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Project Report

On

POWER DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS WITH SPECIALISATION


IN POLE MOUNTED SUBSTATION

AUTHOR
PRIYANSH SONI

PROJECT SUPERVISOR
MR. SHRENIK KR. JAIN
(HOG-DP RHN-BDL)

REFERENCE NUMBER : 1819

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 28th JULY 2019

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ABSTRACT

This project 


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The internship opportunity I had with TATA Power Delhi Distribution Limited was a
great chance for learning and professional development. Therefore, I consider
myself as a very lucky individual as I was provided with an opportunity to be a part
of it. I am also grateful for having a chance to meet so many wonderful people and
professionals who led me though this internship period.

I am using this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude and special thanks to


the HOG-DP Mr. Shrenik Jain who in spite of being extraordinarily busy with his
duties, took time out to hear, guide and keep me on the correct path and allowing
me to carry out my project at their esteemed organisation and extending during the
training.

I perceive this opportunity as a big milestone in my career development. I will strive


to use gained skills and knowledge in the best possible way, and I will continue to
work on their improvement, in order to attain desired career objectives. Hope to
continue cooperation with all of you in the future,

Sincerely,
Priyansh Soni

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INDEX

SR. NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1 ABSTRACT

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3 INDEX

4 ABOUT TPDDL - VISION, MISSION, VALUES

5 INTRODUCTION

6 ELECTRICAL SUBSTATIONS AND ELEMENTS

7 TYPES OF ELECTRICAL SUBSTATIONS

8 TRANSMISSION SUBSTATION

9 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION

10 COLLECTOR SUBSTATION

11 CONTROL SUBSTATIONS

12 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION - DESIGN AND LAYOUT

13 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION - PROTECTION NEEDS

14 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION - CONSTRUCTION METHODS

15 TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION

16 POLE MOUNTED SUBSTATIONS

17

18

19

20

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ABOUT TPDDL

TPDDL which stands for Tata Power Delhi Distribution Limited previously North
Delhi Power Limited (NDPL), is a joint venture between the Government of the
National Capital Territory of Delhi and The Tata Power Company Limited, which
holds a 51% majority stake in the venture.
It started operations on 1 July 2002 and currently serves 6 million people in the
North and North-west parts of Delhi. It has a registered consumer base of 1.40
million. The company’s operations span an area of 510 sq. km. with a recorded
peak load of around 1704 MW. It is the only distribution utility to receive the ISO
9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certification, and the only Indian utility to have
SA8000 certification.
The company’s distribution automation project is based on systems such as
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), GIS (Geographical Information
System), OMS (Outage Management System), DMS (Distribution Management
System) and OT’s (Operation Technologies).
The SCADA controlled and unmanned grid stations, GSM based Street Lighting
System, SMS based Fault Management System and Automatic Meter Reading
employed by the company are all firsts in the capital city area. Modern technologies
such as High Voltage Distribution (HVDS) System and LT Arial Bunch Conductor
are also being used by them to curb power theft in the region. Tata Power Delhi
Distribution Ltd is the first Indian utility to develop and set up Geographical
Information System which has seamless integration with SCADA, SAP-ISU and
Fixed Asset register. This system has unique mechanism of asset management,
complaint management, network planning, etc.
Tata Power Delhi Distribution Ltd. is documented as the first in the country to
initiate an Automated Metering Infrastructure based Auto Demand Response
programme to help manage grid stress and peak demand.

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VISION

• To be the most admired and responsible Integrated Power Company with


international footprint, delivering sustainable value to all stakeholders.
• To be the most trusted and admired provider of reliable, competitive and
sustainable power and services using technology and innovative solutions and be
the utility of once for all the stakeholders.

MISSION

• To earn affection of customer by delivering superior experience and value,


thereby making them our ambassador.
• Driving competitiveness by operating our businesses at benchmark levels.
• Executing projects safely with predictable benchmark quality, cost and time.
• Growing profitably across the power value chain and allied areas, in focus
geographies.
• Being the lead adapter of technology with a spirit of pioneering and calculating
risk taking.
• Practising ‘Leadership with Care’ by pursuing best practices for our Environment,
Community, Customers, Shareholders, People and creating a culture that will
enforces our values.
• Enable employees and associates to achieve and unleash their full potential to
deliver outcomes in a sustainable way.

VALUES

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INTRODUCTION

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, trans- mission, and


distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the
reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Electric power
may flow through several substations between generating plant and
consumer, and its voltage may change in several steps. Substations
generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and transformers.
Distribution circuits are fed from a transformer located in an electrical
substation, where the voltage is reduced from the high values used for power
transmission. The MV/LV substations are a node of a network, which includes
a set of equipment designed to protect and facilitate the operation of the
electrical energy.

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ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution


system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform
any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and
consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage
levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between
high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection
of two different transmission voltages.
Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned
by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally substations are
unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision and control.

ELEMENTS OF A SUBSTATION

Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and


transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short
circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution
stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution
circuits. Substations themselves do not usually have generators, although a power
plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage
regulators may also be located at a substation.
Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located
in special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor
substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the
noise from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear
from extreme climate or pollution conditions.
A grounding (Earthing) system must be designed. The total ground potential rise,
and the gradients in potential during a fault (called touch and step potentials), must
be calculated to protect passers-by during a short-circuit in the transmission
system. Earth faults at a substation can cause a ground potential rise. Currents
flowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause metal objects to have a
significantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet; this touch
potential presents a hazard of electrocution. Where a substation has a metallic
fence, it must be properly grounded to protect people from this hazard.
The main issues facing a power engineer are reliability and cost. A good design
attempts to strike a balance between these two, to achieve reliability without
excessive cost. The design should also allow expansion of the station, when
required.

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TYPES OF ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION

The different types of substations mainly include Step-up Type Substation, Step-
down Type Substation under Transmission Substation, Distribution and
Underground Distribution Substation, Control Substation Switching Substation.

TRANSMISSION SUBSTATIONS

A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines.[2] The simplest


case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases,
substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or
isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have
transformers to convert between two transmission voltages, voltage control/power
factor correction devices such as capacitors, reactors or static VAR compensators
and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between
two adjacent power systems.

Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small "switching


station" may be little more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest
transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with
multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers, and a large amount of protection and
control equipment (voltage and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems).
Modern substations may be implemented using international standards such as IEC
Standard 61850.

Transmission substations are of two types namely Step-Up transmission substation


and Step-Down transmission substation.
A Step-Up type transmission substation transforms the supplied voltage to higher
voltage using Step-up transformer.The generation voltage (11 KV) is stepped up to
high voltage (220 KV) to affect economy in transmission of electric power. These
substation are generally located in the power houses and are of outdoor type.
A Step-Down transmission substation transforms the supplied voltage to lower
voltage using a step-down transformer.

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DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION

A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the


distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity
consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of
power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a level suitable for local
distribution.
The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub-
transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever is
common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are
typically medium voltage, between 2.4 kV and 33 kV, depending on the size of the
area served and the practices of the local utility. The feeders run along streets
overhead (or underground, in some cases) and power the distribution transformers
at or near the customer premises.
In addition to transforming voltage, distribution substations also isolate faults in
either the transmission or distribution systems. Distribution substations are typically
the points of voltage regulation, although on long distribution circuits (of several
miles/kilometres), voltage regulation equipment may also be installed along the line.
The downtown areas of large cities feature complicated distribution substations,
with high-voltage switching, and switching and backup systems on the low-voltage
side. More typical distribution substations have a switch, one transformer, and
minimal facilities on the low-voltage side.

COLLECTOR SUBSTATION

In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm or Photovoltaic power


station, a collector substation may be required. It resembles a distribution
substation although power flow is in the opposite direction, from many wind turbines
or inverters up into the transmission grid. Usually for economy of construction the
collector system operates around 35 kV, although some collector systems are 12
KV, and the collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the
grid. The collector substation can also provide power factor correction if it is
needed, metering, and control of the wind farm. In some special cases a collector
substation can also contain an HVDC converter station.
Collector substations also exist where multiple thermal or hydroelectric power
plants of comparable output power are in proximity. Examples for such substations

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are Brauweiler in Germany and Hradec in the Czech Republic, where power is
collected from nearby lignite-fired power plants. If no transformers are required for
increasing the voltage to transmission level, the substation is a switching station.

CONVERTER SUBSTATIONS

Converter substations may be associated with HVDC converter plants, traction


current, or interconnected non-synchronous networks. These stations contain
power electronic devices to change the frequency of current, or else convert from
alternating to direct current or the reverse. Formerly rotary converters changed
frequency to interconnect two systems; nowadays such substations are rare.

SWITCHING SUBSTATION

A switching station is a substation without transformers and operating only at a


single voltage level. Switching stations are sometimes used as collector and
distribution stations. Sometimes they are used for switching the current to back-up
lines or for parallelising circuits in case of failure. An example is the switching
stations for the HVDC Inga–Shaba transmission line.
A switching station may also be known as a switchyard, and these are commonly
located directly adjacent to or nearby a power station. In this case the generators
from the power station supply their power into the yard onto the Generator Bus on
one side of the yard, and the transmission lines take their power from a Feeder Bus
on the other side of the yard.
An important function performed by a substation is switching, which is the
connecting and disconnecting of transmission lines or other components to and
from the system. Switching events may be planned or unplanned. A transmission
line or other component may need to be de-energised for maintenance or for new
construction, for example, adding or removing a transmission line or a transformer.
To maintain reliability of supply, companies aim at keeping the system up and
running while performing maintenance. All work to be performed, from routine
testing to adding entirely new substations, should be done while keeping the whole
system running.

Unplanned switching events are caused by a fault in a transmission line or any
other component, for example:
• a line is hit by lightning and develops an arc,
• a tower is blown down by high wind.
The function of the switching station is to isolate the faulty portion of the system in
the shortest possible time. De-energising faulty equipment protects it from further
damage, and isolating a fault helps keep the rest of the electrical grid operating with
stability.

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DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION : DESIGN AND LAYOUT

The main considerations taking into account during the design process are:
• Reliability
• Cost(sufficient reliability without excessive cost)
• Expansion of the station, if required.

Selection of the location of a substation must consider many factors:

• Sufficient land area


• Necessary clearances for electrical safety
• Access to maintain large apparatus such as transformers.
• The site must have room for expansion due to load growth or planned
transmission additions.
• Environmental effects( drainage, noise and road traffic effects.
• Grounding must be taking into account to protect passers-by during a short-circuit
in the transmission system
• The substation site must be reasonably central to the distribution area to be
• served.

SUBSTATION LAYOUT CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS :

1. Single source, single feeder substation

• The one-line diagram of a single-source, single-feeder substation with the


minimum equipment used.
• A bypass switch is provided so service can continue during circuit breaker
maintenance.
• The probability of a fault during circuit breaker maintenance is small, but still there
as a result the transformer is protected by a primary fuse to back up the breaker,
and provide
• some protection for internal transformer faults.
• The minimum relaying is over-current on the secondary side of the transformer.
• The switches can be manually or motor operated.

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2. Single bus substation

• This is the one line of a single bus substation fed by a single radial sub-
transmission line.
• Each feeder must has its own over-current protection.
• The primary switch must be able to break the transformer excitation current.
• The transformer may have differential relaying that trips all of the feeder breakers
in the event of a fault.
• Each distribution voltage the substation supplies must have its own bus.
• The possibility of a sub-transmission circuit fault is much higher than a
transformer fault. Two sources allow service to be restored more quickly upon a
sub-transmission circuit fault.

3. Two Transformer Distribution Substations

• More critical loads implement a two transformer distribution substation a


allowing to significantly decrease the out of service time.
• Normally the transformers are rated at 75% capacity when self cooled and
equipped with automatic air cooling that is used when one transformer must
handle the entire substation capacity.
• The tie switch between the two transformer connections to the bus which is in
open state when both transformers are in use to prevent the transformer
secondaries from operating in parallel.
• Momentary parallel operation during switching is often permissible but must be
avoided for the extended operation time due to the high secondary currents.
• The primary side switching is arranged so that either or both transformers can be
fed by either sub-transmission line.

4. Automatic Switching (Throw-over) Two source, radial


arrangement

• Service outage time can be reduced considerably by using circuit breakers to


automatically, or on command from a central control station, disconnect the
faulted source or bus and connect the substation so that power can reach all of
the feeders.

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• Figure shows a substation connected for automatic switching, also called throw-
over or roll-over.

Operation:
• Assume sources 1 and 2 are connected as radial lines.
• Source 1 is lost, breaker 1 will open under relay control disconnecting source 1
• Breaker 3 closes connecting transformer 1 to source 2, and vice versa.
• If transformer 1 fails, breakers 1, 3, and 4 would open to disconnect it.
• The low voltage bus tie breaker 6 closes to connect all of the feeders to
transformer 2
• The low voltage tie breaker is interlocked with transformer secondary breakers 4
and 5 to prevent parallel transformer operation.

5. Automatic Switching (Throw-over) Loop Arrangement

• A preferred automatic switching scheme for loop connected supply lines is shown.
• Circuit breakers A and B remove a faulted line from service, while circuit breakers
C and C’ and D and D’ remove the transformers in the event they fault.
• Upon a transformer failure the low voltage tie breaker connects all of the working
feeders to whichever transformer is working.

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DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION : PROTECTION NEEDS

• This substation can be used to serve a small commercial area.


• It has a circuit breaker as well as a primary fuse for back up, and more disconnect
switches for isolation during maintenance.
• The circuit breaker will operate from relays that require a metal clad enclosure,
instrument transformers, and a de power supply for the trip circuit.
• The increased speed of fault removal supplied by the circuit breaker for this
substation has substantially increased its cost.
• Both substations are simple single-source, single-transformer, single-feeder
types.
• The cost differences increase with the size of the substation, and the size and
number of transformers used.

DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION : CONSTRUCTION METHODS

Four basic methods exist for substation construction:


1. Wood
2. Steel lattice
3. Steel low profile
4. Unit.
Wood pole substations are inexpensive, and can easily use wire bus structures.
Wood is suitable only for relatively small, simple substations because of the
difficulty of building complex bus and switch gear support structures from wood.
Lattice steel provides structures of low weight and high strength. Complex, lattice
steel is reasonably economical and is the preferred material for substation
construction whenever possible.
Solid steel low profile substations are superior to lattice or wood constructed
substations. However, low profile construction is more expensive than either wood
or lattice steel, and requires more land because multilevel bus structures cannot be
used.
The unit substation is a relatively recent development. A unit substation is factory
built and tested, then shipped in modules that are bolted together at the site.
Unit substations usually contain high and low voltage disconnect switches, one or
two three-phase transformers, low voltage breakers, high voltage fusing, bus work,
and relays.

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TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION

1.PLINTH MOUNTED DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION


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