Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13





In this study the researcher has adapted the system theory input - output model advanced by
Ludwig Bertalanfly in the mid 1950's.As the input,the school receives the student from
community.When they enter school the process of teavhing and learning starts.The aim is to get a
good output after a whole process that means to have a good results of speaking performance.
Speaking is one of the important skills that should be acquired by students.Ideally,in the
speaking teaching and learning process,the students have to be given some opportunities to
practice language in the spoken form.They can practice the language n the forms of
dialogs,monologs,discussion,games and role plays.
Cooperative learning is used since the teacher seldom put her/his students in some group during
the teaching and learning process.Besides,the student enjoy learning together and by that
speaking skills can be improved,but also it will simultaneously give a positive impact to the
students self-confidence,self-esteem.They have more chances to practice speaking with their
friends as well.
Psychological factors can affect the speaking performance of the learners,although most of the
students that are good in writing and reading,but they are insecure when they are perform
orally.Most of the problem were (1)fear of making failure (2)feeling uncomfortable (3)feeling
doubtful (4)lack of self confidence.
The learners often see in the class that student and specially the kids are very sensitive to their
peers.Brown considered that child are more fragile than adults.They are very cared and curious to
what their peers think,feel about them.
The teachers opinion,reaction,and attitudes towards ,if her/his student to take part in further
speaking performance in the class.If a teacher ridicules the students wrong response or begin to
shout,it can be diminish thd student interest.In contrary,if the teacher hearing students wrong
response and he or she rectify it and behave to keep them motivated,then the student never feels
shy and discourage to be involve and perfom well in the class.
By encouraging students speaking performance,the teacher must create a conducive learning
environment and authentic practice with in the environment of classroom itself.As they control
of various clarification strategies,students will gain confidence in the good speaking ability to
manage the various speaking situation that they encounter inside and outside the classroom.
Most of the students now a day find speaking difficulty they can write and read well but they
cannot present their ideas orally. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting
the poor speaking performance of Grade VI students. I am interested with this topic
because I want to understand and be aware how gender and age impacted to this study. And as I
noticed that most of the pupils have no desire to participate in classroom discussion and oral
presentation. So I decide to investigate this issue by analyzing and gathering data about the
factors affecting poor speaking performance if the students.
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves
producing,receiving,and processing information (Brown 1994).Speaking needs that learners not
only knows how to produce specific points, it is productive skills in oral mode and very complex
requiring the simultaneous of a number of different abilities which develop at different rates.
Students at present time exchange verbal information through the means of electronic gadgets.
Interactions such as speaking seem to be the learner’s most important means of communication.
It means conveying the message through the use of the mouth. Although speaking is not part of
examination but learning to speak also demands a lot of practice and attention to gain self-
confidence during performing orally in the front of the class.
One of the most widespread problems among learners is their poor speaking performance; those
learners speak slowly, making frequent pauses when reciting. Some are usually shy and hesitant
when it comes to speaking performance in the classroom, which leads to poor speaking
performance of those students that are very nervous and afraid to perform orally.


This study is aimed to discuss the factors affecting poor speaking performance of Grade VI
pupils of Bangan-Capayawan Elementary School, Botolan, and Zambales SY 2015-2016.
Specifically, the study sought to answer to the following questions:

1. What is the Profile of the pupil’s respondent in terms of:

1.1 Age
1.2 Gender

2. How are the different factors affecting poor speaking performance to be perceived by the
students as to:
2.1 Personal Factors
2.2 Peer Factors
2.3 Teacher Factors
2.4 Environmental Factor


Li and Lam ( 2013 ) stipulated the main theory that underpins cooperative learning refers to
social constructivism advanced by Lev Vygotsky ( 1986-1934 ).He considered that the roles of
culture,language,society and interaction are important in understanding how human
learn.Vygotsky assumed that knowledge is cultural, he took a socio-cultural approach in his study
with children. This approach can be briefly described as cooperative and cultural.Vygotsky
asserted that the development of individuals, including their thoughts language and reasoning
processes is a result of culture. These abilities are developed through social interactions with
others, specially parents and teachers.Therefore,they represent the shared of knowledge of a
given culture.Further,Vygotsky studied growth of children from their environment and through
their interaction with others and found out that what are given and what happens in the social
environment help children learn,developed,and grow.
The communicative process involves interaction between at least two people who share a list
of signs and semiotic rules. The concept interactions are defined as reciprocal events that require
at least two object and two actions. Interaction occurs when these object and event naturally
influence one another (Wagner, 1994:8).Therefore interactions do not occur only from one side,
these must be mutual influence through giving and receiving messages in order to achieve
communication. The concept of interaction has significant importance in the classroom too, it is
essential part in learning and teaching process.Allwright and Baily (1991) hold that interaction is
something people can do together i.e. collectively. Obviously in the classroom it is considered as
important for the teacher to manage who should talk, to whom, or what topic, in what language
and so on. However, none of this can change the fact that classroom interaction focuses on the
learner’s cooperation. In order to understand the relationship between classrooms interaction
focuses on the learner’s cooperation. In order to understand the relationship between classroom
interaction and student learning activities, there are two main assumptions. First; the classroom
provides an environment that leads to student learning activities. The second, is that what happen
in the classroom involve communication, and this can be seen as from of interaction, i.e. there are
reception and production based theories of classroom interaction and student learning. Reception
based theories agree that interaction contributes to student learning activities through learners
reception and understanding of the student learning ( Ellis 1990,cited on Johnson
1995 ).Reception based theory, according to Johnson ( 1995 ),it is related to the input hypothesis,
which holds that input should be comprehensible to learners for a better acquisition since the
latter happens when learners understand input that contains well-formed structures and which can
meet their current level. Productive based theory relates to the output hypothesis that holds that
learners should get opportunities to produce the language if they want to be fluent.

The illustration shows the input-output process of the researchers which regard to this study.

Input Process Output

1. Profile of the student r ■ Data gathering
espondent. ◇ Interview
1.1 Age ◇Questionnaire
1.2 Gender Improve the student
2. Factors affecting poor ■ Statistical tools Speaking performanc
speaking performance. ◇weighted mean e
2.1. Psychological facto ◇Percentage
rs ◇Pearson r
2.2. Teacher factors
2.3. Environmental
Figure 1
The illustration shows input frame contains two parts. The first part includes the profile of
student’s respondents such as age and gender. The second part includes the different
factors that may affect the poor speaking performance of the students. The process frame
which includes the gathering of data through interviews and questionaires. And also the
statistical tools to be used such as weighted mean, percentage and Pearson rather output frame
dealt with improvement of speaking performance were indicate.

1. There is no significant difference to the profile of the students respondents to the factors
affecting poor speaking performance of student.
2. There is no significant difference on the factors affecting poor speaking performance of


This study was limited to fifty (50) selected Grade VI students of Bangan-Capayawan
Elementary School SY 2015-2016.This study focused on the factors affecting the poor speaking
performance of Grade VI students. This study concern with obtaining the information regarding
to certain variables like age and gender.


The findings of the study will be Beneficial’s to the group of person and significance because
to be able to understand the factors affecting the poor speaking performance of students. This is
meaningful to familiarize the teacher and school administrator to the consequences of the factors.
This study will be help the readers in the following ways:
 It identifies the effective methodologies, strategies, and techniques to enhance
the teaching and learning of Grade VI students of Bangan-Capayawan
Elementary School.
 Parents, students and other stakeholders will be aware to the problems
encountered in the school administration to implement the high quality
education for their student.
 It helps the school administration to make and implement the policies to
improve the student speaking performance.
 It may also create awareness among student about their speaking performance
and be responsible to achieve good remarks in their speaking skills.
For clearer understanding of the study the following terms are defined conceptually and
 Speaking performance
It is involves using speech to express other meaning to other people. Interaction us two way
communication that involves using language and body language to keep your listener involve in
what we are saying and to check that they understand our meaning.
 Oral communication
The process of expressing information or ideas by word of mouth. It is how you can improve
your own oral communication abilities.

 Self-esteem
Attitudes toward oneself, degree of self-respect, worthiness or desirability of self - concept.
 Stakeholder
Anyone who invested in the welfare and success of a school and its students, including
administrators,teachers,stafff members,students,parents,families,community members, local
business leaders, and elected officials such as school board members.

 School Administrator
Who work in elementary, middle and high school are also known as principal. They usually
have mastered or doctoral degrees in educational leadership or administration.


This chapter discussed the foreign and local related literature, foreign and local studies and the
significant relationship of present study with the previous study.

According to Harmer (1991:46-47), states that when the two people are engaged in talking to
each other we can sure that they in general way to suggest that a speaker makes a define decision
to address someone. Speaking may be forced on him in the way but we still say that he wants or
intends to speak, otherwise he would keep silent.
According to Widdowson (1985:57) that speaking is an oral communication that gives
information involves two elements, they are: the speaker who gives the messages and the listener
who receives the messages in the world, the communication involves the productive skill of
listening. And he also states that can be act of communication through speaking is commonly
perform in face to face interactions and occurs as a part of dialogue or rather than form or verbal
According to Brown ( 1994 ) identified certain typical speaking difficulties characteristics on
spoken language that most learns find difficult. The following features as typical problem items,
clustering of words into chunks, breath group or phrases, redundancy of language, reduced forms
such as contractions,elisions,reduced vowels, performed variables such as
hesitations,pauses,fillers,backtracking and correction,colloquialism,idioms,slang and colloquial
phrases, delivery speed,stress,rhythm and intonations and interaction with conversational

According to Gonzales et.al (2010), Filipinos of different generation have learned
representative phonological and grammatical structure of English as second language is its
spoken and written phase. Filipinos of different ages who went through different teaching and
learning conditions as well as socio logical and political environments.
According to Macasinag (2011), providing high quality textbooks, instructional materials,
reading materials for libraries and training for educators are things that the government can do.
Media can do its part by stopping the corruption of English in its television shows. Parents should
also try to encourage their children to read more books rather than watch mushy television shows.
She also believe that the school and the best places where Filipinos can develop good speaking
communication skills.


Macintyre and Gardner (1994), in a study they conducted involving 97 college students
learning French. Found out that those students with language anxiety find it more difficult to
express their own views and tends to under estimate their own abilities. They also discovered that
in the process of three stages of language acquisition, that is, input, processing and output,
anxiety and learning environment are negatively corrected.
According to the study of O'Malley and Chamot (1990), reveals that more effective (higher
proficiency) students generally use a greater variety of strategies and use them in ways that help
the students complete language tasks more successful, conversely, less effective (low proficiency)
students not only have fewer strategies but also frequently use strategies that are inappropriate to
the task or that do not lead to successful task completion.
According to Nunan (1991),in his study successful oral communication involves the following,
(a) transactional interpersonal skills,(b) skills in taking short and long speaking turns,(c) skills in
the management of interaction,(d) conversational listening skill,(e) the ability to articulate
phonological features,languages,comprehensibly.He also conclude that if students do not learn to
speak or do not get any opportunity to speak in the language classroom they may soon get
demotivated and lose interest in learning. And on the other hand, if the right activities are taught
in the right way, speaking in class can be a lot of fun, raising general learner motivation and
making classroom a fun and dynamic place to be.
According to Del Villar (1994), study he identified beginning students attributions about their
oral communication anxieties. A total of 250 students were included in the study .Results
revealed an eight factor model explaining 69.11 % of the total variance in data. The factors are
expectation, training and experience, audience, self-worth, rejection, verbal fluency, preparation
and previous unpleasant experiences.
In Davao City, there is a need to look an important problem that the majority of students face in
learning and particularly speaking in class. Students are aware and generally feel strongly that
anxiety is a major hurdle to be overcome when learning to speak.Balili (2001) and Barabas
(2013), confirmed that the manifestation of anxiety among Filipino students is a common
scenario in any classroom in the Philippines. They emphasized that some learners, if not many try
you avoid the situation that appears to be anxiety evoking. Students feel more anxious in highly
evaluative situations, particularly in the learning environment were their performance is
constantly monitored. This calls for teacher to create learning environment situations where
students can feel successful in enhancing their speaking abilities and avoid setting up activities
that increase the chances of students to fail.Thus, there is a need to make the classroom
environment less formal and friendlier by indulging students in cooperative groups and
eventually increasing chances of success.


These present study was undertaken to further explore the speaking strategies used by students
within factors affecting poor speaking performance in developing their speaking skills. It is
expected that knowing more about the speaking strategies will enable both teacher and students
to find better solution for the problem the students have in developing their speaking
skills.And,finally the finding of these study are significant to the present study because the
procedure by which some of these studies will be similar to one followed by this study.



This chapter present the research methods used by the researcher included the research design,
research locale, the respondent, sampling procedures, research instruments, validation of research
instruments, the data gathering procedures in administration of the instruments being used, and
the data analysis as well as the statistical techniques being used.

A.Research Design

This study use descriptive study method which investigates and gathers present facts about the
factors affecting poor speaking performance of Grade VI students of Bangan Capayawan
Elementary School. The one shot survey through questionnaires aims to collect descriptive
information about the subject of the study.

B.Research Locale
This study was conducted at Bangan Capayawan Elementary School located at Barangay
Bangan,Botolan,Zambales during SY 2015-2016.
Figure 2.Image of BANGAN CAPAYAWAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL located at Barangay
Bangan,Botolan,Zambales .

The respondent of this study were all the grade VI students of Bangan Capayawan Elementary
School, were fifty nine enrolled during the SY 2015-2016.

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the students Respondent

Section Frequency Percentage

A 30 51

B 29 49

total 59 100

D.Sampling Procedures
This study conducted to all Grade VI students of Bangan Capayawan Elementary School, the
actual data
gathering was fifty nine students were all selected purposively, the researcher choose the sample
based on who
they think would be appropriate for the study. It involves the selection of elements based on
regarding the population of interest.

E.Research Instruments
The questionnaire checklist was used to gather the needed data for this study. It composed of
two parts: Part I includes the personal profile of the respondent such as their age and gender. Part
II contain the perception of students regarding to the factors affecting poor speaking performance
of students consist of 10 items to be answer through likert scale.
The 5 point rating scale of likert scale and the responding qualitative interpretation was use in
the evaluation of the statement describing the student’s perception of factors affecting poor
speaking performance of the students.

5 point scale likert scale Qualitative Interpretation

5 4.20- 5.00 always practiced

4 3.40-4.10 often practiced

3 2.60-3.30 sometime practiced
2 1.80-2.50 seldom practiced

1 1.00-1.70 never practiced

F.Validation of Research Instruments

The researcher made questionnaires were questionnaire was gathered by reading different
related studies, books, article.Questionaire were validated by the help and assistance of the

G.Data Gathering Procedure

1. Administration of the Instruments
The researcher asked the permission from the school administrator in Botolan, District and to
the principal of Bangan Capayawan Elementary School to administer the questionnaire to the
grade VI students. Upon approval and cooperation of these administrators are great help in
floating of the instruments, And also the collaboration of the teachers in allowing the researcher
personally to float and explain the content of the questionnaire as well as their guidance to their
students in answering the items in the questionnaire.

H.Statistical Treatment of Data

All data as well as the information gathered were tallied, tabulated, organized, analyzed, and
To interpret the data effectively the researcher employed the following statistical methods or

1. Percentage
- This employed to determine the frequency counts and percentage distribution of personal
profile variable of the respondent using the formula:
P/%=𝑁 × 100
f = frequency
N= total number of cases
2. Weighted mean
- a single value that was used to quantitatively describe the perception of the students on their
poor speaking performance and used to determine the assessment of the respondent with regards
to their age using the formula:
∑ 𝑓𝑥
W A M= weighted arithmetic mean
∑ 𝑓𝑥 = summation of the product of f and x
x= weighted of each option
f= frequency
N= number of cases

3. Pearson r= Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r)

Will be used to indicate the significant relationship of the respondent means of poor
speaking performance and the profile of the students respondent.

r= N ∑ 𝑋𝑌 - [( ∑ 𝑋 ) ( ∑ 𝑌)]
√[ 𝑁 ∑ 𝑋 2−( ∑ 𝑋 ) ] [ 𝑁 ∑ 𝑌
( ∑ 𝑌2 )]

x = the observed data for the independent variable

y = the observed data for the dependent variable
N = size of the sample
r = the degree of relationship between x and y

Range of Pearson r Qualitative Interpretation

± 1.00 Perfect positive or negative correlative

± 0.75 to +/- 0.99 Very high positive or negative correlation

± 0.50 to +/- 0,74 High positive or negative correlation

± 0.25 to +/- 0.49 Moderately low positive or negative correlative

± 0.01 to +/- 0.24 Very low positive or negative correlative

0.00 No correlation