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INTRODUCTION

The world has open spun into the new millennium and along with, it has ushered a
new era of intense competition and ever-changing value equations. The fact that organisation
has been transformed from a structured assembly line production orientation to a focus
a knowledge creation by each and every personnel of the organisation. In a
competitive global business scenario, no organisation will survive unless it is able to
match the duality and the cost of its competitors. Realities are focusing us to
concentrate more upon changing the attitude of employees, enabling them to take up
independent responsibilities and empowering to execute them by using their knowledge
and skills in latest technologies and thus motivating them to use their capabilities in their
respective areas of excellence. Emerging business environment is forcing business houses to
find new ways to remain competitive.

Organisations face an environment characterised by a number of challenges and key


issues that have increasedthe importance of Human Resource Management considerations
inbusiness decision-making. These include increased level of competition, human resources
diversity, changing value systems and above all the rapid technological advances. In the
globally competitive and challenging business scenario, our success will be, to a great extent,
influenced by how we manage our human resources – the people who make things happen.
The traditional role of man managers has undergone drastic changes to meet the
challenges of the next millennium and achieve excellence, responsible trade unionism,
productivity – oriented work practices and aggressive professional management would
be essential. Foreign investment and technologies have started flowing into India. The new
scenario has thrown new challenges in the area of human resource management as well.
Human beings are the most precious part of an organisation.

The success or failure of an enterprise largely depends on the people who man the
organisation. In the words of Alfred Marshall “the most valuable of all capital is that
invested in human beings”. From social point of view, an enterprise combines two sorts of
resources: a group of human beings and a group of physical assets. The latter in isolation of
the former is useless. Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn
attention of managers in the organisation as well as academicians. Various studies have
been conducted to find out the factors which determine job satisfaction and the way it
influences productivity in the organisation. Though, there is no conclusive evidence that

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job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on so many
variables, it is still a prime concern for managers.

Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favourableness which an individual has about
his job. In literature on Industrial Psychology, the term ‘Job Satisfaction’ is quite frequently
used for individual’s attitude towards the specific aspects of the total work situation.
The word ‘job’ refers to a specific task whereas the term job satisfaction is of higher orders
where it is essentially related to human needs and their fulfilment through work. It is
generated by the individual’s perception of how well his job satisfies his various needs. It is
often said that “A happy employee is a productive employee.” Job satisfaction is very
important because most of the people spend a major portion of their life at their working
place. Moreover, job satisfaction has its impact on the general life of the employees also,
because a satisfied employee is a contented and happy human being. A highly satisfied
worker has better physical and mental well-being. Though it is debatable point as to which
one is the cause and which one is the effect, but there are correlated to each other.

JOB SATISFACTION - MEANING AND DEFINITION

Job satisfaction refers to a person’s feeling of satisfaction on the job which act as a
motivation to work. It is not the self-satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the
satisfaction on the job. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling state accompanying the
attainment by an impulse of its objective. Research workers differently described the factors
contributing the job satisfaction and the job dissatisfaction. “Job satisfaction is a pleasurable
or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal or one’s job or job experience” - E.A.
Locke “Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you
like job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely,
you will experience job-dissatisfaction” - Andrew.J.DuBrins “Job satisfaction will be defined
as the amount of overall positive effect or feelings that individuals have towards their jobs” -
Fieldman and Arnold

“Job satisfaction is the set of favourable or unfavourable feelings with which


employees view their work” - Keith Davis and New strom Job satisfaction is a result of
employees’ perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as

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important. It is generally recognized in the organisational behaviour field that job satisfaction
is the most important and frequently studied attitude.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Employees are the central forces of an industry and only with their efficiency, an
organisation can move into success. Only with a group of satisfied employees the
company can lead into success. For employees’ satisfactionthe company must
provideadequate welfare measures. By conducting a job satisfaction survey, we can analyse
whether the employees are satisfied or not and also whether they are motivated by the
general, welfare, financial and other related factors.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 To understand the functioning of Manjilas food tech Pvt. Ltd.


 To study about the structure of the organisation.
 To gain knowledge about the operational activities undertaken by different
departments.
 To analyse satisfaction level of employees towards the job.

 To Check whether there is any relationship between Gender and Overall satisfaction

level of employees with current job.

 To check whether there is any relationship between work experience and job overall

job satisfaction level of employees with current job.

 To give suggestions based on the findings.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The Required data for the study was collected through monitoring and interrogation.
The study is made by personally visiting the company Manjilas Food Tech, Nellikunu.
The data were collected through various methods. The main methods adopted are:

Observation: Most of the data’s were collected by observing the general surrounding,
the functional process and interactions with employees in the organization. Work site
and plants were visited, where the actual process of production and activities of
various departments were seen and understood.

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SAMPLE DESIGN
The responses were collected from the employees in company with the help of
Google forms.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


Primary data and Secondary data are used
 Primary data: Primary data were collected through discussion with the manager,
various department heads, officers , and employees.
 Secondary data: Secondary data for the study was collected from website, office
records, newspapers and magazines etc.

TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS


Simple percentage technique and weighted average is used for analysing the data. The
data is analysed and plotted in pie chart.
Chi-square Test
Chi- square test has been applied to identify whether there is any relationship between
Gender and overall satisfaction level of employees in the company .The following
formula has been used for chi-square test

Mann Whitney Test


The test has been applied to check whether there is any significance difference in the
response of male and female employees with respect to the overall satisfaction with the
current job or not.

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CHAPTER SCHEME
This report is divided into 5 chapters:

 CHAPTER 1-: The first chapter deals with the introduction of


study, which includes the general introduction, the objectives of
the study, significance and scope of the study, literature review,
research methodology and limitations of the study.

 CHAPTER 2:- The second chapter consist of review of related


Literature.

 CHAPTER 3:- The second chapter gives a rough description


of Rice industry in general, Rice cultivation in Kerala, India
rice industry analysis, Rice market-Global Industry analysis
Global and the problems and prospects associated with the
industry. It also provides an overview of the company profile of
Manjilas Food Tech.
 CHAPTER 4:- The fourth chapter provides the Data analysis
and interpretation .
 CHAPTER 5:- The fifth chapter consists of findings,
suggestions, and conclusion

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Okele & Mtyuda (2017) research outcomes indicated that a lack of resources, too
much crowd of courses and indiscipline amid pupils were severe sources of disappointment
amid teachers. Other causes of job dissatisfaction amid teachers are management
consequences. All these factors create disengagement among teachers and filled negativity in
their job.
Troesh & Bauer (2017) investigated job satisfaction and stress in second career
teachers compared to first career teachers and the role of self-efficacy in this context. Results
showed that second career teachers are highly filled with satisfaction with their occupation
than first career teachers.
Tharikh et al. (2016) analyzed the data and results showed that workplace
satisfaction, organization commitment and organizational nationality behaviour statistically
important and optimistic relationship.
Spencer & Byrne (2016) suggested that senior level managers are having high job
satisfaction than junior level managers.
Darrat et al. (2016) suggested that amid salespeople with lower workplace
satisfaction, organizational work embeddedness is optimistically connected with
organizational deviance, interpersonal deviance and customer direct deviance. Nevertheless,
amid salespeople with higher job satisfaction, job embeddedness is negatively connected with
organizational deviance and not importantly connected with either interpersonal or customer
directed deviance.
Saba Salem et al., (2013) in their study on determinants of job satisfaction examine
its impact on employees of the banking industry has found that all the variables such as
organizational policy and strategy, nature of work, communication, job stress, employee
personality and recruitment and selection procedures have significant association with
employees’ job satisfaction.
Muhammad Zeeshan Shaukat et al. (2012) found that provision of support at work
and higher leader-member exchange relations positively predicts employees job satisfaction.
It shows that when organization provides support to its employees or when supervisor is
supportive and employees have good exchange relation with their supervisor, they reciprocate
it with good relations and increase job satisfaction.
Khawaja Jehanzeb et al., (2012) concluded that degree of rewards, motivation and
job satisfaction of employees has a strong relationship in the banking sector of Saudi Arabia

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further it has been found that employees in banking sector give more importance to economic
or financial rewards.
Mohammad Morshedur Rahman et al., (2012) concluded that the female
employees overall job satisfaction of private banks is associated with adequate remuneration
for work, available opportunity for promotion, job evaluated rewards, recognition for good
work, satisfied provision salary increment, satisfied provision salary increment, satisfied
incentive and benefits, salary increases on performance, motivated to work satisfied available
opportunity, training program regularly, satisfied space available, satisfied environment. If
these factors are considered carefully, then overall satisfaction on female employees of
private commercial banks.
Jahirul Hoque et al., (2012) concludes that the determinants of job satisfaction such
as job status, salary fringe benefits, job security, promotional opportunities, working
environment, job autonomy, recognition for good work, co-workers, and supervising have
been assigned by both the level of executives, junior and top level as the major determinants
of their respective job satisfaction. It is also revealed that each of their determinants has
significant positive relation with the overall job satisfaction of the executives. Therefore,
increase in values/standard of each of these determinants would definitely increase the level
of job satisfaction of the selected executives. Therefore, increase in values/standard of each
of these determinants would definitely increase the level of job satisfaction of the selected
executives.
Lai (2011) found that an efficient compensation system result in organizational
growth and expansion and exhibit a positive relationship between employee satisfaction and
job-based salary, skill- based pay and performance-based pay. The study concludes that the
intrinsic factors of motivation, including recognition, work, career opportunities, professional
growth, responsibility, good feeling about the organization that has a significant correlation
with job satisfaction, while hygiene factors have no significant relationship with job
satisfaction of employees’ satisfaction.
Khalid et al., (2010) observed that there is a positive relationship between autonomy,
leadership behaviour and teamwork environment influence more than autonomy on
employees’ job satisfaction. The results also depict a significant difference of level of job
satisfaction between male and female employees.
Ahmed et al., (2010) conclude that the salary, promotion and training positively and
significantly influence the job satisfaction.

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Riaz et al., (2010) and Gunlu et al., (2010) have found that job satisfaction is highly
related to the organizational commitment of the employees in telecom sector and among hotel
managers respectively.
Orisatoki and Oguntibeju (2010) in their study they found that there was no
significant difference in satisfaction between genders or between age groups. There was
positive correlation between job satisfaction with understanding the goals and objectives of
the management and sense of belonging. The was no significant correlation of job satisfaction
with other factor such as knowledge about workplace, work stress, relationship with
colleagues, but negative correlation of job satisfaction with salary.
Nazrul et al., (2009) attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of bank offices in
Bangladesh. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impact
of bank type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes towards job
satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-
worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. Private bank
officers have higher levels of job satisfaction than those from public sectors as they enjoy
better facilities and supportive work environment. Sex and age differences have relatively
lower level of impact on it.
Nilufar Ahsan (2009) investigated the relationship between Job stress and Job
Satisfaction. The study conducted in a Public University in Klang Valley area in Malaysia
and 300 respondents were selected as a sample of the study. The determinants of job stress
that have been examined under this study include management role, relationship with others,
work load pressure, homework interface, role ambiguity and performance pressure. The
results of the study revealed that the association between relationship with others and job
stress is not significant. The relationship between workload pressure and job stress, role
ambiguity and job stress is significant. The study concluded that the motivation is a key
factor as well in affecting job stress among employees. Employees who were highly
motivated will feel happier and were more willing to work for the organisation.
Origo and Pagani (2008) investigated the relationship between flexibility and Job
Satisfaction. In their analysis they verified whether various aspects of flexibility namely
functional and quantitative flexibility, produce different impact on overall extrinsic and
intrinsic Job Satisfaction. They also tested whether the impact of flexibility on Job
Satisfaction varied with workers characteristics. Empirical evidence was based on a
representative sample of European employees taken from a specific wave of the Euro
barometer Survey. The study found that there was a positive link between functional
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flexibility and Job Satisfaction and there was either no effect or a negative impact of
quantitative flexibility. The positive impact of functional flexibility was greater when
compared to the satisfaction for intrinsic aspects of the job. Estimate by workers
characteristics highlighted interesting differences by age, skill and country of residence.
Santhapparaj (2005) studied the Job Satisfaction of the women managers working in
automobile Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia. It was based on primary survey from 200
women managers. The study investigated the relationship between specific aspects of Job
Satisfaction and the personal characteristics of women managers. It was also aimed to retest
the Herzberg’s Two-Factors theory. The correlation analysis showed that there was a
significant negative correlation between education level and pay, promotion people on
present job and job in general. The percentage of overall satisfaction was 75.59%. The results
did not support the Hezberg’s theory and concluded that no separate and distinct factors lead
to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but if they were together contributed to job satisfaction
or dissatisfaction. The study reveals that there was a need for change in the Organisational
culture and the management should create the environment for social and organisational
network. The factor which was relatively less satisfied was the pay and this can be improved
only through dialogue which involve cost to the organisation and the less level of satisfaction
on present job could be easily improved by job rotation, providing challenging job and so on.
Worrell (2004) examined and described the levels of Job Satisfaction and relationship
between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National
Association of School Psychologists (NASP). Data were collected through mailed survey
packets including a data form including Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. 234 full time
practitioners responded. Result indicated that 90% of school psychologists were satisfied or
very satisfied with their jobs. The findings showed a gradual increase in overall satisfaction
when compared to 1982 and 1992 that reported being satisfied or very satisfied with their
jobs. Participants in the current sample were more satisfied with their job security,
independence and creativity
Sarri and Judges’ (2004)
article provided greater understanding of the research on employee’s attitudes and Job
Satisfaction. The article identified three gaps between Human resource practice and the
scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee
attitude in particular –Job satisfaction: the causes of employee attitudes, the result of positive
or negative job satisfaction and how to measure and influence employee attitudes.Suggestions

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for practitioners are provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating
implemented practices.
Tahir (2000) examined the overall job satisfaction among RMAF air traffic controller. The
aim of the research was to gauge the level of job satisfaction among military air traffic
controller with major objectives of analyzing the main factors that affect their job satisfaction
and to determine the overall ranking of the factor, in term of importance and contribution to
the level of job satisfaction. This exploratory study was based on analytical framework and
model of Barnowe, Mangione and Quinn (1972). The study used a non experimental and
quantitative design using survey questionnaire of 93 military air traffic controller as well as
interviews with policy makers in the RMAF. The independent variables based on work
environment were relationship with the job, superior-subordinate relationship, relationship
with peer, economic rewards, organization climate and off-the-job rewards. The demographic
characteristics were also used as independent variable. The dependent variable was overall
job satisfaction.
Tahir found that majority (92.4%) of the air traffic controllers were satisfied with their job.
Economic rewards and relationship with peer were significantly related to job satisfaction. In
demographic expects, those controllers who are relatively younger, lower rank, holding junior
appointments, less qualified and newer in service have low satisfaction level in their
relationship with peers. Similarly, older controllers with higher rank, holding senior
appointment with better qualification and longer job tenure have low satisfaction on
economic rewards. He also found poor promotion prospect has contributed significantly to
lower satisfaction among the air traffic controllers. Based on the results of the study, he
suggested that more sports and social activities could be conducted to improve the peer
relationship among the junior controller. As for the senior controllers, he suggested that
RMAF should review the promotion system to enhance job satisfaction among them.

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RICE INDUSTRY –A PROFILE
Rice is the most important cereal food crop of India, occupying one-fourth of the gross
cropped area of the country. As the basic food crop, rice is cultivated comfortably in hot and
humid climate. In the country, the crop is mainly grown as a Kharif crop in rainfed areas that
receive heavy annual rainfall.

India is the second largest rice producer in the world after China, with 21% of the global
production share. The rice production has increased by 3.5 times in the last 60 years. The
country’s productivity is higher than Thailand and Pakistan at 2.2tons/ha. Major rice
producing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil
Nadu, Odisha, and Bihar. India has been the top exporter in global rice trade, accounting for
25% of the export in the last four years. Indian rice caters to the Middle East and Africa for
non-Basmati, and the EU and the US for Basmati variety.

The drought-affected crop during the 2014-15 crop year has put a crunch on the Indian rice
market. However, a better monsoon forecast, government intervention, and better farming
practices are expected to result in higher yield despite lower crop acreage. Overall, the
sentiment for the global rice market is moderate in terms of market demand and production
for the next five years. The country’s rice market is competitively positioned, as the pricing
of the rice crop is cheaper than any other country, except Pakistan. India’s MSP of non-
Basmati paddy is around USD 224/MT.

Climatic conditions are affecting the rice production in the major producing regions of India.
Levy procurement by state governments has enhanced the market availability of the crop in
the domestic market. As a major global development, Iran has lifted the ban on import of
Basmati from India. This development would result in an increase in Basmati rice exports to
Iran, the world's largest importer of aromatic rice. Indonesia has also decided to open its
market to Indian rice, which would further help India to diversify its export reach to the
Indonesian market. Amid higher demand from the African and Middle Eastern countries,
India is expected to emerge as the largest exporter of rice, both for basmati and non-basmati
crops.

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Surplus rice stockpiles and improved methods of production have helped India position itself
competitively in the global rice trade market. Several medium-to-small sized private
companies from the open market are undertaking the export of rice in India.

The Indian rice crop market report covers the following information –

 Crop production
 Country consumption
 Country trade (export-import) scenario and statistics
 Price trend and seasonality of the crop
 Future outlook of the crop market

Stakeholders who would benefit -

 Crop growers
 Enterprises providing agricultural inputs
 Crop processing companies
 Crop importers and exporters
 Investors/research institutions interested in the crop market

INDIA RICE INDUSTRY OUTLOOK 2017-2025

Market Overview

Globally, 90% production of rice is in Asia, and India is second largest producer of rice. India
has outperformed China in terms of exporting rice registering 22% growth in 2017. The
exports were boosted on account of flood hit in neighbouring country Bangladesh, and in
2018 Sri Lanka and Bangladesh are expected to remain the major rice export countries of
India. Sella rice, an indigenous variety of rice, accounted for most exported rice. Rice is the
staple food of people in eastern and southern India, and consumption of the total produced
milled (white) rice grew by 0.79% in 2017 and 3.43% in 2016. There are 1000 of varieties of
rice produced worldwide but in India white rice and brown rice are the major varieties of rice
produced. Of the aromatic type of rice, India is also famous for basmati rice, but they don’t
acquire major share in total rice exports as compared to non-basmati rice. As agriculture in
India is monsoon based, the past 2 years experienced lower production of rice. But in 2017
the rice industry re-emerged and by 2018 it is expected to include African nations in the

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export countries, which have been importing from Thailand. The government of India heavily
supports the rice producing farmers and the rice mills, by providing seeds, fuel, funds and
advanced machineries.

Goldstein Research analyst forecast that the India rice industry is expected to grow at CAGR
of 2.0% over the forecast period. India rice production was estimated at 110 million metric
tons in 2017. The factors such as government support in rice production, favorable monsoons,
rising number of rice processing companies, increasing exports are majorly impacting the
growth of India rice industry.

On the basis of rice variety, milled rice accounted for largest market share in 2017 with
80.3% of total rice production. Over the forecast period milled rice is expected to continue
their dominance in the rice production. Based on application, 58.1% rice is for food use and
rest for other applications.

Rice industry outlook 2017-2025, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis
from industry experts. The report covers the competitive landscape and current position of
major players in the rice industry. The report also includes porter’s five force model, SWOT
analysis, company profiling, business strategies of market players and their business models.
India rice industry report also recognizes value chain analysis to understand the cost
differentiation to provide competitive advantage to the existing and new entry players.

Market Trends, Drivers and Challenges

In the era of technology advancement, there is trend of producing genetically modified (GM)
rice to ascertain the quality of rice and food security. Though commercially there is no
production of GM rice, but many varieties have been approved for commercial production
which is expected to boost the India rice industry.

Rice is a staple crop for 70% of the world and thus the demand for rice is expected to
continue to grow over the forecast period. The food security concerns all over the world is
driving the growth of the India rice industry, which by exporting rice to various countries is
contributing towards global food security.

With the climate change, continuous rising demand by consumers and the food security, rice
industry is facing the challenge of producing rice without compromising on efficiency,
equitability, environmentally-friendly, and more resilience to climate change. It has become
imperative to produce rice at lesser land, with lesser water and labor. India is also facing lack

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of adequate agriculture infrastructure such as technologically advanced equipment,
transportation network, and effective public private partnership.

Rice Cultivation in Kerala

Rice is the second largest cereal produced and consumed in the world. India occupies second
position in terms of its production. India is one of the world's largest producer of white rice
and brown rice, accounting for 20% of global rice production. Kerala, a constituent state of
India has a rich history and tradition of rice cultivation. The very first thing that comes to our
mind when we say Kerala, is her green cover and paddy fields. But today the situation is
different. Paddy fields in Kerala are fast disappearing. Lush green fields which once invoked
prosperity and growth are now invaded by concrete buildings and sky touching malls
showing a way to an uncertain future.
The Palakkad district, which is considered the rice bowl of Kerala, has lost 1, 03,980 hectares
of paddy fields in the last four decades. Even though the food habits of the people of Kerala
had remarkably changed over the last few decades, rice still continues to be their staple food.
The decline in paddy cultivation and large-scale reclamation of traditional rice fields have
started to adversely affect groundwater availability in the state. Paddy fields can regulate
atmospheric temperature to some extent. Studies attribute the increasing day time temperature
in Palakkad district as a consequence of large-scale reclamation of paddy fields. Over the last
ten years, however, there has been a commendable sign of revival in rice production in
Kerala. The average productivity rose from 2.21t/ha in 2002-03 to 2.87t/ha by the year 2015.
This paper studies the changing trend in rice cultivation over the years and also reports the
factors leading to shifting of rice cultivation. It also attempts to find out various constraints
faced by farmers.
Major Initiatives taken by the Government for the Promotion of rice in 2016-17
 Promotion of upland cultivation in 2520m ha
 Amendments in paddy/wetland conservation Act
 Cultivation in fallow land
 Special projects in Aranmula Punja
 Enhancement of procurement of paddy from Rs.21.50/kg to Rs.22.50/kg

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India Rice Industry Analysis

Based on geography, Punjab accounted for largest rice producing state in 2017, producing
10.06 million tons of rice. Punjab is followed by Haryana, producing 3.83 million tons of
rice. Further, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab,
Bihar, and Chhattisgarh accounted for around 75% of total rice production and 70% of total
land area under rice production.

RICE INDUSTRY OUTLOOK 2018

Rice is the 3rd largest produced agricultural commodity in the world, after sugarcane
and maize. This is also the most widely consumed staple crop, especially in Asia.
Presently, the global harvested area under rice cultivation is 160 million hectares.
Moreover, the global rice production and consumption moves in tandem. The
production is expected to increase with a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of
1.24% from 417.86 MMT ([Million Metric Tonnes], [2006]) to 484.71 MMT (2018).
Similarly, the consumption is also expected to increase with a CAGR of 1.28% from
412.26 MMT (2006) to 480.49 MMT (2018).

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China is the topmost rice consuming nation, but holds the second place as far as the
area under rice cultivation is concerned, the nation roughly has 30 million hectares of
rice cultivation. This is lower than India’s but is greater in terms of rice production on
the back of higher yield, which is due to better irrigation facilities. Additionally,
China’s rice yield is 6.91 MT/ha (metric tonne/hectare), this is much higher as
compared with the world average of rice yield at 4.51 MT/ha. Thus, this make China,
the largest producer of rice. The country is also the biggest consumer of rice. It
accounts for almost 30% of the world’s rice production and consumption, respectively.
China’s production is anticipated to increase at a CAGR of 1.21% from 126.4 MMT
(2006) to 146 MMT (2018), whereas its consumption is projected to increase at a
CAGR of 1.04% from 128 MMT (2006) to 142.45 MMT (2018). Notably, during 2012-

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13, China’s rice imports increased by 231% and 76% on a YOY (Year Over Year)
basis. This was mainly on account of low international prices of rice as compared to the
government regulated support price. Secondly, the imported rice from Vietnam,
Thailand and Pakistan was of much better quality. This benefited the exporting nations,
mainly Vietnam, Thailand and Pakistan and led to increase in their exports. In 2018
imports are expected to decline due to narrowing of arbitrage opportunity from imports
and restrictive measures by the government of China on exports.

India is the largest exporter as well as the second biggest producer and consumer of
rice. The nation also has the largest area under rice cultivation, which is 42.7 million
hectares and is expected to have a yield of 3.78 MT/ha (2018). The low yield in India is
on account of rain fed agriculture and poor irrigation system. In addition, farmers grow
multiple crops in a year on the cultivated land and hence, per day productivity of most
crops is lower in comparison to the global average. India is one of the largest consumers
of rice and rice is mainly consumed as a staple food by more than 70% of the
population, but the per capita rice consumption has been declining in the nation. This
decreased from 77.9 kg per person (2006) to 75.1 kg per person (2017) due to the
growth in Indian economy which accounted for an increase in the purchasing power
that led to a diversification of diet. This further resulted in the inclusion of highly
nutritious food. In 2011, after the withdrawal of the ban on the export of non-basmati
rice by the Indian government, the nation emerged as the largest exporter of rice and
exports were expected to increase at a CAGR of 23.3% from 2.8 MMT (2011) to 12
MMT (2018). Indian rice became very competitive in the global market and importing
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regions like Africa shifted to Indian rice for imports due to lower prices in comparison
to other nations. This may increase the international market share for India from 7.9%
(2011) to 24.4% (2018). India mostly exports to Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, South Africa, etc. There was a slight decline in exports in the
recent years due to a low export demand. This was because of the following reasons:
 A decrease in exports to Iran due to withdrawal of sanctions by the United
States and five other nations in 2013, which led to a positive impact on the
economy of the nation. Furthermore, it also led to establishment of new trade
channels. Hence, increased the competition for Indian basmati rice, which was
the 2nd most expensive rice in 2013.
 A decrease in exports to neighbouring countries; Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
owing to increase in import duties on rice.

The exports are expected to improve in the near future as the international demand is on
a rise and low rice production is estimated for FY 2018, this will affect prices of rice. In
addition, Iran has lifted the import ban on rice, all these factors will contribute to an
upward trend in the Indian rice prices.

Bangladesh is the third largest producer and fourth largest consumer of rice. The
country’s per capita rice consumption is very high and stands at 196.6 kg/person. The
area under rice harvest is 11.3 million hectares with an expected yield of 4.38 MT/ha
(2018). Bangladesh’s rice production is likely to increase at a CAGR of 1.15% from
28.76 MMT (2006) to 33 MMT (2018) and consumption is projected to increase at a

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CAGR of 1.63% from 29 MMT (2006) to 35.2 MMT (2018). This is mostly sufficient
to meet the local demand.
Vietnam is the fourth largest producer and the third biggest exporter of rice. The nation
has a rice harvest of 7.73 million hectares with a projected yield of 5.89 MT/ha (2018).
Vietnam’s rice yield is also above the global average just as China’s. The International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI) of Vietnam played a significant role in improving the
yield and quality of rice. The rice production is expected to increase at a CAGR of
1.87% from 22.77 MMT (2006) to 28.45 MMT (2018). The nation accounts for 14.2%
of the global rice trade (2018), it exports to Asia, Africa, Europe, America and
Australia.
Thailand is the second largest exporter of rice. In 2012, Thailand’s rice exports
increased, but its international market share declined from 30.3 to 17.4 percent on
account of the price competition from India. This was on the back of India’s removal of
the ban on its non-basmati rice exports in 2011. Indian and Vietnamese rice was nearly
120 USD/MT (2012) cheaper than the Thai rice, which led to a decline in rice exports
from Thailand. Further, Thai rice exports were also affected by the decline in imports
from one of its major importers Nigeria as higher import tariff was imposed by the
government. This led to reduced imports of rice by Nigeria, which resulted in a CAGR
of 10% from 3.2 MMT (2012) to 2.1 MMT (2016).
However, Thailand’s rice exports improved (2017) due to the sale of the government-
owned stock and suspension of off-season rice paddy pledging program in 2013, this
made the Thai rice prices more competitive than the Indian and Vietnamese rice. It is
anticipated that Thailand rice exports will decline in 2018 due to depletion of
government’s rice stock in 2017.

19
In conclusion, it can be stated that there is a cut-throat competition between Asian
countries for the market share in the global trade. Hence, for non-basmati rice, there is a
stiff competition between India, Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan, whereas for basmati
rice there is a competition between India and Pakistan. The United States exports long
grain and medium grain rice to Asian and African countries and compete with Australia
on the export of medium grain rice.

Significantly, prices play a decisive role in the export market share of rice as importing
nations shift to countries offering a competitive price. The export price of rice quoted
by an exporting nation is dependent on several factors including production cost, yield,
the minimum export price set by a government of a country and availability of rice after
the government purchase program. The export market share is also affected by the
import tariff implemented by a nation to safeguard the interest of domestic farmers and

20
a variety of rice preferred in a specific region. There has been an increase in export
quotes by the major exporting nations as there has been an increase in the demand from
importing nations. It is projected that in 2018, the global rice production will be lower
than the previous years due to less production in India and Bangladesh. The global
consumption will increase but would be less than the production. The overall global
trade might decrease as exports are estimated to decline in major exporting nations,
Thailand and the United States. Therefore, on account of anticipated decrease in rice
production and increase in demand in the international market, the prices are most
likely to increase in 2018.

Rice Market-Global Industry Analysis


Rice supply is continuously improving globally. Rice is one of the major food staples and
mainstay for the rural population and their food security. Moreover rice is used as a wage
commodity for workers in cash crop or non agriculture sectors in some countries such as
India among others.
The global rice market can be segmented according to product type such as long grain white
rice (high quality), long grain white rice (low quality), long grain parboiled rice, long grain
fragrant rice, broken and medium grain milled among others.

The market can be segmented geographically into North America, APAC, Europe and RoW
regions.

The global rice market is expected to grow with a healthy single digit CAGR from 2013 to
2019.

The key driver of this market is the growing fast food industry and restaurants. Rice is one of
the favorite cereals for most of the consumers. The growing population is second driver for
increasing consumption of rice globally. The demand for fragrant rice is increasing gradually
globally. Moreover long rice (high quality) is one of the premium class rice and it is not
consumed on a regular basis.

The distribution channel includes hypermarkets/supermarket, departmental stores and stores


among others. Asia Pacific is the major producer and exporter of rice globally. However
China and India are of the major consumers and producers.

Some of the key players in rice industry are Riceland foods Inc., V.A.P Foods ltd and KRBL
ltd among others.

21
Rice Market Explores New Growth Opportunities by 2019-2028
The Main objective of the report titled Global Rice Market 2019 is to give a complete idea
of the rice market for the duration of 2019-2028. The rice report focuses on market overview,
market growth factors, market segmentation, regional analysis and competitive players
involved in rice market.
Major Key Players of Rice:

 Capital Rice Group

Capital Rice Company Limited produces and exports rice. The company offers Thai jasmine,
pathumthani, parboiled, white, glutinous, and organic rice. It serves customers in Thailand
and internationally. The company was incorporated in 1977 and is based in Bangkok,
Thailand. Capital Rice Company Limited operates as a subsidiary of The STC Group.

 Thanasan Group

Companies in this industry mill flour and rice; malt grains (primarily barley); and mix
prepared flour mixes and dough.

 Ake Rice Mill Co., Ltd

Ake Rice Mill Company Limited is engaged and specialized in rice business for more than
5 decades by generation to generation. In the early period of the business, the main business
activity was to polish and produce a variety of quality rice not only under its own brand for
the domestic sale including Bangkok area and nearby, bur also, the other company brand.

 Alobha exim

Alobha Exim, a leading Basmati Rice exporter in India, is an industry connoisseur when it
comes to producing fluffy and aromatic Indian basmati rice that is rich in nutritional value.
Our unique manufacturing process is aimed at preserving the natural aroma of the rice so that
even consumers based abroad can add a rich Indian feel to their cuisine.

22
 Kohinoor

Kohinoor Foods Limited is one of the leading food companies of the country with global
manufacturing standards and marketing capabilities. Kohinoor Foods Ltd. is no stranger to
awards and recognition. And with its huge list of accomplishments, it’s really no surprise.
Incredible as it may sound - 868,500 finest basmati grains flow out every second from
Kohinoor factories. If on one hand, Kohinoor Basmati Rice is the first branded food from
India to be served on board Malaysian Airlines, than on the other hand, Kohinoor has an elite
list of customers that includes the Royal Palaces of Brunei, Emirates and the Sultanate of
Oman.

 Lal Qilla

With the great vision of S. Amar Singh who started this business merely from a small shop
about 60 years ago , nobody would have even dreamt of a small trading co. Amar Singh
Chawal Wala (ASCW) to become a recognized global company. Since its commencement ,
the company’s sole objective has been to make the world experience the perfect combination
of aroma, elongation and sweet taste. It is their principal “ to serve only the best quality
basmati to the world”

 Daawat

Daawat is India's Finest Basmati Rice, which is produced by one of the leading Basmati
rice manufacturers in the country, LT Foods Ltd.

 ADM Rice

ADM is a major international supplier of rice, including long, medium and short grain. Our
rice can be shipped in milled, brown or rough-rice form.The Midland Harvest™ brand of rice
is available in a variety of package sizes for private-label products and the foodservice
industry. The high-quality grain cooks up plump, moist and tender.

 American Rice

American Rice, Inc. is the largest rice miller and marketer in America due primarily to
our ability to globally source and market rice through traditional and new markets. ARI is
proud to uphold its tradition of quality and innovation by providing the resources for

23
procuring, producing, and distributing the quality brands required by the sophisticated
markets of the world as well as rice of all types to the international market.

 Gulf Rice Milling, Inc

Gulf Rice Milling, Inc. provides milling and marketing of rice. The company was
founded in 1988 and is based in Houston, Texas. Gulf Rice Milling, Inc. operates as
subsidiary of Gulf Pacific Incorporated

 REI Agro Ltd

REI Agro Limited engages in the processing, manufacturing, marketing, and trading of agro
products in India and internationally. The company primarily offers basmati rice under the
Raindrops brand name. It is also involved in the generation of power through winds farms
located in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat with a total installed capacity of
46.1 MW. The company was founded in 1994 and is based in New Delhi, India.

 KRBL Ltd

KRBL Limited is an India-based basmati rice processing company. The Company is engaged
in seed development, contact farming, procurement of paddy, storage, processing, packaging,
branding and marketing of basmati rice. The Company's operating segments include Agri,
which includes agricultural commodities, such as rice, Furfural, seed, bran and bran oil.

24
MANJILAS FOOD TECH PVT. LTD- A PROFILE

VISION

To become a reliable, reputed and respected name in the Indian food industry

MISSION

To redefine customer delight and create new industry benchmarks through constant
innovation, research, and technology; and strengthen social commitment by working towards
the benefits of the entire community

QUALITY POLICY

We, at Manjilas are committed to give total satisfaction to our customers through continuous
improvement of our product, process and distribution.

HISTORY OF THE ORGANISATION

Manjilas, the mother brand of Double Horse, was founded in the year 1959, as a rice milling
company selling high-quality rice grains. The brand, on the strength of its commitment to
deliver only the best to its customers, has witnessed a phenomenal growth over the years. It
revolutionized the food sector in Kerala becoming the first ISO 9001:2000 certified Rice Mill
in the state and the first food brand to introduce sortex rice, stoneless rice and colour grading.
Inspired by the support of its customers and foreseeing the potential for traditional food that’s
made easy to suit today’s busy, modern lifestyle, Manjilas Double Horse started introducing
products- from rice powders- breakfast mixes to instant mixes, wheat products, curry
powders and condiments made using ‘Perfect Blend technology’, naturally preserved pickles,
health foods, ready-to-cook & ready-to-eat products, traditional preserves, coconut products
and more; and is dedicatedly developing new and innovative product ranges, to keep up with
its promise to deliver good food and in turn, inculcate a healthy eating habit.

The founder of the company Late Mr. M. O. John - a visionary, a philanthropic and a
businessperson started off the firm with the aim of providing ‘Great sustenance, for all’. Mr.
M.O John was also the General Secretary of Kerala Vyapara Vyavasayi Ekopnana Samithi,
the biggest association of entrepreneurs in Kerala and the President of Chamber of

25
Commerce, Thrissur. His entrepreneurial abilities made him a pioneer of his times, and his
brand the pioneer for more than 50 years.

Today, Manjilas Double Horse offers its customers the widest variety of good food with more
than 20 superior types of rice and 100 premium quality food products in different ranges

MILE STONES
 Manjilas is the first Modern Rice Mill.
 The First Rice Mill introduced Branded Rice in Kerala.
 First Rice Mill which has introduced Sortex Machine
 First Rice Mill which has received ISO 9000-2000 certified Rice Mill in
Kerala.

COMPANIES UNDER THE GROUP

1. Manjilas Food Tech. Pvt. Ltd., Kottekkad, Thrissur and Vannamada,


Palakkad
2. Manjilas Agro Foods Pvt. Ltd., Cheramangalam, Palakkad and Naripotta,
Palakkad
3. Q One Foods and Ingredients Pvt. Ltd., QueTwo Foods and Ingredients ,
Unjuvelampetti, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu
4. M.O. John & Sons (Exports), Kolangattukara, Thrissur.

26
PROFILES OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES:

Manjilas started off with Rice vending outlet 56 years ago, Today Double Horse offers its
customers the widest variety of good food with more than 10 superior types of rice and 100
premium quality food products in different ranges. It has always stayed a market leader with
introduction of Rice products almost 35 years into the finding of the company and later
moving on to Wheat products, Masalas, Pickles, health products and instant food products.
The latest in the series being the ‘Retort’ products which was a result of efforts of the R&D
kitchen. With more than 100 products to offer, Double horse has become an inevitable name
in the malayali house hold.

Following are the complete list of products from Double Horse.

Rice
 Rose Matta
 Cherumani
 Jyothi Matta
 Red Raw Rice
 Matta Broken
 Ponni Rice
 Single Matta
 Jaya Rice
 Idli Rice
 Raw Rice Meals
 Ghee Rice
 B.T.Meal
 Jeerakasala Rice

27
Rice Products
 Easy Palappam Mix
 Appam Idiyappam Pathiri Rice Flour
 Aval Thick
 Dosa Mix
 White Rice Flour
 Idly Mix
 Roasted Pathiri Flour
 Palappam Mix
 Vattayappam Mix
 Red Aval
 White Aval
 Thick Aval

Puttupodi
 White Puttu Podi
 Samba Wheat Puttu Podi
 Chemba Puttu Podi
 Ragi Puttu Podi
 Corn Puttu Podi
Wheat Product
 Chakki Fresh Atta
 Samba Broken Wheat
 Broken Wheat
 Wheat Rava
 Samba Wheat Rava
 Roasted Rava
 Vermicelli Roasted (Short Cut)
 Long Vermicelli

Instant Break Fast

28
 Instant Idiyappam
 Rice Sevai
 Upuma Mix

Payasam & Kheer Mix (Sweet Dishes)


 Palada Payasam Mix
 Rice Palada Payasam Mix
 Vermicelli Kheer Mix
 Rice Ada
 Diet Payasam Mix

Health Product
 Banana Powder
 Health Mix
 Ragi Vita
 Ragi Powder

Instant Ready to Eat


 Chakka Varatty (Jack Fruit Dessert)
 Pazham Varatty (Kerala Banana Jam)
 Boiled Chinese Potato (Koorkka)
 Nadan Kappa Puzhukku (Kerala Tapioca Curry)
 Roasted Coconut Gravy

Instant Ready To Eat Cup Payasams


 Wheat Payasam
 Palada Payasam
 Vermicelli Payasam

 Instant Ready to Cook Curry Mix


 Chicken Biryani Mix
 Kerala Meat Curry Mix
 Kerala Chicken Curry Mix
29
 Kerala Fish Curry Mix
 Sambar Mix

 Pickles
 Veg Pickles
 Non Veg Pickles
 Vegetables In Brine

Masalas
 Sambar Powder
 Chicken Masala
 Meat Masala
 Pickle Powder
 Fish Masala
 Rasam Powder
 Vegetable Masala
 Egg Roast Masala
 Biriyani Masala
 Garam Masala

Condiments
 Chilli Powder
 Coriander Powder
 Turmeric Powder
 Pepper Powder
 Ginger Powder
 Crushed Chilli
 kashmiri Chilli

Other
 Coconut Chammanthi Podi
 Tamarind
30
 Jaggery
 Cocount Oil
 Papad
 Vinegar
 Soya Chunks
 Macaroni
 Black Tamarind
 Asafoetida Powder
 Mustard
 Fenugreek
 Cumin
 Fennel
 Soya Chunks Nano
 Chutney Powder

31
Organizational Design and Structure

CHART NO.3.1

CHAIRMAN

MANAGING
DIRECTOR

BOARD OF
DIRECTORS

GM GM
GM GM GM GM
MARKETING QUALITY
PRODUCTION PURCHASE FINANCE HR
CONTROL

ASST.GM
ASST.GM ASST.GM ASST.GM ASST.GM ASST.GM
QUALITY
PRODUCTION PURCHASE FINANCE MARKETING HR
CONTROL

PRODUCTION PURCHASE FINANCE MARKETING HR QUALITY


MANAGER CONTROL
MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER

ASST.
CHIEF QUALITY
SUPERVISORS SUPERVISORS MARKETING ASST.HRM
ACCOUNTANT CONTROLLER
MANAGER

AREA SALES
WORKERS WORKERS ACCOUNT STAFFS SUPERVISORS
MANAGER

SALES
WORKERS
EXECUTIVES

Source: Secondary Data

32
FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS

1. Purchase Department
2. Quality Control Department
3. Research & Development
4. Production Department
5. Sales & Marketing Department
6. Logistics and Warehouse Department
7. Finance and Accounts Department
8. HR and Administration Department
9. Customer Care Department
10. IT Department
11. Media & Designs Department

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

Purchasing function in a business environment is one of the most critical functions as it


provides the input for the organisation to convert into output. Materials today are life blood of
industry. They must be available at the proper time, in the proper quantity, at the proper
place, and the proper price. Company costs and company profits are greatly affected by them
as normally, a manufacturing organisation spends nearly 50% of its revenue in purchasing.
Purchasing is responsible for spending nearly half of a company's income for buying the
input materials. Obviously, any saving achieved by it results into direct saving for the
company and all such savings are a company's profit. Mainly Manjilas is purchasing the
products from the reputed vendors and the import goods or raw materials from countries like
Srilanka and other states of Kerala such as Gujarat, Tamil nadu, and Karnataka.

After production, purchase forms the main department which head the day to day activities of
the organization. In Manjilas the purchasing department is centralized and all the
procurement and storing under one head.

33
Functions of purchasing department:
The functions of purchasing department are varied and wide which are based upon
different approaches. The purchasing activities may be divided into those that are
always assigned to the purchasing department and those that are sometimes
assigned to some other department.
The followings are some of the important functions which are necessary to be
performed.
 SOURCING- determine the apt place to source the raw materials depending
on various factors like the profit and cost margins, regularity of availability,
quality of product, distance from the mill/ factory.
 AVAILABILITY- make sure the raw materials required for production reach
the factories in time. They are given the minimum order point, maximum
order point and re- order point, the purchase is made. These points are fixed
after analysing various factors like- storage capacity, market demand,
production capacity, and the transportation time.
 QUALITY- ensure the products sourced meet the quality prescribed by the
R&D department and quality controllers.
 WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT- ensure that the available working
capital is utilised in the most efficient way so that and decide whether the
product should be chosen for in- house manufacturing or should it be
outsourced.

Duties and responsibilities of purchase department

 Identify units and their readiness to outsource


 First cut unit visit to analyse plant capacity, plant hygiene, product range, units reach
ability to the warehouse, and collect product sample for QC check
 Finalise the quality and quality and landing rates
 Collect minimum stock reports from the plants on a daily basis
 Monitor the stock availability
 Place orders when they reach re-order point
 In case of exigencies, communicate with production department via e-mails.
 On receiving export order, identify and consolidate the SKUs unit wise and forwards
the order to units

34
 Raise purchase orders for every purchase of capital goods made.
 Approve the work orders send by maintenance team
 Co- ordinate with quality control department(QC) for seasonal buying.
 Ensure continuous process of vendor base expansion and registering then in SAP
which can be used for sampling and buying process.
 Quotes to be received by buyer over phone or by mail(3 minimum). The same is to be
posted in whatsapp foe approval by GM. In case higher prices are bought at,
clarification to be given in mail for the same.
 Release payments as per credit terms.

QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT

Quality control department refers to the ways and means where quality standards are
maintained. The aim of quality control is not only to improve quality of products, but also to
eliminate bad quality goods. Once the quality standard is set, then it should be achieved and
maintained in future and efforts should be made to improve it further. Manjilas group of
companies have set up a quality control department for the purpose of determining the quality
of the product. Different types of tools are used for the purpose of checking control. Their
department consists of 7 people headed by the quality control manager. Double horse
emphasis on maintaining strict quality parameters that involves the detection of
 Total bacterial count

 Total fungal count

 Collide forms
 Detection of pathogens like e.coli, Staphylococcus, salmonella, bacillus, listeria,
clostridium and so on.
QC also ensures that ISO 22000, for food industries are maintained

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

Research and Development department was formed with an aim of diversifying the product
range. A decade ago Manjilas was restricted to rice and rice products. But with the entrance
of new players pitching in the market it became imperative to extend the product range. With
utilizing the wide scope of products and ample availability of raw materials Manjilas has
been successful enough in launching almost 100+ products(99%) under the name of
DOUBLE HORSE since inception of R&D department

35
The department is headed by MANAGER, a senior food scientist who has the liberty to do
experiment for new products and two R&D executives and a Chef. Most the processes remain
a trade secret and was not disclosed during the study. R&D also conducts competitor product
analysis to improve their own products.
Major machinaries involved are Retorting Machine, Pulvarising machine and moisture
content machine.
R&D coordinates with Quality Control and Production for ensuring that the products are
manufactured as per the standard

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

The production department is crucial in an industrial organization like Manjilas Double


Horse. Production is the process by which raw materials and other inputs are converted into
finished products. Organizational wealth is determined by production. In a specified period of
time, the aggregate amount of goods and services produced in an organization is known as
wealth. The time frame may be short, medium or long depending on the type of product or
services produced. Production of goods as the fabrication of the physical object is of the
resources available to the manager. These resources include men, material, money, methods
and machines.

Depending on where the products are manufactured, the products of Double Horse can be
classified into 2:

In- house Out sourced


manufactured products
products

In- house manufactured products are those which are manufactured in the company’s own
factories and mills. The main factories are located at pollachi, tamil nadu,; while the minor
ones are at Palakkad, Coimbatore, and thrissur. Here 3 departments will come into play:

36
In-house Departments

CHART NO.3.2

production
department

quality
purchase
control
department
department

Source: Secondary Data

The Production department keeps track of production of the products depending on the
market demand and supply of the raw materials. They also take care of the maintenance of
the machinery.

The Quality control department check the quality of raw materials, at each stage of
production, and also that of the final product. These standards of quality are determined by
the research and development department and is as per FSSAI(food safety and standards
authority of india) limits.

The Purchase department ensures the availability of packaging materials and raw materials
required for manufacturing- mainly rice and spices. The capital assets wing of the department
helps in initial capital asset purchases-land ,building, machinery etc.

Out- sourced products are those which are outsourced from other manufactures and then
marketed by the company. Even though the products are not manufactured within the
company, the contracts are set in such a way that the quality of the products are never
compromised. This is ensured by appointing a quality controller in all those manufacturing
units. The products are manufactures, packed and labelled as per the contract and delivered to
the company for marketing. Their purchase and timely availability is monitored and
maintained by the purchase department.

37
Duties and responsibilities of production department

 Good working conditions


 Product development
 Preventive maintenance
 Delivery management
 Minimize downtime and meet annual production target as per expected cycle time.
 Resource utilization
 Maximizing quality of product, efficiency of production and maximize production
rates.
 Maximize plant efficiency through team work and innovation
 Operational costs
 Minimize the scrap level/wastage reduction
 Control overhead expenditure
 Stock control

CHART NO.3.3

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

GM

ASST.GM
Factory Production
manager Manager
Account Warehouse out source
Dept. supervisors
Dept quality control

Mechanics Operators
(Machines) Asst.QC
General
workers&messs
in charge Worker
category

Security
personnel

Source: Secondary Data

As the units of production are widespread, all the units do not have same kind of

38
activities.
The main activities of each units are as follows:
 Manjilas Food Tech Pvt. Ltd., Kottekkad, Thrissur
Production of Rice powder products, Pickles, Jams, Ready to eat
items, Pastes, Payasam mixes, etc & Warehousing Activities & Fleet
 Manjilas Food Tech. Pvt. Ltd, Chitoor, Palakkad.
Production of Instant Idiyappam, Rice Ada, Rice Sevai, Chakky Fresh
Atta
 Manjilas Agro Foods Pvt. Ltd, Cheramangalam, Palakkad
Processing of Paddy into Rice
 Manjilas Agro Foods Pvt. Ltd, Kunisserry, Palakkad
Production Rice and Warehousing Activities
 Q One Foods and Ingredients, Unjuvelampetti, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu
Production of - Rice powder products, Spices, condiments, masalas.
 Q One Foods and Ingredients (Branch), Unjuvelampetti, Pollachi, Tamil
Nadu-Branch
Process of washing the rice, production of Samba Wheat and its by
products, Rava.
 Q One Foods and Ingredients (OSK Warehouse), Gandhi Nagar, Pollachi,
Tamil Nadu-
Warehouseing activities for entire Outside Kerala Operations, Raw
Materials & Packing Material godown
 Manjilas Agro Foods - Branch, Mysore & Shimoga -
Rice outsourcing activities and quality Checking
 M O John & Sons (Exports), Kolangattukkara, Thrissur
Export of all Double Horse Products to almost all the countries

SALES & MARKETING DEPARTMENT


This team forms backbone of at Manjilas , like any other FMCG company, as they
act upfront and make sure that goods produced are sold and readily available to the
customers.
Manjilas has been following a dedicated MSS (Market sales and services) divison
which forms a formidable team in achieving the revenue.
Kerala forms the major market with 73% of sales then followed by exports with

39
18% and finally OSK with 9 %.
Before the sales activities carried out were by Van Delivery procedure, where in a
loaded vehicle will move to certain areas and goods are distributed according to the
shortage. This was very outdated and cumbersome and had many short comings.
There was no proper follow up and was not cost effective as there was many dead
stocks in the form of left overs and returns. Then Manjilas introduced Tally Software, In-
Vehicle computerised billing, first ofits kind among competitors. Now Manjilas employ wide
range of tech-savvy procedures which has helped to get an edge over its rivals. Use of ERP,
internet, mobile tracking has helped to track orders from remote places and standardize the
delivery procedure. This later divides into areas, territories, etc. Separate distribution methods
are adopted for Government and Non-Government sectors (Modern Trades).
Fieldmax is in-house software developed by Manjilas which help field executives to track
order and reflect the same in ERP software.
The organizational chart is as follows:
CHART NO.3.4
SALES & MARKETING DEPARTMENT

General
Manager

Asst.GM

Area Sales Manager SAP &MSS


Manager MSS Assistant

Territory Sales MSS


Manager Coordinators

Territory sales
Executives

Source: Secondary Data

Roles and responsibilities:


Area Sales Manager:
 Accountable for the pre-established Sales network
40
 Maintaining and growing existing business as well as generating new
accounts.
 The Regional Sales Manager interacts with business development teams and
has financial responsibility to maintain and grow the base business within
the assigned region.
 The Regional Sales Manager directs all elements of the sales process within
the region
Territory Sales Manager:
 Achieving agreed sales targets.
 Training, motivation and control of the executives
 Management of distribution : / Distributors / Retailers
 Conduct business development activities in the area
 Ensure all sales related processes are adhered by the team.
 Delegating/Setting targets for the sales executive.
 Monitoring the performance of the sales executive.
 Visit major supermarkets and liaison with the supermarkets owners.
 Follow-up with distributors for payments.
Territory Sales executive:
 Visit potential customers for new business
 Provide customers with quotations
 Negotiate the terms of an agreement and close sales
 Gather market and customer information and provide feedback on buying
 trends
 Represent your organization at trade exhibitions, events and demonstrations
 Identify new markets and business opportunities
 Record sales and send copies/reports to TSM
 Apart from these duties the marketing department also conducts product
 promotional activities, new product launches, sample products distribution, etc
 In-shop promotional activities involve placing the product at apt location at big
 retail outlets and supermarkets.

LOGISTICES AND WAREHOUSE DEPARTMENT

41
Both logistics and warehouse departments function separately but reports to the same
Assistant General Manager.

Logistics – they form that part of supply chain which plans, implements, and controls the
efficient, effective forward, and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related
information between the point of consumption in order to meet customers requirements. They
will ensure that the right products are delivered to the right location on time and at a good
cost.

They are involved in transportation, stock control, warehousing and monitoring the flow of
goods.

Functions;

 Manage bid and procurement activities for goods and services for all commodities,
leased space and construction.
 Consult with and educate departments about sourcing strategies, supplier outreach and
internal procurement processes/ requirements.
 Develop and support strategic sourcing initiatives

Warehouse Department- the warehouse forms the heart of any manufacturing company. It is
the one point shop that keeps the supply mechanism running. The warehouse department is
divided into the following functions: receiving; storage; order processing; dispatch

Duties and responsibilities of logistics and warehouse department

 Reduction in operating costs


 Minimize the inventory levels
 Implementation of quality control programs
 Apply state- of- art management techniques.
 Application and acceptance of new technology
 Shop floor improvements
 Productivity
 Health and safety
 Quality control
 Record keeping

42
FINANCE DEPARTMENT

Finance is the process of registering all the activities of the company in monetary terms for
the purpose of generating useful reports that help the users of these reports and statements
even external or internal users. Finance is one of the most important functional areas of
business and within business firms. It joins other functional areas like marketing, operations
technology, and management as key areas of business. Business owners and business
managers have to have at least a basic understanding of finance even if they outsource certain
areas of their financial operations. Organization Structure of finance is as follows:
CHART NO.3.5

Manager
Executives
Accounts

Manager Tax
Executives
and Legal
General Asst.General
Manager MANAGER
Auditor

SAP Executive

Source: Secondary Data

Relationship of Finance with Production


Production department’s main duty is to produce the goods. For producing goods, it needs
raw material, labour and other expenses. For paying all expenses, production department
needs money and fund which will be fulfilled by finance department.
Finance department checks the budget of production department and allow funds for
production department. With this view, we can understand that production department is
dependent on finance department’s decision. Now, if production department performs his

43
duty honestly and products are produced and sold on time, it will be helpful for increase sale
and profitability and it will again recycle the fund with high profit in finance department. So,
we can say both are dependent on each other. Both are players of business team. Both should
be adopt co-operative view for each other. After this, business team can succeed in business.
The main duties of finance department are broadly classified into three:

CHART NO.3.6

Procurement of funds

Duties

costing and budgeting Allocation of funds

Source: Secondary Data

Procurement of funds

The funds are collected for the effective usage of finance resources. The company collects
funds from the following sources:

 As loans- Loans can be taken from banks and other financial institutions in the form
of bank OD, cash credits, bank loans etc.
 Investments- The capital of the company is funded by venture capitalists and through
Angel funding. Investments like insurance, fixed deposits are also source of finance.
 Funds from sales- The funds emerging from sales are in the form of cash or credit. In
the case of cash sales the cash is directly received by the department and in the case of
credit sales, cash is collected from the debtors within a certain period

Allocation of funds

It is of great significance for the finance department to channelize the fund in strategic
manner for the existence and operation if the business. The funds would be allocated to the
following:

44
 Procurement of raw materials
 Employee wages and office salary
 Office expenses
 Taxes and other legal expenses
 Maintenance expenses
 Carriage and transportation
 Petty expenses

Costing and budgeting

The various research and analysis techniques that helps improve the firms running are
conducted by this team.

 Ratio analysis- Gross profit ratio, net profit ratio, solvency, working capital turnover
ratio, current and liquidity ratio
 Cost sheets of production- To control costs. It is done using activity based method.
Unlike the traditional method which involves costing of each department as an
assumed percentage of total cost, activity based method helps in calculating the actual
cost on an activity- to- activity basis. This is more specific and accurate, and helps in
easier identification and management of costs.
 Profit and loss statements, balance sheet and cash flow statements- to guide, monitor
and update the financial status of the organization.

Budgeting is done at the beginning of each financial year. The process starts with the sales
department giving the expected projection of sale for the coming year, to the purchase
department. The purchase department will then submit the expected cost of the raw materials
required for the expected sales. The finance and accounts department, along with this value,
considers the requirements of other expenses required for the internal working of other
departments, and prepares the budget for the year.

Systems of accounting followed

The accounting system of Manjilas Group is supported by German software system


SAP(SAP stands for stands for systems, applications, products in data processing) it builds
service orientation directly into its solutions through a technology called SAP Net Weaver.
This software supports companies in the development of their own service oriented

45
architectures. Functional units of SAP are split across different organizational units for R&D
needs, field activities and customer support.

The main advantage of SAP system is that, this system enables the users to get to know the
full details of an employee right from the day his/ her arrival in the organization. Pay roll is
processed using SAP. Even if an employee is absent, that will be also marked in his profile
using SAP. Finally, when an employee salary is computed, the SAP will calculate his/ her
salary depending upon the number of leaves taken. This will help the organization into
reducing its human effort.

Major Responsibilities of functions:


 Budgeting
 Maintaining receivables and payables
 Credit referencing
 Security
 Financial analysis
 Cost control
 Internal audit
 Regulatory reporting
 Credit control
 Financial records
 Cash flow forecasting
 Costing
 Sales
 Payment releases

HR AND ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT

Human Resources (HR) is concerned with the issues of managing people in the organization.
The Human Resources department is responsible for many people related issues in an
organisation.
Under the HR department’s remit are the following roles:
 The process of recruiting suitable candidates for the organisation
 Identifying and meeting the training needs of existing staff
 Ensuring employee welfare and employee relations are positive

46
 Ensure the working environment is safe for employees
 Raising awareness of current workplace legislation

Manjilas has started as a family venture, most of the departments were handled by non-
professionals, and so was the HR department which was part of admin team. Now a strong
and efficient HR team has helped Manjilas to transform to a professional organisation. Key
policies were implemented and laid out. Proper recruitment and performance analysis were
carried out which helped to build a good brand value.
The Organisation chart of HR and Admin is as follows:

CHART NO.3.7

Asst.General
Manager

Manager

Asst.Manager

Executives
Executives Executives
(Training)
(Statutory) (Recruitment)

Source: Secondary Data

Manjilas has HR executives at every plant where work happens. These executives make sure
that all the policies are followed properly and hear the grievances of workers if any.
Main functions of HR at Double horse are:

Measures by introducing new beneficial welfare measures to the employees


 Manpower Planning, Recruitment

47
Forecasting manpower requirement for the Financial year in line with the
Organizational Objectives. Average time to fill the vacancy is 45 days and
maximum time 90 days.
 Attendance and Pay rolling
Get the attendance downloaded from the Bio Metric Scanner by the location
HR representatives, send it to HO, prepare the Salary Statement and send to
accounts for transfer.
 Statutory Compliances
PF and ESI – preparation of statement of PF and ESI, remit it on time.
 Training
Identify the training needs in co-ordination with respective HODs, Preparation
of Training Calendar, and Conduct or arrange the trainings and ensure the person is fit
for the Role.
 Performance Management Systems.
Each role has to be appraised /evaluated with their Functional KRAs and soft skills
which are already set in the organization. Depends upon the score, the promotions and
salary hike can be decided.
 Implementation of Policies.
Ensure the Group is having a well-defined HR Procedures and Policies. All
employees should have the knowledge of all procedures by having issued them a HR
Manual.
 Staff Welfare Activities
The organization is in the process of modifying the existing Staff Welfare Measures
by introducing new beneficial welfare measures to the employees and their families.

HR Policies
It is the duty of HR Department to implement the policies and procedures, ensure
the abidance of the implemented policies and procedures by all employees without
violating any of such rules. Keeping this objective in mind, we published an
Employee Manual.It is just a hand book of Manjilas’s Rules.

Objective of Employee Manual

48
This Employee Manual is designed to acquaint you with Manjilas Group of Companies and
to provide you with information about our culture, working conditions, employee
compensation & benefits, and other policies affecting your employment with us. It describes
many of your responsibilities as an employee and member of the Manjilas Family.
Custodian of the Policy
HR Department is the custodian of the HR Manual and all other Policies. The Travelling
Policy is kept with Administration Department.

Manpower Planning
Manpower planning is one of the important functions performed by HR. As the number of
workers required is not same throughout the year and production activities are seasonal and
on demand, the manpower will be allocated according the work. Production department will
quantify the man-hours needed for a work and calculate the feasibility and arrange the
manpower. These happens mainly in worker category (non-permanent and contract
employees). Improper manpower planning can result in higher cost and reducing the margin
on the product. Hence HR also play a vital role in profit making.

The whole activity is summarized as follows:


CHART NO.3.8

Unit Head should define the total number of Manpower of all categories
depending up on the yearly production plan, approve it and should send
it to HR Department

HR will have to validate the Manpower Power requirement sent by the


concerned HOD. If it is a replacement, no further approval is required.
For addition ,the approval is required

49
Source: Secondary Data

EMPLOYEE PROVIDENT FUND (EPF)


Employee Provident Fund ( provident fund ) is a retirement benefit scheme that is
available to salaried employees. Stipulated amount (currently 12%) is deducted from the
employee's salary and contributed towards the fund. The employer also contributes an equal
amount to the fund. With recent changes UAN ( Universal Account Number) has replaced PF
number for traceability.
For EPF, both the employee and the employer contributes equal amount, which is
12% of the salary of the employee. However, the employee contributions may
differ. Employees can contribute more than 12% of their salary voluntarily.
However, in such a case, the employer is not bound to match the extra contribution
of the employee.
For PF contribution, the salary comprises of components such as: basic wages, DA,
conveyance allowance and special allowance. For the PF deduction, the maximum limit of
salary of the employee is Rs 15,000/- per month. This means that even if the employee’s
salary is above Rs 15,000/- the employer is liable to contribute only on Rs 15,000/-, that is Rs
1,800.

EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE (ESI)


ESI fund, maintained by ESIC is applicable to employees earning Rs 15,000 or less per
month to provide the cash and medical benefits to them and their families. This fund is a
contributory fund in which both the employer and employee contribute
4.75% and 1.75% respectively to make it a total of 6.5%. For ESI calculation, the salary
comprises of all the monthly payable amounts such as basic pay, dearness allowance, city
compensatory allowance, HRA, incentive allowance, attendance bonus, meal allowance and
incentive bonus.
The salary however, does not include annual bonus, retrenchment compensation,
encashment of leave and gratuity.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION IN MANJILAS GROUP


Process of Recruitment at Manjilas Group of Companies.

50
Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment own
processes. In Manjilas, the recruitment is a process consisting of various activities, through
which search of prospective personnel-both in quantity and quality – as indicated by human
resource planning and job description and job specification is made.
This process includes recruitment planning, identification of recruitment planning,
identification of recruitment sources, contacting those sources and receiving
application from prospective employees.
Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates
to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


The main objective of the Training is to develop the Functional Skill of each employee and
make them perfect fit in the Role he is playing to the development of organizational goals.
The trainings can be internal or external. A Training Committee is formed which includes the
existing employees having expertise in various subjects.
Procedure
1.Training need identification:
Identify the training needs in co-ordination with the concerned HODs. Focus to be given on
the improvement of Functional Duties and Responsibilities. It is the duty of the HOD to point
out the weakness of an employee working under him.
2.Preparation of Training Calendar:
As per the identified training needs, a training calendar is to be prepared. Some of the
subjects of Soft Skill and Functional Skills can be taken by the identified trainers from the
internal training committee.
3.Training Schedule:
As per the Calendar, the first option should be that if the particular subjects can be taken by
our internal trainer, will schedule the training as per the convenience of the trainer.
Otherwise, will go for an external trainer.
4.Conducting the Training :
The trainings can be conducted internally or externally. Certain trainings are conducted at
Unit Level. For Marketing team, an yearly training is scheduled along with the Annual Sales
Meet. Considering the space constrain, we conduct such Annual Trainings outside every year.

51
Internal trainers will take classes as per the requirement at Head Office and units. Both cases
the availability of trainer as well as trainees to be confirmed well in advance before finalizing
the time of training.
5.Training Feed Back and Development :
HR will have to get a training feedback format duly filled in by the attendees.
Also there should be a proper monitoring after training in co-ordination with HOD
and ensure the training is successful and as a result the development is in
existence.
Performance Appraisal system:
Objective:
To evaluate the performance of the employees based on the competencies required in the
specified role with a reliable, valid objective assessment and thereby reward the employee
meeting the individual and organizational objectives in a culture of transparency. Every year
HR would facilitate the performance review of all employees along with their reporting
Managers. The performance management process implementing and monitoring shall be the
responsibility of the Human Resource Department. The implementation of the process shall
be the responsibility of every employee and their Reporting Managers.
Scope:
The PMS should provide inputs for the following decisions:
• Reward and recognition
• Probation confirmation review
• Promotion
• Annual Salary Increment
• Training need identification
• Career Progression
• Retention
• Punishment, disciplinary action and termination
Process
Step 1 :
Appraisal sheets are prepared on the basis of Measurable Metrics which was already set in
line with the Functional KRAs. While setting the metrics, the following points should be
taken into consideration:
• Specific – Precise, well defined, clear and understandable to every one

52
• Measurable – The individual should be well aware of the tasks, evidence needs to be
clarified if needed, it can be judged.
• Achievable – It is to be confirmed the availability of resources to achieve the set target/goal.
• Relevant – Whether the set objectives are relevant to perform the current role
• Time bound - Time limit/deadline oriented, feasibility of time limit to achieve.
Step 2 :
Schedule the Appraisal date and time in co-ordination with the Reporting
Managers/Superiors.
Rating -
The performance will be evaluated against the parameters in a 1 to 5 rating scale of
the KRA defined for the position. The details are as follows:
• 5 point scale – Excellent.
Performance is exceptional. Consistently demonstrates excellent standards
in all job requirements

• 4 point Scale - Very Good


Performance is consistent and exceeds expectations in all situations
• 3 point scale - Good
Performance is consistent. Clearly meets essential requirements of the job
• 2 point scale – Average
Meets requirements of the job but needs improvements
• 1 point scale – Poor
Doesn’t meet minimum requirement expected for the position.
Step 3: During the appraisal process, the self review is to be done by the Appraise
(employee). Through this, we provides an opportunity to the employee to introspect and
check his/her performance against the tasks and targets assigned to him/her.
Step 4 :
The Appraiser (Reporting Manager) needs to evaluate the process and to communicate the
appraise on his/her performance, strength and weakness, and the area where the improvement
required.
Step 5: Closing the process by the Reviewer (HR Representative) by noting down
the comments.

53
Once the appraisal process is over, the HR Department will conclude it by a gentle validation
with their remarks on the next action to be carried out. (It can be an increment, promotion,
transfer, giving proper training, warning letter, disciplinary action including a termination.

CUSTOMER CARE DEPARTMENT

Customer care becomes an inevitable part in an Food industry. At Manjilas high value is
giving for customer feedback and ready action is taken to ensure that nomistakes are
repeated. Every product carries a Customer care number through which a customer can
contact the company any make grievances.
Customer Care department works in coordination with Production and Quality Control to
make sure that entire batch of products if noted for any problems should be called back. All
the corrective and preventive actions are initiated from here then. No major customer
grievances have occurred for Double which shows the amount of care given for Quality of
the products.
Complaints can be raised through different ways- complaint boxes, e-mails to
customercare@manjilas.in . In the facebook page, or through telephone. The company also
conduct surveys in the retails stores about the response of the customers.

IT DEPARTMENT
IT department gives the necessary aid to maintain the information and technology related
aspects. This include:

 Maintain the required database


 Developing required software(SAP) and training the employees in using them along
with maintaining the SAP usage traffic.
 Maintaining the LAN(local area network), WAN (wide area network)
 Ensure proper internet supply and monitor its usage
 Maintain the systems and imbibe latest technologies to minimise the working cost.

Responsibilities of IT department

 Minimise cost
 Maintenance of computer hardware
 Software assistance

54
 Allocate SAP accounts
 Networking

MEDIA AND DESIGN DEPARTMENT

Manjilas has a dedicated media team which looks after the media presence of the company.
Although known for its quality of products rather than advertisements Manjilas has built its
market on trust by not compromising on quality for decades. Double has actress Shobhana as
its brand ambassador and maintained not so bad media presence.
It relies on BRANDiD, a consultation firm which takes care of its ads.
Media team uses TAM GRP rating and IRS, ABC report to evaluate which TV channel or
print media to be used for advertisements. Company allocates 4% of its budget in
advertisements.

It has sponsored many major events such as SURYA T V Awards, VANITHA film

55
awards. As an FMCG product it is important for Manjilas to advertise as there is a major
competition in this field with new products coming up in every other day.

56
KRA OF THE ORGANIZATION
The following are the key result areas that the organization as a whole focuses upon.

 PROFIT: The net profit or surplus before tax planning efforts, produced by the
efficient operation and effective administration of your enterprise.

 SALES/INCOME/REVENUE: The gross or top line billing/invoicing produced by


all operational activities of your enterprise.

 COMMUNITY IMAGE: The way your organization is perceived by the social,


vendor, customer and employee communities - Stakeholder perceptions.

 CUSTOMER/CLIENT SATISFACTION: The policies, procedures and values that


determine how your people provide service, and to what degree your
customers/clients' needs will be satisfied.

 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT (PLACE): The physical space, layout, ambiance,


tools and equipment that your people work in and with.

 PEOPLE: The number, positions, qualifications, pay scales, benefits and


training/development needs of your people at all levels. How you compensate them,
how you recruit, hire, appraise performance, promote and transfer, your organization's
policies & structure.

 DIVERSIFICATION: The identification/creation/acquisition of new products,


services, geographic & demographic markets to ensure your organization's continued
competitive viability.

 SYSTEMS, PROCEDURES & TECHNOLOGY: The methods, principles and


technologies used, the "way the company does things," to ensure the best use of
human, financial and equipment resources to generate profit and satisfy your
customers.

57
KRA of HR department
 Recruitment/ Selection
 Workforce Planning
 Diversity Management
 Performance Management

 Reward Management
 Workplace Management
 Industrial Relations
 Safety And Health Workplace
 Building Capabilities And Organization Learning

KRA of Research & Development Department


 Plan and estimate development activities. Hold reviews to validate designs &
analysis.
 Working out on budget
 Cost analysis
 Minimize purchasing costs
 New Product development & Testing.
 Value engineering & innovative solutions
 Analysis of customer requirements.
 Coordinate with the factory and suppliers for product development.
 Preparation of SOP’s. Authorize all documents for development of new product.
 Preparation of technical documentation and resolve product problems.
 Define specifications of all the instruments & research materials for conducting the
experiments.
 Evaluate competitors offerings technically & commercially.

KRA of Production Department


 Good working conditions
 Product development
 Preventive maintenance
 Delivery management

58
 Minimize downtime and meet annual production target as per expected cycle time
 Resource utilization
 Maximizing quality of product, efficiency of production and maximize production
rates
 Maximize plant efficiency through teamwork and innovation
 Operational costs
 Minimize the scrap level/wastage reduction
 Control overhead expenditure
 Stock control

 Reduction in operating costs


 Minimize the inventory levels
 Implementation of quality control programs
 Apply newer management techniques such as ISO, TQM, Six Sigma, etc.
 Application and acceptance of new technology
 Shop floor improvements
 Productivity: Improvement of process
 Record Keeping
 Customer Satisfaction

KRA of Finance and Accounting Department


 Credit referencing
 Management information
 Capital expenditure
 Security
 Financial analysis
 Cost control
 Internal audit
 Regulatory reporting
 Credit control
 Financial records
 Cash flow forecasting
 Budgeting

59
 Costing
 Sales
 New business acquisition

KRA of Sales Department


 New business acquisition
 Territory management
 Customer care
 Lead generation
 Lead follow up (internal and external)
 Account management
 Customer retention
 Interpersonal skills
 Negotiating skills
 Product knowledge
 Sales forecasting

KRA of Manufacturing Department


 Stock control
 Maintenance
 Labour relations
 Waste management
 Reworks
 Productivity
 Health and Safety
 Quality control
 Record keeping

KRA of Marketing Department


 Advertising
 Promotional strategy
 Hold/ Participate in events
 Pricing

60
 Market research
 Field support
 Marketing materials
 Media relations
 Sales support
 Agency relations
 Strategize Marketing Mediums

KRA of the Marketing Trainer


 Design of solutions
 Delivery of solutions
 Evaluation of solutions
 Budgets
 Client satisfaction
 Innovation

KRA of the Human Resource Specialist


 Staffing
 Employee relations
 Employee development
 Compensation planning and administration
 Policy development
 Benefits administration
 Career development
 Statutory compliance
 Human Resource information systems

KRA of General Manager or Senior Executive


 Internal operations
 Market development
 Profitability
 Organisational structure
 Organisational vision and mission

61
 Asset and liability management
 Board of directors relationship
 Productivity
 Financial strategy
 Business development
 Technology
 Customer satisfaction
 Community relations
 Regulatory compliance

KRA of Secretarial, Clerical and Administrative Executives


 Correspondence
 Filing
 Records management
 Administrative support
 Internal customer relations
 Equipment maintenance
 Forms administration
 Scheduling
 Supply maintenance and purchasing
 Telephone coverage
 Project support

62
SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATION

STRENGTHS
 Large exporters of rice and food products
 Wider reach by exporting products to outside India
 Provide large volume of employment opportunities
 More than 1100 skilled labourers
 Variety in food products
 Use of high – quality equipments imported from Japan
 Provides good welfare benefits to employees.

WEAKNESSES

 Comparatively low degree of promotional policies

 Poor performance appraisal programs


 Weak training methods

OPPORTUNITIES

 High demand in foreign and local markets


 Introduction of sachet packets

THREATS

 Increasing competition from existing players and new entrants


 Changing Consumer Behaviour (Consumer shifting to western diets and menus)

63
TABLE NO. 4.1(a)
GENDER

Gender No. of Respondents Percentage


Male 88 88
Female 12 12
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

CHART NO.4.1(a)

GENDER

12%

Male
Female

88%

Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION
From the above table and chart it is clear that 88% of the respondents are men and the
remaining 12% are of women.

64
TABLE NO. 4.1(b)
AGE

Variables No. of respondents Percentage


0-20 - -
21-30 18 18
31-40 33 33
41-50 36 36
Above 50 13 13
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

CHART NO.4.1(b)

AGE
0%

13%
18%
0-20
21-30
31-40

36% 41-50
33% above 50

Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION

From the above table and chart it is clear that 18% of the respondents falls under the age
category of 21-30, 33% of respondents under 31-40, 36% of the respondents under 41-50%
and the remaining 13% under 50 and above. Hence, majority of the employees falls under the
age category of 41-50.

65
TABLE NO. 4.1(c)
MARITAL STATUS

Variables No. of respondents Percentage


Married 87 87
Unmarried 13 13
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

CHART NO.4.1(C)

MARITAL STATUS

13%

Married
Un married

87%

Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION

From the above table and chart it is clear that 87% of the respondents are married and the
remaining 13% are unmarried.

66
TABLE NO. 4.1(d)
WORK EXPERIENCE

Variables No. of respondents Percentage


Less than 1 year 12 12
1 to 3 years 36 36
4 to 6 years 48 48
More than 6 years 4 4
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

CHART NO.4.1(d)

Work Experience

4%
12%

Less than 1 Year


1-3 Years
4-6 Years
48% 36%
More than 6 Years

Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION

From the above table and chart it is clear that 12% of the respondents fall under the category
of less than 1 year of working experience, 36% of the respondents fall under the category of 1
to 3 year of working experience and the remaining 48% of the respondents fall under the
category of 4 to 6 year of working experience. Hence, majority of the employees falls under
4-6 years of experience.

67
TABLE NO. 4.2

AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT OF EMPLOYEES WITH THEIR


JOB
Questions Agree Strongly Neutral Disagree Strongly
completely Agree (3) (2) Disagree Average
(5) (4) (1)
Company clearly
Conveys mission to 98 2 - - - 4.98
employees
Tools and resources - -
needed for the job 97 3 - 4.97
Morale in department 3 - -
is very high 14 83 4.11
Working hours at the - - -
organisation is 9 91 4.09
satisfactory
Easy to get along with 3 - - 4.08
colleagues 11 86
Overall, supervisor - -
does a good job. 5 95 4.05
Work is according to - - -
your qualification and 3 97 4.03
skill
Supervisor promotes 5 - -
an atmosphere for 7 88 4.02
work
The supervisor is able 3 - -
to address the 3 94 4
questions
Training needed for - -
the job 3 91 6 3.97

Supervisor provides 7 - -
actionable suggestion 4 89 3.97
on improvement
Good communication
from managers to 3 93 3 - - 3.96
employees
Amount of work - -
expected is reasonable 83 17 3.83
Feeling of
underutilisation with - - 67 28 5 2.62
job
Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION
From the above table using weighted average method of calculation it is clear that the
employees agreements and disagreement on their job with an average weighted score of 4.

68
TABLE NO.4.3

SATISFACTION LEVEL OF EMPLOYEES

Questions Highly Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Average


Satisfied (4) (3) (2) dissatisfied
(5) (1)
Leave
arrangements - 100 - - - 4
(Casual,
sick,
maternity...)
Career
progression at 9 76 15 - - 3.94
the company
Holidays - 87 13 - - 3.87
Welfare
facilities 0 82 18 - - 3.82
provided by
the company
Your Pay - 87 5 8 - 3.79
Benefits
offered by the - 64 25 11 - 3.53
company
Job Security - 22 78 - - 3.22
Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION
From the above table using weighted average method of calculation it is clear that the
satisfaction level of employees on their job with an average weighted score of 3.

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TABLE NO.4.4

OVERALL SATISFACTION WITH CURRENT JOB

Variables No. of respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 17 17
Satisfied 58 58
Moderately satisfied 18 18
Dissatisfied 7 7
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

CHART NO.4.4

Overall Satisfaction with Current Job


0%

7%
17%

18% Highly Satisfied


Satisfied
Moderately Satisfied
Dissatisfied

58%

Source: Primary Data

INTERPRETATION
From the above table and chart it is clear that 58% of the respondents are satisfied,
18% are moderately satisfied, 17% are highly satisfied and only 7% is dissatisfied regarding
the overall satisfaction with the current job.

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Chi Square Test

TABLE NO. 4.5

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND CURRENT JOB


SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction

Work Highly Satisfied Moderately Dissatisfied Highly TOTAL


experience satisfied satisfied dissatisfied

Less than 1 2 5 5 0 0 12
year

1 to 3 years 6 23 3 4 0 36

4 to 6 years 7 28 10 3 0 48

More than 6 2 2 0 0 0 4
years

TOTAL 17 58 18 7 0 100

Testing of hypothesis,

H0: There is no significance relationship between work experience and employee overall job
satisfaction.

H1: There is a significance relationship between work experience and employee overall job
satisfaction.

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CHI SQUARE TEST TABLE

TABLE NO. 4. 5(a)

0 E 0-E |0-E| (|0-E|-0.5) (|0-E|-0.5) ^2 (|0-E|-0.5) ^2 / E

2 2.04 -0.04 0.4 -0.1 0.01 0.004901

5 6.96 -1.96 1.96 1.46 2.1316 0.306264

5 2.16 2.84 2.84 2.34 5.4756 2.535

0 0.84 -0.84 0.84 0.34 0.1156 0.137619

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

6 6.12 -0.12 0.12 -0.38 0.1444 0.023594

23 20.88 2.12 2.12 1.62 2.6244 0.125689

3 6.48 -3.48 3.48 2.98 8.8804 1.370432

4 2.52 1.48 1.48 0.98 0.9604 0.381111

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

7 8.16 -1.16 1.16 0.66 0.4356 0.053382

28 27.84 0.16 0.16 -0.34 0.1156 0.004152

10 8.64 1.36 1.36 0.86 0.7396 0.085601

3 3.36 -0.36 0.36 -0.14 0.0196 0.005833

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 0.68 1.32 1.32 0.82 0.6724 0.988823

2 2.32 -0.32 0.32 -0.18 0.0324 0.013965

0 0.72 -0.72 0.72 0.22 0.0484 0.067222

0 0.28 -0.28 0.28 -0.22 0.0484 0.172857

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTAL 6.276445

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Degree of freedom = (r-1) * (c-1)

= (4 - 1) * (5 - 1) = 12 = 21.026

The table value of Chi square at 5% level significance and degree of freedom is 21.026 and
the calculated value is 6.276445 which is smaller than the table value of 21.026, therefore
accept the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION

From the above analysis, it has been found that the calculated value is smaller than the
table value, so the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, it can be concluded that there is no
significance relationship between work experience and employee overall job satisfaction.

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MANN WHITNEY TEST

TABLE NO.4.6
REALATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER WITH RESPECT TO OVERALL
SATISFACTION WITH CURRENT JOB

PARTICULARS Male Female TOTAL

Highly satisfied 14 3 17

Satisfied 55 3 58

Moderately satisfied 17 1 18

Dissatisfied 2 5 7

Highly dissatisfied 0 0 0

TOTAL 88 12 100

Testing of hypothesis,

H0: There is no significance difference in the response of male and female employees with
respect to the overall satisfaction with the current job.

H1: There is significance difference in the response of male and female employees with
respect to the overall satisfaction with the current job.

MANN WHITNEY TEST TABLE

TABLE NO. 4. 6(a)

RANKING 1

Combine Rank
0 1.5
0 1.5
1 3
2 4
3 5.5
3 5.5
5 7
14 8
17 9
55 10

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TABLE NO. 4. 6(b)

RANKING 2

Particulars Male R1 Female R2


Highly satisfied 14 8 3 5.5
Satisfied 55 10 3 5.5
Neutral 17 9 1 3
Dissatisfied 2 4 5 7
Highly dissatisfied 0 1.5 0 1.5

Total T1= 32.5 T2 =22.5

To calculate the U value, the formula is,

U = N1 N2 + NX (NX + 1) - TX

Where,

 N1 and N2 are the number of participants in each group.


 Nx is the number of people in the group that gave the largest rank total.
 Tx is the largest rank total

From the above table,

N1 = N2 = Nx = 5

Tx= 32.5

Therefore, U = 5 * 5 + 5 (5+1)/2 – 32.5

U = 40 – 32.5 = 7.5

At 5% significance level, N1 = N2 = 5, critical value = 2

At 1% significance level, N1 = N2 = 5, critical value = 0

The obtained value of U is 7.5

INTERPRETATION
From the above analysis it can be found that the calculated U value is higher than the critical
value so accept the null hypothesis H0 that is there is no significance difference in the
response of male and female employees with respect to the overall satisfaction with the
current job.

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FINDINGS
 Out of 100 respondents 88% of employees are men and remaining 12% is women.
Hence it can be inferred that majority of the employees working in the organization
are men.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees falls under the age category of 41-
50.
 Out of 100 respondents 87% of employees are married and remaining 13% are
unmarried. Hence it can be inferred that majority of the employees are married.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees falls under 4-6 years of experience.

AGREEMENTS AND DISAGREEMENTS OF EMPLOYEES WITH JOB


 The study reveals that majority of the employees agree completely that company
clearly coveys mission to employees.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees agree completely that they have the
tools and resources needed for the job.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that the morale in the
department is very high.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that working hours at
the organization is satisfactory.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree it is easy to get long
with colleagues.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that the supervisor
does a good job.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that their work is
according to their qualification and skill.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that they got the
training needed to do the job.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that the supervisor an
atmosphere for work.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that the supervisor is
able to address the questions.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that supervisor
provides actionable suggestions on improvement.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree that there is a good
communication from manager to employees.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees strongly agree the amount of work
expected from them is reasonable.

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 The study reveals that majority of the employees had neutral opinion on feeling of
underutilisation with job.
 The study reveals that majority of the employees are satisfied with the current job.

SATISFACTION LEVEL OF EMPLOYEES


 All the employees are satisfied with the leave arrangement.
 Majority of the employees are satisfied with the career progression at the
company.
 Majority of the employees are satisfied with the holidays provide by the
company.
 Majority of the employees are satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by
the company.
 Majority of the employees are satisfied with the Pay.
 Majority of the employees are satisfied with the benefits offered by the
company.
 Majority of the employees had neutral opinion on job security.
CHI-SQUARE TEST

 By using the Chi-Square test it is found that there is no significance relationship


between work experience and employee overall job satisfaction.

MANN WHITNEY TEST

 By using the Mann Whitney test it is found that that is there is no significance
difference in the response of male and female employees with respect to the
overall satisfaction with the current job.

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SUGGESTIONS
 Encourage Team spirit.
 Provide opportunities to use skills and abilities while doing the job.
 Should encourage office celebrations for holidays and birthdays.
 Encourage open and continuous communication.
 Provide competitive compensation.
 Encourage work on personal endeavours like online learning.
 Identify and manage challenging employees differently.

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CONCLUSION
Manjilas Food Tech Private Limited is an ISO 9001-2000 certified rice milling company in
the state and first food brand who introduce sortex rice,stoneless rice and colour grading
which emphasises on quality aspect. A Project was undertaken at Manjilas Food Tech Private
Limited to understand the functioning of various departments. It also tried to examine the Job
satisfaction level of employees. For the purpose of the study responses were collected from
100 employees.

Manjilas Food Tech Private Limited is a well known spice exporter in India. The company
exports its products to 22 countries mainly to Middle East, UK, Australia, Canada, Singapore,
South Africa and European countries. It is the first ISO 9001-2000 certified Rice Mill in the
state.

The analysis from primary study reveals that majority of the employees are satisfied in
working for the company. It increases the morale of the employees thereby increases the
productivity and leads to increased production in the organization.The study has arrived at a
conclusion that majority of the workers at Manjilas Food Tech Private Limited are satisfied
with their job. But however in certain cases, the satisfaction level of some of the employees
get reduced.

Manjilas Food Tech Private Limited has achieved the enviable heights mainly due to the
hard work of employees and their commitments towards their customers.

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