AMI), which allows utilities to detect outages, accurately

perform load forecasting, manage customer loads in real time, enhance the distrib-

perform load forecasting, manage customer loads in real time, enhance the distrib-

ution system optimization, and eliminate the need to access customer property [15].

ution system optimization, and eliminate the need to access customer property [15].

>

7.7.1.2 Electrical7.7.1.2CapacitanceElectricalMeasurementsCapacitance Measurements

Electrical capacitance was measured with a BK Precision® Tool Kit™ 27040 digital

Electrical capacitance was measured with a BK Precision® Tool Kit™ 27040 digital

meter with a resolution of 1 pF. PWAS capacitance was measured directly by putting

meter with a resolution of 1 pF. PWAS capacitance was measured directly by putting

it on a flat metallic support plate. The negative probe was connected to the plate,

it on a flat metallic support plate. The negative probe was connected to the plate,

whereas the positive probe was placed to the top of the PWAS. Readings were taken

whereas the positive probe was placed to the top of the PWAS. Readings were taken

when the tester readings had converged to a stable value. At least six readings were

when the tester readings had converged to a stable value. At least six readings were

recorded and the average was taken. The process was iteratively improved until

recorded and the average was taken. The process was iteratively improved until

consistent results were obtained. The statistical analysis of the direct capacitance test

consistent results were obtained. The statistical analysis of the direct capacitance test

Figure 7.15. Statistical distribution of APC-850 piezoceramic wafers capacitance Figure 7.15. Statistical distribution of

Figure 7.15. Statistical distribution of APC-850 piezoceramic wafers capacitance

Figure 7.15. Statistical distribution of APC-850 piezoceramic wafers capacitance

(mean=3.276 nF, STD=±3.8%).

(mean=3.276 nF, STD=±3.8%).

>

The transition initially started with the installation of new digital “smart meters.”

The transition initially started with the installation of new digital “smart meters.”

There were challenges in deploying digital meters and providing DR capabilities.

There were challenges in deploying digital meters and providing DR capabilities.

In the United States, the federal government has provided initial funding for the

In the United States, the federal government has provided initial funding for the

digital metering transition. However, the utilities that were awarded funding were

digital metering transition. However, the utilities that were awarded funding were

required to provide matching funds. In many cases, this cost would be passed on

required to provide matching funds. In many cases, this cost would be passed on

to consumers as a rate hike. The Public Utilities Commission (PUC) opposed the

to consumers as a rate hike. The Public Utilities Commission (PUC) opposed the

approval of rate hikes, so this has delayed the transition to metering. The smart meter

approval of rate hikes, so this has delayed the transition to metering. The smart meter

equipment faced additional delays due to concerns of interoperability, which also

equipment faced additional delays due to concerns of interoperability, which also

contributed to reluctance by utilities to upgrade their existing metering equipment.

contributed to reluctance by utilities to upgrade their existing metering equipment.

>

3 Components

3 Components

• Smart meters•

Smart meters

In a smart grid, timely data is highly important for reliable delivery of electricity [9].

In a smart grid, timely data is highly important for reliable delivery of electricity [9].

Therefore, smart meters are essential components, considered as the first build-

Therefore, smart meters are essential components, considered as the first build-

ing block for two-way communication [10]. Smart meters are digital meters with

ing block for two-way communication [10]. Smart meters are digital meters with

frequently and communicate with devices used by the consumer [2]. A smart meter

frequently and communicate with devices used by the consumer [2]. A smart meter

system consists of the meter, communication capability, and a control device [11].

system consists of the meter, communication capability, and a control device [11].

They are used to assess the health of the equipment and the integrity of the grid [4]

They are used to assess the health of the equipment and the integrity of the grid [4]

as well as execute control commands remotely and locally [11]. In addition, they can

as well as execute control commands remotely and locally [11]. In addition, they can

be useful to support advanced protection relaying, eliminate meter estimation, and

be useful to support advanced protection relaying, eliminate meter estimation, and

prevent energy theft [4]. Finally, they help relieve power congestion by controlling

prevent energy theft [4]. Finally, they help relieve power congestion by controlling

Smart meters can distinguish between the energy supplied from the utility and

Smart meters can distinguish between the energy supplied from the utility and

the energy supplied by the distributed generation (DG) units owned by the user.

the energy supplied by the distributed generation (DG) units owned by the user.

Therefore, they only bill the energy consumed from the grid, which leads to reducing

Therefore, they only bill the energy consumed from the grid, which leads to reducing

the energy cost for the consumer [11]. In addition, they can be used by the utility to

the energy cost for the consumer [11]. In addition, they can be used by the utility to

advise the consumer on the most efficient use of their appliances to reduce the

advise the consumer on the most efficient use of their appliances to reduce the

energy cost and the maximum load on the grid [11].

energy cost and the maximum load on the grid [11].

Transmission and distribution devices can also be equipped with communication

Transmission and distribution devices can also be equipped with communication

capabilities to allow the exchange of information as well as the ability to receive

capabilities to allow the exchange of information as well as the ability to receive

commands to modify settings for better grid control [2]. Transformers, voltage reg-

ulators, capacitors, and switches are used to enhance the reliability and availability

ulators, capacitors, and switches are used to enhance the reliability and availability

of power to the consumer [2].

of power to the consumer [2].

• Network

Network

The data collected by the smart meters and transmission and distribution devices

The data collected by the smart meters and transmission and distribution devices

require a network to exchange the information between different components or

require a network to exchange the information between different components or

between the utility grid and the consumer [2], all in a timely fashion. In addition, the

between the utility grid and the consumer [2], all in a timely fashion. In addition, the

network can be used for studying the impact of equipment limitations and faults

network can be used for studying the impact of equipment limitations and faults

[9]. It also helps to avoid the natural accidents and catastrophes that limit its effect

[9]. It also helps to avoid the natural accidents and catastrophes that limit its effect

[9]. Furthermore, it helps to maintain the grid safety, reliability, and protection by

[9]. Furthermore, it helps to maintain the grid safety, reliability, and protection by

developing online condition monitoring, diagnostics and protection [9].

developing online condition monitoring, diagnostics and protection [9].

Currently, there is no way for the consumer to monitor their hourly use of power. This means they only rely on the monthly bill, which makes it difficult for them to understand or feel the effect of installing energy-efficient devices [2]. In addition, such devices can help consumers enhance their energy profiles by disconnecting some loads at peak energy demand times, therefore helping reduce the monthly bill [2]. Such devices can be, but are not limited to, an in-house display or a web portal provided by the utility [2]. Furthermore, installing in-house intelligent devices that can communicate with smart meters to determine the peak demand time and control the energy consumption accordingly [2].

Currently, there is no way for the consumer to monitor their hourly use of power. This means they only rely on the monthly bill, which makes it difficult for them to understand or feel the effect of installing energy-efficient devices [2]. In addition, such devices can help consumers enhance their energy profiles by disconnecting some loads at peak energy demand times, therefore helping reduce the monthly bill [2]. Such devices can be, but are not limited to, an in-house display or a web portal provided by the utility [2]. Furthermore, installing in-house intelligent devices that can communicate with smart meters to determine the peak demand time and control the energy consumption accordingly [2].

Those components form the new grid infrastructure to achieve grid reliability, flexi-

bility, efficiency, and sustainability. Those features are achieved by the integration

[12]. Each one of those methods is discussed next.

[12]. Each one of those methods is discussed next.

Ornmanee Yahom, neering, 2016

Ornmanee Yahom,

Ampira Charoensaeng, in Computer Aided Chemical Engi-

neering, 2016

1 Introduction1 Introduction

Along with the growth of electricity demands and energy efficient policies of the

Along with the growth of electricity demands and energy efficient policies of the

country, the electricity distribution businesses expand and upgrade their networks

country, the electricity distribution businesses expand and upgrade their networks

and facilities (power distribution lines, substations customer service lines, and even

and facilities (power distribution lines, substations customer service lines, and even

more to replace the existing analog electric meter with digital meters device). A

more to replace the existing analog electric meter with digital meters device). A

large quantity of discarded items and wastes inevitably generated from the power

large quantity of discarded items and wastes inevitably generated from the power

distribution operation, which is becoming significant environmental issues of waste

distribution operation, which is becoming significant environmental issues of waste

disposal associating with the growth of the population.

disposal associating with the growth of the population.

Various residuals and wastes, such as used insulating oils, electronic wastes

Various residuals and wastes, such as used insulating oils, electronic wastes

(e-wastes) from discarded electric meter devices, spent light bulbs and used lead

(e-wastes) from discarded electric meter devices, spent light bulbs and used lead

batteries are generated from their daily operation. Furthermore, universal waste and

batteries are generated from their daily operation. Furthermore, universal waste and

other residuals from administrative office are also part of wastes generated from

other residuals from administrative office are also part of wastes generated from

their organization. According to end-of-life waste management schemes, some of

their organization. According to end-of-life waste management schemes, some of

them can be recycled into re-useable or value products and if such recycling is

them can be recycled into re-useable or value products and if such recycling is

not possible, waste must be properly disposed. Therefore, the appropriate waste

not possible, waste must be properly disposed. Therefore, the appropriate waste

management policy and practice of power distribution sector are required in order to

management policy and practice of power distribution sector are required in order to

mitigate the environmental impacts and decreasing the risk associate with misman- aging wastes. This work, the residuals and wastes discarded from power distribution operation were surveyed and prioritized. The waste inventory was gathered from MEA- the large scale of power distribution organization that supplies the electricity for Bangkok and nearby areas. The lighting bulbs and lead-acid battery were selected based on their hazardous and toxicity levels as target wastes for developing an alternative solution for their management schemes.

mitigate the environmental impacts and decreasing the risk associate with misman- aging wastes. This work, the residuals and wastes discarded from power distribution operation were surveyed and prioritized. The waste inventory was gathered from MEA- the large scale of power distribution organization that supplies the electricity for Bangkok and nearby areas. The lighting bulbs and lead-acid battery were selected based on their hazardous and toxicity levels as target wastes for developing an alternative solution for their management schemes.

In line with awareness of environmental responsibility towards and the environ-

In line with awareness of environmental responsibility towards and the environ-

mental protection policy, waste management is currently attractive in order to solve

mental protection policy, waste management is currently attractive in order to solve

environmental problems at both the national and international levels. Several tools

environmental problems at both the national and international levels. Several tools

have been developed and applied to manage waste including, LCA, MFA, and EPR

have been developed and applied to manage waste including, LCA, MFA, and EPR

(Kiddee et al., 2013). The tools used in this research is Material Flow Analysis (MFA)

(Kiddee et al., 2013). The tools used in this research is Material Flow Analysis (MFA)

introduced by Bruner and Rechberger (2004) which is a methodology for describing,

introduced by Bruner and Rechberger (2004) which is a methodology for describing,

investigating, and estimating the metabolism of anthropogenic systems. Life Cycle

investigating, and estimating the metabolism of anthropogenic systems. Life Cycle

Assessment (LCA) also used in this study. It is one of the most reliable and useful

Assessment (LCA) also used in this study. It is one of the most reliable and useful

tools for assessing environmental impact and human exposure, and managing

tools for assessing environmental impact and human exposure, and managing

environmental policy. The purpose of this study is to provide a material flow of

environmental policy. The purpose of this study is to provide a material flow of

wastes with a focus on wastes generation and time using MFA tools and evaluate

wastes with a focus on wastes generation and time using MFA tools and evaluate

environmental impacts of end-of-life management of these wastes and propose

environmental impacts of end-of-life management of these wastes and propose

alternatives for identifying and mitigating problems of waste in power distribution

sector.

alternatives for identifying and mitigating problems of waste in power distribution

sector.

Evgenia Mechleri, Harvey Arellano-Garcia, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineer-

ing, 2018

ing, 2018

Abstract

Abstract

The UK is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80%

The UK is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80%

by 2050, relative to 1990 levels. For this to happen, we need to transform the UK

by 2050, relative to 1990 levels. For this to happen, we need to transform the UK

economy while ensuring secure, low-carbon energy supplies to 2050. The future

economy while ensuring secure, low-carbon energy supplies to 2050. The future

electricity distribution system, known as smart grid, will integrate advanced digital

electricity distribution system, known as smart grid, will integrate advanced digital

meters, distribution automation, communication systems and distributed energy

meters, distribution automation, communication systems and distributed energy

resources. There has been a lot of discussion about the importance of the Internet

resources. There has been a lot of discussion about the importance of the Internet

of Things (IoT) in future smart grids and smart cities stating that IoT offers many

of Things (IoT) in future smart grids and smart cities stating that IoT offers many

applications and can be used to integrate efficiency renewable energy sources in the smart grid by making the electricity grid more robust and scalable.

applications and can be used to integrate efficiency renewable energy sources in the smart grid by making the electricity grid more robust and scalable.

This study will focus on the development of an integrated IoT-Distributed energy

This study will focus on the development of an integrated IoT-Distributed energy

systems (DES) model for the efficient energy management of a microgrid under the

systems (DES) model for the efficient energy management of a microgrid under the

integration of the intermittent renewable energy resources. In this work, we expand

integration of the intermittent renewable energy resources. In this work, we expand

the definition of flexible options to include demand and supply together with

the definition of flexible options to include demand and supply together with

design and operation strategies using internet of things (IoT). Our framework brings

design and operation strategies using internet of things (IoT). Our framework brings

weather data and sensor information into a virtual energy plant optimisation model

weather data and sensor information into a virtual energy plant optimisation model

that connects supplier and consumer to optimise potential flexibility gaps arising

that connects supplier and consumer to optimise potential flexibility gaps arising

from supply and demand mismatch. The problem is posed as a hybrid mixed-integer

from supply and demand mismatch. The problem is posed as a hybrid mixed-integer

linear programming (MILP) optimisation model combining flexibility analysis and

linear programming (MILP) optimisation model combining flexibility analysis and

optimal synthesis for integrating energy supply and demand, where environmental

optimal synthesis for integrating energy supply and demand, where environmental

information is added to each stage. Finally, we combine traditional mathematical

information is added to each stage. Finally, we combine traditional mathematical

programming approaches such as flexibility analysis and optimal network synthesis

programming approaches such as flexibility analysis and optimal network synthesis

and within a single optimisation framework combining IoT and urban DES.

and within a single optimisation framework combining IoT and urban DES.

25.2 Smart Grid25.2ComponentsSmart Grid Components

1. Intelligent Appliances1.

Intelligent Appliances: Appliances are interfaced with instrumentation that

: Appliances are interfaced with instrumentation that

decides when to consume power based on preset customer preferences. This

decides when to consume power based on preset customer preferences. Th

will help the generators reduce their peak load requirements. It also reduces

will help the generators reduce their peak load requirements. It also reduce

or postpones the need for new generating capacity. When renewable energy

sources are used the greenhouse effect will also be reduced. Smart grid–en-

sources are used the greenhouse effect will also be reduced. Smart grid–en

abled devices include water heaters and devices such as thermostats.

abled devices include water heaters and devices such as thermostats.

2. Smart Power Meters2.

: Digital meters with two-way communication facility en-

Smart Power Meters: Digital meters with two-way communication facility e

able automatic billing data collection, notice outages and arrange for dispatch

able automatic billing data collection, notice outages and arrange for dispat

of repair crews to reach the affected spots in the system faster. Smart meters

of repair crews to reach the affected spots in the system faster. Smart meter

record usage in real time and utilize wires, fibers, Wi Fi, cellular and power

record usage in real time and utilize wires, fibers, Wi Fi, cellular and power

line carrier communication methods. PLC with a spectrum of 1–30 MHz and

line carrier communication methods. PLC with a spectrum of 1–30 MHz an

a data rate of 2-3 Mbps is however noisy and harsh with a range of 1–3 km

a data rate of 2-3 Mbps is however noisy and harsh with a range of 1–3 km

only. In contrast GSM in the spectral range of 900–1800 MHz and data rate

only. In contrast GSM in the spectral range of 900–1800 MHz and data rate

up to 14.4 kbps has a coverage of 1–10 km. Communication protocol is given

by IEC 61850 for secure substation metering.

by IEC 61850 for secure substation metering.

3.

Smart Substations 3. : Substation equipment i s connected to monito ring and con- Smart

Smart Substations3. : Substation equipment is connected to monitoring and con-

Smart Substations: Substation equipment is connected to monitoring and co

trolling circuits to collect operational data that includes power factor, breaker,

transformer, and battery status, etc., for operational security and emergency

control.

transformer, and battery status, etc., for operational security and emergenc

control.

4. Smart Distribution4.

: It is aided by automation and tools for analysis which have

Smart Distribution: It is aided by automation and tools for analysis which ha

the capability of detecting and even predicting line or cable failures based on

the capability of detecting and even predicting line or cable failures based o

real-time data pertaining to weather, outage history, etc., so that the system is

real-time data pertaining to weather, outage history, etc., so that the system

self-healing, self-balancing, and self-optimizing. The distribution system may

contain superconducting cables. (High-temperature super conductor cables

contain superconducting cables. (High-temperature super conductor cable

(HTS) enable cables to carry 3–5 times the load carried by AC cables and up to

(HTS) enable cables to carry 3–5 times the load carried by AC cables and up

10 times of DC cables). 10 times of DC cables).

5. Smart Generation5. : The power generating units are enabled to optimize energy

Smart Generation: The power generating units are enabled to optimize ener

production and automatically maintain voltage, frequency, and power factor

production and automatically maintain voltage, frequency, and power facto

at various specified points in the grid as per the prescribed standards.

at various specified points in the grid as per the prescribed standards.

6. Universal Access6.: The grid is made accessible to all the players including all

Universal Access: The grid is made accessible to all the players including all

renewable energy sources, storage devices, and plug-in electrical vehicles.

ScienceDirect is Elsevier’sScienceDirectleading informationis Elsevier’s leadingsolutioninformationfor researchers.solution for researchers. Copyright © 2018 ElsevierCopyrightB.V.©or2018its licensorsElsevierorB.V.contributors.or its licensorsScienceDirector contributors.® is a registeredScienceDirecttrademark® is a registeredof ElseviertrademarkB.V. TermsofandElsevierconditionsB.V. Termsapply.and conditions

is a registeredof ElseviertrademarkB.V. TermsofandElsevierconditionsB.V. Termsapply.and conditions