© All Rights Reserved

0 vues

© All Rights Reserved

- Shunt Efficiency System
- 57-Power Transformer Installation Checklist
- A Generating Station Has Five Section Bus
- MC4 Cartridg Transformer
- Brochure Galaxy3500
- Butler-Rural-El-Coop-Assn,-Inc-Commercial-Large-Rates
- 1_6
- ProcessPlantMechanicalMaintenance
- Electrical Power Technology
- dgr of tanakpur power station
- Application of Over Voltage Protection to the Peruvian Power System
- electromagnetismstuver-100519163133-phpapp01
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-General-Service---Demand-Metered
- Electrical Power
- Grading in Between Switches (2)
- S02 Tutorial 5060hz
- 19 Appendix
- Scatiggio_Life Cycle of Power Transformers_Belgrade 2014 [Compatibility Mode]
- Electromech 5 New
- Valco Aluminium 3731213

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

to a Subtransmission Network

Le Thu Ha, Member, Tapan Kumar Saha, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract − Today wind farms are growing both in size When considering EGs effects on the distribution networks of a

and in number. Being connected at higher voltage levels, company in the Irish Republic [9], it is perceived that the

their impacts are becoming more widespread. High medium-sized WFs (up to 15MW) may cause an increase in the

demand for reactive power is known as one major upstream losses due to their reactive power consumption.

characteristic of large wind farms that causes voltage Moreover, the operational WFs may have adverse effects on

problems to power networks. The larger the wind farm, the the system voltage stability since the main factor causing

more severe this effect could be. If the network is not able voltage instability is the deficiency of reactive power in the

to meet the wind farm reactive power requirement, the system [10]. However, these impacts of the large WFs when

integration of the wind farm power into the system would they are connected at higher voltage levels such as the

be limited. The reactive power shortage due to the subtransmission levels up are still unclear and therefore needs

operation of the wind farm may lead to an increase in the special attention.

network overall losses and have adverse effects on its This work is an investigation into the above problems. It

voltage stability. This study explores the possibility of explores the possibility of integration of the full power of two

integrating the full power of two large wind farms into a large wind farms of 40MVA and 80MVA into a

subtransmission network, as well as their impacts on the subtransmission system through appropriate step-up

network losses and voltage stability. It also considers these transformers and their impacts on the system power losses and

impacts when the network loading is increased. The study voltage stability with respect to different points of connection.

is carried out using computer analyses performed on a These impacts are further examined when the system loading is

custom-designed yet realistic radial power system. increased. The study also considers the effectiveness of a

technique used to compensate for the WFs reactive power

Index terms − Wind power, power loss, voltage stability,

demand. Static analysis technique is used as this enable

reactive compensation, SVC, subtransmission network.

examination of a wide range of the system conditions and can

A. INTRODUCTION provide much insight into the nature of the problem [10].

Nowadays building large wind farms (WF) is a preferred This paper first presents the description of a power system

option because of their economic attraction. It is calculated [4] and some component models, as well as the techniques used

that the cost of electricity delivered by a 51-MW wind project for analysis. Then the findings and analysis with regard to

is less than the cost of electricity supplied by a 3MW wind power losses after the WFs are connected to the system is

project by nearly 40%. There is a growing number of large presented, which is followed by voltage stability analysis.

WFs in the range of up to 160MW that are either operational or

under construction in the United States, European sea, B. APPROACH

Australia and elsewhere [5-7]. However, connecting the WFs 1. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are as follows:

of this scale to the power network becomes a more challenging I. To integrate the full power of the WFs into the

task. It is visible that large WFs have higher reactive power network and maintain the voltages within ±5%

demand that may not be readily satisfied and their impacts are limits;

likely to be more widespread. II. To analyze the possible impacts of the WFs on the

The ability of a power network to meet WFs reactive power system power losses for the whole range of their

requirement is a major factor determining the amount of power power outputs.

that can be integrated into the system. The experience of a III. To analyze the possible impacts of the WFs reactive

regional electricity company in the U.K. [8] that host many power consumption on the system voltage stability;

embedded generators (EG) and five WFs with capacity of up to IV. To consider the effectiveness of a Static Var

30MW shows that the size of the generator that can be Compensator (SVC) used to compensate for the WFs

accommodated in the company's rural distribution network is reactive power demand.

primarily determined by the effects on voltage control and the 2. Power system description: The designed power network is a

network rated capacity. 14-bus radial system (based on IEEE 34-node test feeder,

operated at 60 Hz) with three voltage levels, specifically

L.T. Ha and T.K. Saha are with the School of Information 24.9kV, 69kV and 138kV as shown in Fig.1. The network

Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, represents a sub-transmission part of a large grid (345kV) from

Australia (e-mails: ahlephan@yahoo.com, saha@itee.uq.edu.au).

where it is fed. The total length of the lines is 85km

1

(52.83mile) and total load is 98.769MW. Some components

0.9

data are based on [3] and [2]. 0.8

(WT) use induction generators and follow the same power 0.6

Power factor

production pattern. This assumption results in the worst-case 0.5

0.2

load with negative P and positive Q. This load resembles the

0.1

WFs behaviour in the way that the WFs generate real power

0

and consume reactive power. In order to imitate the variation in -1 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5

Slip

-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0

is treated as an aggregate induction machine operated at Fig. 3 Power factor as a function of slip for induction machine

different slips. Then the P output and Q consumption of the 4. SVC modeling

The SVC is used as the main reactive compensation device

for the WFs in the cases where compensation is considered.

The SVC is modeled as a varying-capacitor. The var output of

an ordinary capacitor will decrease as the voltage drops, and, in

the opposite situation, increase as the voltage increases. To

solve this problem, the var output of the SVC model is

manually adjusted so as to ensure its satisfactory reactive

output at all times. The SVC model is basically operated in the

capacitive half of its linear regulating range with no reactive

limits. The voltage at the terminal of the SVC model is allowed

to vary within +/-5% of nominal value i.e. regulation "droop" is

permitted. This facilitates flexible regulation of the device.

5. Simulation software

The computer program used to obtain the needed data is

Neplan, a multi-functional package that supports different

types of analysis [11].

Fig 1: 14 bus Power System

For power flow, apart from the usual features such as

induction machine for a range of slips can be determined using power flow techniques and transformer tap setting, the

its cosφ curve. The equivalent electrical circuit for an induction software supports various types of nodes. For voltage stability

machine performance calculation [1] is given in Fig. 2. simulation four approaches for static voltage stability analysis

are enabled, namely P-V curves, Q-V curves, V-Q sensitivity,

and Q-V modal analysis.

C. POWER LOSSES

1. Connection of 40MVA WF

Setting: The 40MVA WF is connected through step up

transformers at Bus B708 (69kV), B704 (138kV) and B702

Fig. 2 The equivalent electrical circuit for the (138kV) (i) with no Q compensation then (ii) with full Q

induction machine performance calculation compensation. Transformer TRF-1 and TRF-6 taps are set to

From Fig 2, the total impedance is given by (1) [1] maintain the voltages at B702 and B800 at 1.04pu; tap size=+/-

jX m ( R2 / s + jX 2 ) 10%; tap step=1%. When considering compensation, the SVC

Z = R1 + jX 1 + (1) is connected at B705 and its Var output is manually adjusted so

R2 / s + j ( X m + X 2 ) as to be equal to the WF Q consumption at all times. The loss

The values of Z are calculated using a numerical method by profile of the base case where there is no WF connected serves

assuming a range of slips from 0 to -1.0. The cosine of the as the base for comparison.

angle of Z is the power factor. A plot of the calculated power Real power losses

factor versus slips is shown in Fig. 3. The values of power Fig. 4 and Table 1 show that, for all three cases of connecting

factor from 0.887 to 0.394 that correspond to the slip range - the WF without Q compensation, the real power losses increase

0.02 to -0.19 are taken to calculate the respective P and Q of significantly. The system incurs most losses when the WF is

the aggregate induction machine model. This results in a connected to Bus 708 (69 kV), and less loss when it is

discrete power profile that consists of 18 P-Q variants for each connected to Bus 704 (138kV) and Bus 702 (138kV) in the

WF. stated order. As the WF real power output increases, the losses

decrease but basically remain higher than the base case level.

The worst-case loss ranges from 20.1% to 101.1% (69kV-B708

connection, no compensation) and the least severe increase in

138kV-B704-No Comp

loss ranges from 1.6% to 25.3% (138kV-B702 WF, no 138kV-B702-No Comp

compensation). For all three cases where the WF reactive

power demand is fully compensated by the SVC, P losses are

reduced significantly, ranging from 8.6% to 17.6%.

0.2

10

69kV-B708-Full Comp

0

69kV-B708-No Comp 10

138kV-B704-Full Comp

Real power losses, MW

10

Base case-no wind farm

138kV-B704-No Comp

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

10 10 10 10

0

138kV-B702-No Comp

10 80MVA Wind Farm real power output, kW

-0.1

Base case - No wind farm The voltage profile for the 69kV-B708-uncompensated

10

69kV-B708-Full Comp connection is unacceptable. For the whole WF P output range,

138kV-B704-Full Comp the voltages at most buses fall up to 27.3% so the WF cannot

138kV-B702-Full Comp

be connected this way. The worst voltage drop ranges from

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

10 10 10 10 0.727pu (B803) to 0.824pu (B800).

40MVA Wind Farm real power output, kW After the SVC is connected, the system experiences a slight

voltage rise for the 69kV-B708 and 138kV-B704 connections.

Fig. 4 Real power losses after 40MVA WF connection The voltage rise is more visible for the 69kV-B708 connection

(up to 1.0517pu) and less observable for the 138kV-B704

Table 1 Min-max P loss profile for 40MVA wind farm

connection (1.0507pu). Voltage profile is within the limits for

Connection 69kV-B708 138kV-B704 138kV-B702 all other cases.

point →

No Full No Full No Full 2. Connection of 80MVA WF

comp comp comp comp comp comp

Setting: The 80MVA WF is connected the same way as the

Base case,

MW 0.807 0.807 0.807 0.807 0.807 0.807 40MVA WF. The only difference is that transformer TRF-1

Min loss, % 20.1 1 show

-16 that, 1.6 -16 cases

-3.6 -17.6 and TRF-6 taps are set to maintain the voltages at B702 and

Fig. 4 and Table for all three of

Max loss, % 101.1 -12.9 35.8 -9.5 25.3 -8.6 B800 at 1.04pu and 1.03pu, respectively; tap size=+/-10%; tap

step=1%.

Note: Minus sign (-) means a decrease and plus sign (+) means an increase in loss.

Real power losses

More loss reduction is achieved when the WF is connected to Table 3 Min-max P loss profile for 80MVA wind farm

Bus 708 (69kV). The loss profiles for the two 138kV WF Connection 69kV-B708 138kV-B704 138kV-B702

connection cases are similar. As the WF P output increases, point →

losses tend to increase slightly for the 69kV-B708 and 138kV- No Full No Full No Full

B704 WF cases while losses for the 138kV-B702 WF comp comp comp comp comp comp

Base case,

connection decrease monotonically. MW (*) 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.81

Min loss, % NC -3 68.3 -2.3 35.7 -3.1

Reactive power losses

Max loss, % NC 53 150 15.2 98.6 -1.1(**)

Without any Var support, the 69kV-B708 connection case

sees considerably high additional Q loss (up to 292.5%) while Note:

(*) There is a small difference in loss for the two base cases to the different TRF-6 tap settings;

the Q loss profiles of the 138kV-B704 and 138kV-B702 cases

all the system other data are the same. NC means non-convergence;

are less severe (up to 35.8% and 25.3% respectively). When (**) 6% loss reduction is for the mid-level WF P output; 1.1% loss reduction is for max P output.

the WF Q demand is fully met by the SVC, the Q losses are

reduced for all the three cases, ranging from 25% to 46.5%. Reactive power losses

Most significant Q loss improvement is obtained for the

138kV-B702 connection (up to 46.5%). Without Q compensation, the reactive losses increase for

all connections, ranging from 42.1% to 243%. The situation is

Table 2 Min-max Q loss profile for 40MVA wind farm improved significantly for the 138kVconnections when the

Fig. 5 Real power losses after 80MVA WF connection

Connection SVC is used to supply reactive power. The Q loss reduction for

69kV-B708 138kV-B704 138kV-B702

point → these cases ranges from 13% to 33.3%. The best Q loss

No Full No Full No Full reduction is achieved for the 138kV-B702 connection (up

comp comp comp comp comp comp

Base case,

33.3% at the WF maximum P output level). However, the Q

MVAr 5.742 5.742 5.742 5.742 5.742 5.742 loss for the 69kV-B708 case rises remarkably and reaches its

Min loss, % 75.8 -37.8 -9.7 -44.7 -16.9 -46.5 peak of 210% at the WF maximum P output.

Max loss, % 292.5 -26.3 59.6 -26.2 44.7 -25

For the 40MVA WF, it is possible to set the SVC output

Without Q compensation power flow fails to converge significantly lower than the WF maximum Q demand while

when connecting the 80MVA WF at Bus 708 (69kV). The keeping P losses at or lower than the base-case level. The

voltage profiles are generally unacceptable for the other two highest flexibility is achieved for the 138kV-B702 case where

138kV connections with a voltage drop to 0.93pu (138kV- the Var production can be reduced from 36,766kVAr (full

B704) and 0.94pu (138kV-B702). compensation) to 24,449kVAr, or by 33.5%.

Table 4 Min-max Q loss profile for 80MVA wind farm

The reactive compensation must be kept much tighter for

Connection 69kV-B708 138kV-B704 138kV-B702

point → the 80MVA WF. Although some Var reduction is possible for

No Full No Full No Full the 69kV-B708 and 138kV-B704 cases, as the WF power

comp comp comp comp comp comp production reaches its upper output range, real power losses

Base case,

MVAR 5.75 5.75 5.75 5.75 5.75 5.75 increase. The 138kV-B702 connection is again the best

Min loss, % NC -20.4 85.3 -30.9 42.1 -33.3 connection where a 6.4%-reduction in the SVC reactive output

Max loss, % NC 210 243 -13 172.7 -31.7 can be made without causing additional losses. This means that

while the WF maximum Q demand is 73,531kVAr, an SVC

rated 69,000kVAr would be sufficient for compensation.

The voltage profiles are generally unacceptable for the

other two 138kV connections with a voltage drop to 0.93pu

D. VOLTAGE STABILITY LIMITS

(138kV-B704) and 0.94pu (138kV-B702). With Q

compensation the voltage profile is within the +/-5% limits for For the purpose of this analysis, the system eigenvalues are

all cases, no voltage rise is observed. calculated and the Q-V curves for Bus 803 are plotted for the

two cases where the WFs P outputs are (i) at their lowest levels

3. Discussion

i.e. their Q demand is highest and (ii) at their highest levels i.e.

The results show that it is technically possible to connect

their Q demand is lowest. These settings are aimed at

the uncompensated 40MVA WF to the network at 138kV. But

observing the voltage stability features for the entire output

such a connection causes additional losses, so this is not an

range of the respective WF. Bus 803 is the weakest bus in the

attractive option. It is more appropriate to connect the WF with

system.

full Q compensation, since losses are reduced significantly.

Bus 803 is identified by running a voltage stability

Certainly, this needs to be further considered by balancing the

simulation for the base case network with no WF connection.

benefits of reducing power losses and the cost of the SVC.

All the V-Q sensitivity values obtained are positive, meaning

It is basically impossible to connect the 80MVA WF

that the system is in the stable condition. Bus 803 exhibits the

without compensation. The SVC-compensation method also

largest percentage change in voltage per unit Q injected and

loses much of its effectiveness when applied for these cases.

hence is the weakest bus in the system. This is expected since

The 138kV-B702 connection with full Q support is the only

Bus 803 is located at the farthest end of this radial network.

appropriate option. Although loss reduction is limited, it

enables up to 71MW wind power to be integrated into the 1. System reactive reserve margins

system. This bus is located near the system major load at B703 The Q-V curves in Fig. 7 are the worst curves obtained

and is generally the best connection point. Overall, connecting when the WF power production is at the lowest level. The Q

the fully compensated WFs at higher voltage levels (138kV) margins in Table 5 are the Var distances from the zero-Q line

and closer to the major load proves to be the best way to reduce to the point on the Q-V curve of interest where dQ/dV is zero.

losses while maintaining the acceptable voltage profile. It is visible that the uncompensated 40MVA WF remarkably

4. SVC rating: The settings are the same as in Sections C.1 reduces the network reactive reserve margins i.e. its voltage

and C.2 but, instead of full compensation, the SVC output is stability limits. The 69kV-B708 connection proves to be the

varied (flexible compensation), aiming at satisfying the worst case, followed by the 138kV-B704 (not shown) and

following three criteria simultaneously: (i) to keep P losses 138kV-B702 cases in the stated order. The Q reserve margin

close to the base-case level, (ii) to maintain the voltages within for the 69kV-B708 case decreases from 2.4606MVAr (base

+/-5% limits at all buses, (iii) to keep the SVC output at lowest case) to 0.9758MVAr, or by 60%.

possible level.

The SVC is effective in providing full reactive support for

35.0 31.0 33.5

this WF. It basically enables shielding the system from the WF

30.0

impact i.e. it almost eliminates the impact of the WF Q demand

Reduction in SVC output, %

24.2

25.0

on the system Q reserve margins. For the cases where the

20.0

40MVA WF is fully compensated, the system sees a small

15.0 reduction in Q margin for the 69kV-B708 case but some

10.0

4.3

6.4 improvement for the two 138kVconnections.

5.0

2.9

0.0

40M VA- 40M VA- 40M VA- 80M VA- 80M VA- 80M VA-

69kV- 138kV- 138kV- 69kV- 138kV- 138kV-

B708 B704 B702 B708 B704 B702

6 eigenvalues for the 69kV-708 connection are smallest,

followed by the ones for the 138kV-B704 and 138kV-B702

4 cases, meaning that the system is closer to voltage instability in

this order. Hence, in terms of voltage stability, the B702-

138kV case is the best out of the three connections.

Q in MVAr

2

WF at B708-69kV-No Comp

A similar trend applies for the cases with the operational

B708-69kV-Full Comp

0 80MVA WF, as shown in Table 7. The 138kV-B702

B702-138kV-NoComp connection is the most voltage-stable one. In general, these

-2

B702-138kV-Full Comp

Table

cases,7but

System

remainsmallest eigenvalues

less than with

that of the 80MVA

base wind farmthe

case. Basically,

Base case-No WF

-4

(Point-Line) eigenvalues for 80MVA

theWF69kV-708

connection connection

- Eigenvalues,are%/MVAr

smallest,

Base

followed by No

theQones for the 138kV-B704

Compensation Full Qand 138kV-B702

Compensation

50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 case

Bus 803 voltage

Fig. 7 Q-V characteristics for in

the%40MVA wind farm cases, meaning

69kV that138kV

the system is closer69kV

138kV to voltage instability

138kV 138kVin

B708 B704 B702 B708 B704 B702

this order. Hence, in terms of voltage stability, the B702-

0.0459

138kV caseNC 0.0442

is the best out of 0.0454 0.0303 0.0457

the three connections. 0.0459

Table 5 System Q reserve margins after wind farm connection 0.3676 NC 0.3569 0.3647 0.1744 0.3655

A similar trend applies for the cases with the operational 0.3671

System Q reserve margin after wind farm connection (Bus 803), MVAr 1.1283

80MVA NC as 0.9079

WF, shown in 1.0303

Table0.4384

7. The0.9030 1.0210

138kV-B702

Base No Q Compensation Full Q Compensation connection

2.4223 is the 2.3323

NC most voltage-stable

2.4114 one. In 2.3848

2.4541 general, 2.4259

these

Wind

farm case eigenvalues are less than those in the cases of 40MVA WF

69kV 138kV 138kV 69kV 138kV 138kV

(*)

B708 B704 B702 B708 B704 B702

connection with no compensation and full compensation,

40MVA 2.4606 0.9758 2.2628 2.3755 2.4114 2.4679 2.4698

suggesting that system is more likely to be voltage-unstable

% change (**) - 60 -8 - 3.5 -2 + 0.3 + 0.4 with the operational 80MVA WF than with the 40MVA WF.

80MVA 2.4635 NC 1.7581 2.3686 1.7581 2.4635 2.4635

Note: (*) There is a small difference in Q reserve margin for the two base cases due to the VERSUS SYSTEM LOADING LEVELS

different transformer TRF-6 tap settings; all other data are the same. The system loading is artificially increased by increasing Load

(**) The change in percentage based on the respective base case value;

plus sign (+) means an increase and minus sign (-) means a decrease in Q margin. L-708 connected at Bus 708 (69kV). This results in five

For the uncompensated 80MVA WF connections, the different loading levels (Table 8). The needed data for each of

system reactive reserve margins decrease even further due to these five Variants is obtained by simulation run (i) without the

the WF larger Q consumption. Power flow fails to converge for 80MVA WF then (ii) with the 80MVA WF. For the cases

the 69kV-B708 connection and the Q margins for the 138kV- where the WF is of interest it is always connected at Bus 704

B704 and 138kV-B702 cases are reduced by 28.6% and 3.9%, (138kV) with full Q compensation by the SVC. The SVC is

respectively, compared to the corresponding figures of 8% and always connected at Bus 705 (34.5kV). The tap changers of

3.5% for the 40MVA WF cases. Although the SVC reactive transformers TRF-1, TRF-5, and TRF-6 are set to maintain the

supply does improve the Q reserve margins to some extent, the voltages at the secondary-side buses at 1.04pu, 1.03pu, and

situation is generally worse than that for the 40MVA WF 1.04pu, respectively; Tap size=+/-10%; Tap step=1%. Note

connections. The reduction in the Q reserve margin for the that in the previous analyses, only TRF-1 and TRF-6 tap

69kV-B708 case remains as high as 28.6%. This implies that changers are set. In this analysis the setting is aimed at

the system voltages are more vulnerable to any reactive power exploring the network highest possible ability to maintain

changes. acceptable voltage profile.

Loading Load L-708 Increase in 138kV line LN-1

Table 6 System smallest eigenvalues with 40MVA wind farm variant change, system loading, loading,

% % (**) %

40MVA WF connection - Eigenvalues, %/MVAr

1L (*) 0 0.0 49.2

Base

No Q Compensation Full Q Compensation

case 2L 100 12.2 56.1

69kV 138kV 138kV 69kV 138kV 138kV

B708 B704 B702 B708 B704 B702 3L 200 24.3 62.7

0.0465 0.0314 0.0457 0.0456 0.0432 0.0464 0.0465 4L 250 30.4 66.5

0.3718 0.2454 0.3666 0.3656 0.3054 0.3708 0.3716 5L 300 36.5 70.6

1.1331 0.4127 0.9703 1.0507 0.5036 0.9710 1.0559 Note: (*) Variant 1L is the loading of the original system;

(**) This increase is calculated as a percentage of the total original load (98,769kW).

2.4559 1.8907 2.4363 2.4161 2.4678 2.4591 2.4587

1. Power losses

The eigenvalues magnitude provides a relative measure of

Without the WF, the system sees a significant increase in

the system proximity to instability. The smaller the system

power losses as it becomes more heavily loaded. The increases

eigenvalues magnitude, the closer it is to instability [10]. It can

in the real power losses are in the range of 29.3% to 124%

be seen from Table 6 that most eigenvalues for the

corresponding to the increases in loading by 12.2% to 36.5%.

uncompensated 40MVA WF cases are smaller than those of the

With the fully-compensated 80MVA WF connected, the

base case. The eigenvalues are improved for fully compensated

losses are reduced significantly compared to the respective

cases, but remain less than that of the base case. Basically, the

base case levels. The P loss reduction by the WF ranges from

1.1% to 17.8%. This loss-reduction effect is more visible for F. CONCLUSIONS

the higher loading levels such as 5L (loading increases by This study investigates the possibility of integrating the full

36.5%) where the maximum P loss reduction is 17.8%. A power of 40MVA and 80MVA wind farms into the radial sub-

similar trend applies for the Q losses. transmission network, as well as their impacts on the system

losses and voltage stability. When considering the impacts,

The system voltage profile is basically within the +/-5%

special attention is paid on two major factors:- point of

limits for all cases where the WF is operational. This means

connection and the system loading level.

that, with the SVC full reactive compensation, it is technically

possible to integrate all the WF power into the system The effectiveness of the SVC used as the reactive

(71MW) even when the system loading is increased by up to compensation device for the WFs is also examined. Static

36.5% and the 138kV line LN-1 is loaded to 70.6%. computer simulations are used for analyzing the problems. The

results have lead to several conclusions:-

(i) It is technically possible to integrate the full power

Loading 5L-No WF of the 40MVA WF (37MW) into the network without any

P losses for different loading levels, MW

0.2 Loading 5L with WF Loading 4L-No WF

10 achieved if this WF Q demand is fully satisfied.

Loading 4L with WF (ii) If full reactive power support is enabled, up to

Loading 3L-No WF

71MW wind power from the 80MVA WF can be integrated

0.1

10 into the system even when the system loading is increased by

Loading 3L with WF 36.5% and the 138kV line LN-1 is loaded to 70.6%. This

Loading 2L-No WF power is enough to supply 72% of the system load.

0

10

(iii) The WFs lower the system reactive reserve

margins. The bigger the WF, the more the Q margins are

Loading 2L with WF

Base case with WF reduced. Overall the system is more vulnerable to voltage

-0.1

10 instability with the operational WFs. The SVC is relatively

Base Case-No WF

effective both in terms of loss reduction and enhancing the Q

10 10 10 10

reserve margins.

80MVA Wind Farm real power output, kW

(iv) The point of connection of the WFs is of particular

Fig. 8 Real power losses for different loading levels importance. Connecting the WFs at higher voltage levels and

closer to the major load helps reduce losses, ease the

2. Voltage stability requirement for reactive compensation and mitigate the WFs

It is evident from Table 9 that, for all loading levels, the adverse effects on the system voltage stability.

eigenvalues for the cases where the WF is operational are

basically smaller than those of the cases where there is no WF. F. REFERENCES

[1] Nasar S.A., Electric Energy Systems. Upper Saddle River, New

This means that the system is more vulnerable to voltage Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.

instability when the WF is connected. Though, the measured [2] Palsson M.P, Toftevaag T., Uhlen K., and Tande J.O.G., "Large-

Q reserve margins show that the WF tends to have less impact scale Wind Power Integration and Voltage Stability Limits in

Regional Networks," presented at Power Engineering Society

on the voltage stability as its power output increases i.e. its Summer Meeting, IEEE, pp. 762-769, 2002.

reactive power demand decreases. [3] "Radial Distribution Test Feeders", Institute of Electrical and

Electronic Engineers,

Table 9-a System smallest eigenvalues http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders.html (current 5

February 2003).

Loading level 1L Loading level 2L [4] "The Economics of Wind Energy", American Wind Energy

Association, http://www.awea.org (current 10 July 2003).

Base case Var 1A Base case Var 1A

[5] Smith J. W., "DOE/NREL Wind Farm Monitoring: Annual Report

0.0468 0.047 0.0458 0.0456 July 2000-July 2001," DOE/NREL, Report No. SR-500-31188,

2002.

0.3732 0.371 0.3667 0.3642

[6] "Offshore Wind Energy Shows Promise," E Journal, pp. 9, 2002.

1.1354 0.903 1.081 0.8611 [7] Hammond I., "SA Wind Farm Being Commissioned," Engineers

Australia, vol. 75, No 8, No 8, pp. 24-25, 2003.

2.4564 2.441 2.4216 2.4179

[8] Thomas P.G. and Welsh J., "A REC's Experience of Embedded

4.2534 2.469 4.2502 2.4408 Generation within Its Networks," presented at IEE Colloquium on

the Impact of Embedded Generation on Distribution Networks, IEE,

Loading18.5676

level 3L 11.34 18.3391

Loading level 4L 11.261 level 5L

Loading 1996.

Base Base Base [9] McTague D., "Embedded generation: ESB Distribution Network

case Var 1A case Var 1A case Var 1A

Considerations," presented at IEE Colloquium on the Impact of

0.0462 0.0450 0.0462 0.0450 0.0451 0.0449 Embedded Generation on Distribution Networks, Savoy Place,

London, UK, IEE, 1996.

0.3701 0.3604 0.3701 0.3620 0.3638 0.3597 [10] Kundur P., Power System Stability and Control. New York:

1.0421 0.8150 1.0421 0.8050 0.9739 0.7792 McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

[11] "Neplan - Planning and Optimization System for Electrical

2.4592 2.4149 2.4592 2.4380 2.4377 2.4319 Networks", Busarello+Cott+Partner Inc. (BCP), www.neplan.ch

(current 29 July 2003).

4.3261 2.4375 4.3261 2.4610 4.3078 2.4578

18.5786 11.1640 18.5786 11.2500 18.4111 11.1920

Note: (*) Var1A = the WF P output is lowest and Q demand is highest;

Table 9-b System smallest eigenvalues

- Shunt Efficiency SystemTransféré parrlm2173
- 57-Power Transformer Installation ChecklistTransféré parprithiviraj
- A Generating Station Has Five Section BusTransféré parSiti Zhakiyah
- MC4 Cartridg TransformerTransféré parapi-3833673
- Brochure Galaxy3500Transféré parGuillermo Rivera
- Butler-Rural-El-Coop-Assn,-Inc-Commercial-Large-RatesTransféré parGenability
- 1_6Transféré paryashaswiyellapragada
- ProcessPlantMechanicalMaintenanceTransféré parAZIZ
- Electrical Power TechnologyTransféré parLee Boon Hong
- dgr of tanakpur power stationTransféré parAshok Palakonda
- Application of Over Voltage Protection to the Peruvian Power SystemTransféré paryofre24
- electromagnetismstuver-100519163133-phpapp01Transféré parNorazlin Ujang
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-General-Service---Demand-MeteredTransféré parGenability
- Electrical PowerTransféré parNaser A Sosiy
- Grading in Between Switches (2)Transféré partceterex
- S02 Tutorial 5060hzTransféré parMario
- 19 AppendixTransféré parRajat Kumar Singh
- Scatiggio_Life Cycle of Power Transformers_Belgrade 2014 [Compatibility Mode]Transféré pardobrilog
- Electromech 5 NewTransféré parHazem AlHumidan
- Valco Aluminium 3731213Transféré parkwabenasapong8671
- Electric power system.pdfTransféré parAnkit Kumar Chauhan
- EE-702Transféré parPraveen Kumar
- VT Guard.pdfTransféré parAnthony
- The Measurement and Evaluation of Distribution Transformer Losses Under Nonlinear Loading R3 ColorTransféré parLighto Lasto
- Poster Mv Drives Drives for Every Demand 2017 EnTransféré parsykimk8921
- eaton-powerware-9395-225-1000-kva.pdfTransféré parfedericosanchez
- Annual Tests BahaTransféré parSUNIL TP
- Datasheet MMR-6500-6700 v2 y6pqCIpTransféré parEvandro
- RotorTransféré parMian Usman
- purwadi2011.pdfTransféré parAndrew Setiawan

- Total Harmonic DistortionTransféré parVivek Kaushik
- Grid Code Requirements for Wind Power Integration 1Grid Code Requirements for Wind Power IntegrationTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- Siemens relay.pdfTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- calculation of residual protection setting on distance.pdfTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- TestTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- DIGSI_XML_Interface.xlsTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- Micom P544 760M Output FileTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- 220kV-400Kv-345KV Details of CableTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- FM_SPAM150C_750637_ENbab_2010Transféré parJohn Reilly
- SPAJ140C 1 ManualTransféré parDhanaji Wakade
- 1G 250ms 510ms No Fault Stability Lower Inertia 0.5Transféré parDhanaji Wakade
- P220 cortecTransféré parDhanaji Wakade

- 2690ETransféré parVp Sreejith
- Part- I_ Sld, Bb & LayoutTransféré parGargi
- HVDCTransféré parAndy
- 0400-0012 pdfTransféré parInvestor Protege
- PLCC projectTransféré parharsha_iitm
- 97 MIPSYCON - Power Transformer Life Cycle Cost ReductionTransféré pariakong
- Region 6Transféré parjefidelino
- Interconnection of Two Very Weak AC Systems by VSC-HVDC Links Using Power-Synchronization ControlTransféré parsatish reddy
- Cigre 398-Underground and Submarine Cables.pdfTransféré parsorry2qaz
- MSc Thesis Kostis Skaloumpakas-4186648Transféré parWaseem Nosimohomed
- Power System Dynamics ModellingTransféré parjandaz
- ELEG 530_project 1_fall 2014Transféré pardr_bilt
- MINILEC-CATALOUGETransféré parPrajin Kundoor
- New Zealand Infrastructure PlanTransféré parPPPnews
- Manual on Transmission Planning CriteriaTransféré parDebnil Ananya
- Electrical Safety.docxTransféré parWahyu Endra Purwanto
- EEE-VII-HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING [10EE73]-NOTES.pdfTransféré parPratyush Rout
- 1JNS012661 LRTransféré parDante Filho
- MX Series User Manual 7003-960 RBATransféré parAlex Lopes
- 1T35Transféré parTahir Don
- KM Regulations for Works in the Vicinity of ET Installations - Issue 1Transféré parTommy Yap
- 1003mee TendersTransféré parnxthenx
- 10.10082104Transféré parMihai Adrian
- تحديد جهد النقل.pdfTransféré parelsayed
- Presentation on substation 220 kvTransféré parPiyush Bansal
- Southern-California-Edison-Co-Large-General---Time-of-Use,-Standby---NEM-2.0Transféré parGenability
- Hyrbid micro hydro and solar system.pdfTransféré parDanu Itsnan Habibi
- Transmission LinesTransféré parasma mushtaq
- 500KV Grid Station Project Report (Final) Power EngineeringTransféré parEngr Kami Sayal
- SAES-B-055Transféré parTarek Mustafa

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.