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- A form of VERB used to slow the time of an occurance of action.

Types of TENSES


 Present Simple * Past Simple
 Present Continuous * Past Continuous
 Present Perfect * Past Perfect
 Present Perfect Continuous * Past Perfect Continuous
 Future Indefinite
 Future Continuous
 Future Perfect
 Future Perfect Continuous



PRESENT I Form+s/es AM/IS/Are+I Has/Have+III form Has/Have Been+Iverb+ing


PAST II Form Was/Were+ Had+III Form Had been+I Form+ing

I Form+ing

FUTURE Will/Shall+ Will be + I Form Will have + III Form Will have
been + Iform+ing
I Form + ing

Present Simple Present
 To Express a Habitual action.
 To express universal Trush or Fact
 To express an action taking place in immediate present
 To indicate present, to express a fixed future
 In time Clauses and Conditional clauses
 To introduce Quotation and Exclamatory

Present Continuous
 An action going on at time of speaking
Eg. Boys are playing football

 For a temporary solution which may not occur at time of speaking

Eg. She is teaching Chemistry in Vivekananda College
I am drawing an Medival art piece.

 For an action planned in Near future

I am going to circus tonight
She is getting married nextweek

 For a Repeated or habitual action used with an adverb.

Eg. He is always coming late
He likes going to temple every Friday

Present Perfect
 To express an action that has just been completed.
Eg. The sum has set
He has just returned from office
 To express past action whose time is not defined
Eg. Ram has been to USA
Have you read this book
 To express a past action the effect of which still continues
Eg. I have cut my finger
I have finished my work
 To denote an action beginning at sometime in the past and continuing upto the present
Eg. I have known him for long
We have lived her for 10 years

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 For an action which began at sometime in the past and still continue
Eg. They have been playing since 4.o clock
 For an unfinished action
Eg. We have been building the house
I have been working for 10 years
 For Drawing Conclusion
Eg. The room stinks, someone has been frying fish here.


PAST - Simple Past Tense
 To indicate an action completed in past
He went home yesterday
 To indicate a historical event Akbar was a great king India attained its independence in 1947.

Past Continuous Tense

 To denote an action going on at some time in the past
Eg. It was getting darker
We were watching TV all day
 Persistant habitual actions
Eg. We were always praying for you
She was intermittently going to Restroom
 Past Perfect Tense
2 actions involved – to denote earlier action.
I had finished my work, when he came when I reached the station the train had already left.
Past Perfect Continuous
- To denote an action that began before a point in past and was continuing at the given point of
time in the sentence
At that time he had been writing a novel for two months
I had been waiting for six months to hear that story.


 Simple future tense
For an action that has still to take place
I shall see him tomorrow
Tomorrow will be a holiday

 Future Continuous Sentence

 Represent an action as going on at sometime in future
I shall be sleeping by the time you return
Planning future events
He will be meeting us next week

 Future Perfect Tense

I shall have completed my work by that time
I shall have returned home by them

 Future Perfect Continuous Tense

To indicate an action being in progress over a period of time that will end in future
But next September he will have been working with us for three years

Comparison of one entity with another using either “as” or “like”
She smiles like a flower
His face glowed like a moon

Comparison of one entity with another without the usage of as,like
He is a lion when he is in count
Alexander was a tiger in battlefield

The Repetition of identical (or) similar sounds at beginning of words or in stressed syllables
Nick needed new note books
Betlt bought bitter butter

When words replicate the sound that conveys the phonetical sound they are called
Eg. Hiss whoosh
The do not have any meaning

Anaphora is a technique where several phrases (orverses) in a poem begin with same words or
Eg. I came, I saw, I conquered
A rose is a rose is a rose

Hyperbole uses exaggevation for emphasis of effect
 Bhima had the strength of hundred elephants
 I’ve told you hundred times
 My father can fight 10 tigers.

Oxymoron is a figure of speech that uses contradictive terms used together
Eg. Wise fool
Peace force

Personification is giving human qualities to Non-living things or ideas
 The flowers nodded
 Fog crept in

1. As safe as a house
2. He is a timid fox
3. Latha admitted herself in the kind cruelty of the surgeon
4. It was cold, it was dark, it was an eerie feeling
5. Krishna uprooted the mountain
6. I heard the hiss of a snake
7. The flower listened to her sobs with utmost passion
8. Ravi reavealed the reality
9. John suddenly was found missing
10. Rose----my love yee smell the sweetest

Compound words
Compound words are formed by joining two or more simple words. These words are the
mostly Noun-Noun, adjective and verb compounds.
In contrast to the meanings of those individual words, the words will convey different

1. ___________ (dog) (bark)
2. ___________ trees (whistle)
3. ___________ stream (Run)
4. ___________ clouds (Move)
5. ___________ train (burn)
6. ___________ room (wait)
7. ___________ card (visit)
8. ___________ eagle (prey)
9. ___________ cream (shave)
10. ___________ bar (bath)

Conjunction – A word used to connect clauses (or) sentences or to co-ordinate words in the same
 Common list of conjunctions.
- And
- As
- Because
- But
- For
- Just as
- Or
- Neither
- Nor
- Not only
- So
- Whether
- Yet

 SIMPLE:- Sentences which primarily contain one subject and verb.
There can be modifiers generally with a single clause.
Eg. Ramya and Rajesh went to the park to play baseball
This was an excellent touristspot in former days.
 COMPOUND:- It is a sentence which may contain 2 clauses or dependly on statement a
powerful co-ordinates conjunction to give a logical sequence.
Sentence pattern:- Sub/Verb/Co-ordinating conjunction/Sub/Verb.

 List of Co-ordinating conjunction:-

- For
- And
- Nor
- Or
- Yet
- So
 COMPLEX SENTENCES:- its a sentence that combines one Independent clause with atleast
one dependant clause
May contain one of the subordinately conjunctions:-
 Although * which
 Because * while
 Since * who
 Unless * who ever
 When * whose
 Whereas
When the food arrived the children ate everything.

Sentence form:-
Independent clause/Subordinaty Conjunction/Dependent clause
 Exercise
1. I was rude with him because I was getting late for work.
2. The little girl was carrying a basket on her head.
3. The boys sang and the girls danced.
4. He studied hard but he couldn’t pass the exam.
5. My car broke down on the way; therefore i called a taxi.

 COMMAS:- Commas are used to separate parts of a sentence. They tell ready to pause
between words or group of words, and they help clarify meanings of things.
Eg. If you enjoy South Indian restaurant, you will find it down town.

 FULL STOP:- It is used to let the reader know when a thought is finished.
Eg. Malini wants to know when kumar bought a red shirt.

 COLONS:- Colons are used to form compound words or join word to emphasise information
that comes after.
Eg. Latha has only onething on her mind; career.

 SEMI COLONS:- Used to separate clauses or phrases related and require equal emphasis.
Eg. Babu seamed preoccupied; he answered our questions abrubtly.

 HYPHENS:- Used to compound words or join word units. They are used to join prefixes
suffixes and letters to words.
Eg. Well-liked author, self-control

 APOSTROPHES:- Used to show possession or to indicate what a letter has been omitted to
form a contraction
Eg. Susan’s wrench
Selvam’s cafe

 QUOTATION MARKS:- Used mostly in reported speech and beginning and end of a
quotation or a title of shortwork.
 PARANTHESES:- Elements inside parantheses are related to the sentence but are non-
Eg. We want to various hill stations (Ooty, Kodaikanal, Erode etc.,)

Active Voice: It describes a sentence where the subject performs the action stated by the verb.
Passive Voice: It describes a sentence where the subjected is acted upon by the verb.
Eg. Rama killed Ravana (Active)
Ravana was killed by Rama (Passive)

Kumar changed the flat tyre (Active)

The flat tyre was changed by kumar (Passive)

We are going to watch a movie (Active)

A movie is going to be watched by US (Passive)
1. The gold medal was won by saina
Saina won the Gold medal.
2. Geetha dropped latha at home
Latha was dropped at home by Geetha
3. Rajesh planned the trip to Ooty
The trip to Ooty was planned by Rajesh
4. A party was thrown to her frieds by mary
Mary threw her frieds a party
5. John was appointed by his boss
John’s boss appointed him
6. A celebration was organised for kumar’s success by the manager
The manager organised a celebration for kumar’s success
7. A letter was written to me by david
David wrote me a letter
8. My father gifted me a Bicycle
I was gifted a bicycle by my father
9. I was accused by my collegue for by Harsh
My collegue accused me for being harsh
Basic Rules:
- Addition of that
- Change in tense
- Changes in pronoun
- Changes in time
He said to me, “I thank you”
“He thanked me” - * exception.
He said to me, “I miss you”.
He told me that he missed me.

Ram said to kumar, “I will call you today evening”.

Ram told kumar that he would call him that day evening.
Ram told kumar that he would call him in evening that day.
Today – that day
Yesterday – the last day
Tomorrow – the next day

Imperative Sentences
- Based on the nature of imperativeress
The king said to minister, “Do it at once”.
The king commanded minister todo it at once

The doctor said to patient, “You must follow the diet”

The doctor advised the patient to follow the diet

Kumar said to me, “Will you come with me pls”?

Kumar requested me if I would come with him

Indian Writers and their Contributions
1. Farmer Jhakkazhi Siva Sarkalapillai
2. Punishment in KG
my grandma’s house Kamala Das
3. Kari, the elephant Dhanagopal mukharjee
4. After the strom Deepa Agarwal
5. APJ vision for the Nation Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam
6. The Neem Tree Indira Ananth Krishna
7. The antcater and the
Dassie Lakshmi Mugundan
8. The Sunbeam Dr. Neeraja Raghavan
9. Inclusion Dipti Bhatia
10. The Guide R.K.Narayan
1. Discovery Sayatri pahclojani
2. Biking Judith Nichols
3. Grammy, Grammy
Please comb my hair Grace Nichols
4. With a friend Vivian Gauld
5. To look and eat Emma Richards
6. Bat Randell Jarell
7. To India, my native
Land Henry bus Vivian Delazio
8. A tiger in the zoo Leslie Norris
9. No men are foreign James Kiricup
10. Laugh and be merry John Masefield
11. Earth Kaleel Gibran
12. Off to Outer Space
Tomorrow morning Norman Nicholson
13. Women’s rights Annie Zoisa Walker
14. The Nation united Walt Whitman
15. English Words V.K.Gokak
1. Autobiography
1743-1790 Thomas Jefferson
2. Autobiographical
Fragment Charles Dickens
3. Recollections of the
Development of my
Mind and character Charles Darwin
4. Specimen days Walt Whitman
5. My confession Leo Tolstoy
6. De profundis Oscar wilde
7. The story of my life Hellen keller
8. My childhood Maxim Gorky
9. Mein kemph Adolf hitler
10. My experiments with
truth M.K.Gandhi
11. My land and my people Dalai Lama
12. The greatest-My own story Mohammed Ali
13. Memoirs Pablo Neruda
14. Moonwalk Michael Jackson
15. The path to power Margaret Jhatcher
16. Dreams from my father Barack Obama
17. My childhood, Gusty wind,
those Dark days, Nothing is
there Taslima Nasreen
18. My life Bill Clinton
19. One life isn’t enough Natwar Singh
20. By god’s decree cricket
my style straight from heat Kapil Dev


1. William Shakespere English Renaissanie
2. Walt Whitman
3. William Wordsworth Romantic period
4. H.W.Longfellow
5. Annie Louisa Walker
6. D.H.Lawrence Modenism


1. The selfish gaint Ireland
2. The lottery ticket Russia
3. The last leaf United States
4. How the camel got its
hump UK/India
5. Two friends France
6. Rufugee Iran
7. The Open window UK


United States of America
1. Robert frost Stephen Vincent Beret
2. Edgar ‘A’ Guest
3. Ralph Waldo emerson
4. Jack Prelutsky
5. Walt Whitman
United Kingdom
6. D.H.Lawrence
7. Rudyard Kiplug
8. Elizabeth Barett Browning
9. Thomas hardy
10. William shakespere
11. William wordsworth
12. Annie Loisa walker
13. Archubald Lampman
14. Khalil Gibura
15. Kamala Das
16. Famida y Basheer
17. N.K.Gokak


1. “Where tireless striving stretches”
(When the mind is without fear)
“Into the duary desat sand of habit”
2. “Behold her, single in the field”
“You solitary highland lass”
“Alone she cuts and binds the grains”
“I saw her singing at her work”
(The solitary reaper)
3. “The barrer boughs without the leaves”
- Going for water – Alliteration
“We heard, we know, we heard the brook” – Anaphora
4. “Dust thow art, to dust returnest”
Apsalm of life – Personification
“Still like muffled dreams are beauty” – Personification
“Be not like dumb, driven cattle” – Alliteration
5. “Whose words unknown although his height be taken”
Sonnet-116 (Alliteration)
6. “Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong” – Piano
7. “For all day, the wheels are droning,turning”
“O ye wheels” Personification
The cry of children
8. “A Boat beneath the sky”
“Eager eye and willing ear” Alliteration
Is life but a dream – Leuis Caroll
9. “The ship has weather every rack” – Personification
“But O heart! Heart! Heart! – Anaphora
O captain! My captain!
“Exult, O shores! And ring’O’ bells! – Personification
10. “O winged seeds! You crossed the furrowed sea” – Personification
1. A psalm of life H.w.Longfellow
2. Be the best Douglas Malloch
3. The cry of the children Elizabeth barret
4. The piano D.H.Lawrence
5. Manliness Rudyard Kiplug
6. Going for water Robert Frost
7. The Apology R.W.Emerson
8. Beglad your nose is on
Your face Jack Prelutsily
9. The flying wonder Stephen Vincent beret
10. Is life but a dream Lewis carol
11. O!captain my captain Walt Whitman
12. Snake D.H.Lawrence
13. Punishment in kinder
Garden Kamala Das
14. Where the mind is without
fear Rabindranath Tagore
15. The man he killed Thomas Hardy
16. Nine gold medals David Roth


1. The selfish giant Oscar wilde
2. The lotter ticket Anton chikov
3. The last leaf O. Henry
4. How the camel got its hump Rudyard Kiplung
5. Two friends Guy de.manpassant
6. Refugee Garzaneh kararo power
7. The open window Saki
8. A man who had no eyes MC kinley kantor
9. The tears of the desert Halima bashur
10. Sam the piano Steve chevalia
11. The face of Judas Iscariot Bonnie Chambalein
12. Swept away Susannah Hickling
13. A close encounter Rex coker
14. Caught sneezing Oscar wilde
15. The wooden bowl Usha bansal
16. Swami and the sum R.K.Narayan


 Characters in the story
Hero of the story – Hughie
Fiancée Laura merton
Laura mertons father – Retired Cournel
Hugie’s condition – Popular, handsome but jobless, inefficient in money making
Alan – Trevor’s profession – Artist, painter
Profile of the model – Old, ragged begger
Modelling fee for begger – one shilling/hour
Alan –Trevor’s fee for painting Beggers portrait – 2000pounds
Amount given by Alan-Trevor’s friend to begger Hugie – One sovereign
Actual name of begger – Baron hausberg
Actual name of hugie – Hugh Erskine
The old begger (a)Baron Housbeg is refered as – Model Millinaire


 Storyline as narrated by – Artist
Place of story – A town in sicily
Pending pairtys at cathedral – child jesus and judas Iscariot
Dirty – Angel like child portrayed – Child jesus
Characters desired by artist to portray Judas – A man warped by life surrendered to greed and
Begger was chosen by artist to model – Judas Iscariot
The begger was sad and weeped through the painting because – years ago he had been model
for child jesus years ago

 Lead role of story – Hubert,14
No. of thieves that attacked Hubert – 3
The 3 thieves were hiding in – The cupboard of a palatial mansion
The almost fainted thieves were held by – Servants and Relations of oldman
Moral: Wisdom is the greatest virtue that is irrespective of age helps men.

Antonio – Merchant of venice
Bossanio – friend to Antonio
Portia – Bossanio’s finance from Belmont
Shylock – Jewish money lender
The Plot: If money not returned on an agreed date, Antonio would lose a pound of flesh
 In the test, 3 caslets of Gold, silver and lead – One containing Portia’s Portrait would have to
be chosen by Suitors
 Prince of Moracco – Skull head (Golden casket)
Prince of Aragon – Idiot (silver casket)
Bossanio – Portia’s portrait (Lead casket)
 Bossanio married Portia and his friend Grattiaro marvis Nasseria (Portia’s Maid)
 Antanio’s ships sink and he cannot return the delot
 Shylock’s daughter Maries Lorenzo
 Portia wins the battle of Law in court posing as male lawyer and Nasseria as her clerk
 Portia wins the law suit by claiming it is just a pound of flesh as per bond and if a drop of
blood is shed shylock would face the law.
 Shylock agrees for thrice the amount of delot money.


Anbu – s/o saravanan
Place – karamadai, Coimbatore
 Anbu’s mother did not approve of Grand father
 Anbu’s Grandfather broke a ceramic bowl
 Anbu started making a wooden bowl saying that he was doing it for his parents old age
 Adopted from Leo Tolstoy’s wooden Bowl.


 Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high
 Where knowledge is free
 Where the world has not been broken up into fragments – pieces
 By narrow domestic walls
 Where words come out from the depth of truth – Jotry hard
 Where tireless striving-stretches in arms towards perfection
 Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way
 Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit
 Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action
 Into that heaven of freedom, my father, let my country awake – Rabindranath Tagore

THE SOLITARY REAPER - M/C that collects crop or person

Be hold her, single in the field
Yon solitary Highland Lass – Girl/young women
Reaping and singing by herself
Stop here or gently pass!
Alone she cuts and binds the grain
and sings a Melancholy strain (sad and unhappy)
o listen! For the vale profound
is overflowing with the sound.

No Nightingale did ever chavent

More welcome notes to wealy bands
Or travellers in some shady haunt
Among Arabian sands
A voice so thrilling ne’er was heard
In spring-time from the cuckoo bird
Breaking the silence of seas
Among the farthest Hebrides (Group of islands to west of Scotland)

Whatever the theme, the maiden sang

As if her song could have no ending
I saw her singing at her work
O’er the sickle bending
I listened, motionless and still
And, as I mounted up the hill
The music in my heart I bore
Long after it was heard no more.
_ William Wordsworth.


The well was dry beside the door
And so we went with pail and can
Across the fields behind the house
To seek the brook if it still ran - (small stream)

Not loth to have excuse to go

Because the autumn was fair
(Thoug chill) because the fields were ours
And by the brook our woods were there.

We ran as if to meet the moon

That slowly dawned behind the trees
The barren boughs without the leaves
Without the birds, without the breeze

But once within the wood, we paused

Like gromes that hid us from the moon
Ready to run to hiding new
With laughter when she found us soon.

Each laid on other a staying hand

To listen ere we dared to look
And in the hush we joined to make
We heard, we knew, we heard the brook

A note from a single place

A slender tinkling fall that made
Now drops that floated on the pool
Like pearls and now a silver blade.
_ Robert frost
Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn
We should have sat us down to
Wet Right many a nipperkin!

But ranged as infantry and

Staring face to face
I shot at him as he at me
And killed him in his place

I shot him dead because – because he

Was my foe
Just so:- my foe of course he was
Thats clear enough although

He thought he’d list perhaps

Off hand like – just as I
Was out of work had sold his traps
No other reason why

Yes: Quaint and Gurious war is’

You shoot a fellow down
Youw’d treat if met where any bar
Is or help to half – a – crown.
_ Thomas Hardy

Tell me not, in mounful members
Life is but an empty dream
For the soul is dead that slumbers
And things are not what they seem

Life is real! Life is earnest!

And grave is not its goal
Dust thou art, to dust returnest
was not spoken of the soul

Not enjoyment and not sorrow

Is our destined end or way
But to act, that each tomorrow
Find us further than today

Art is long, and Time is fleeting

And our hearts, though stout and brave
Still, like muffled drums are beating
Funeral marches to the grave
In the world’s broad field of battle
In the bivouac of life
Be not like dumb, driven cattle
Be a new in the strife

Trust no future, However pleasant

Let the dead past bury its dead
Act – Act in the living present
Heart within and god over head

Lives of great men all remind us

We can make our lives sublime
And departing, Leave behind us
Footprints on the sands of time

Foot prints, that perhaps another

Sailing o’er life’s solemn main
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother
Seeing, shall take heart again.

Let us, then, be up and doing

With a heart for any fate
Still achieving, still pursuing
Lean to labor and to wait
_ H.W.Long fellow


For oh! Say the children, ‘we are weavy
And we cannot run or leap
if we cared for any meadows, it were merely
To drop down in them and sleep

Our knees tremble sorely in the stooping

We fall upon our faces, trying to go
And underneath our heavy eyelids drooping
The reddest flower would look as pale as snow

For, all day we drag our burden wing

Through the coal dark, under ground
Or, all day, we drive the wheels of iron
In the factories round and round.

For all day, the wheels are droning, turning

Their wind comes in our faces
Till our hearts turn-our head with pulses burning
And the walls turn in their places

Turns the sky in the high window blank and reeling

Turns the long light that droppeth down the wall
Turns the black flies that crawl along the ceiling
All are turning, all the day, and we with all

And all day, the iron wheels are droning

And sometimes we could pray
O’ye wheels (breaking out in a mad moaiy)
Stop!be silent for today-
_ Elizabeth Barett Browing


A boat, beneath a sunny day
Lingering onward dreamily
In an evening of july

Children three that nestle hear

Eager eye and willing ear
pleased a simple take to hear

Long has paled that sunny sky

Echoes fade and memories die
Autumn frosts have slain july

Still she haunts me, phantorn wise

Alice moving under skies
Never seen by waking eyes

Children yet, the tale to hear

Eager eye and willing ear
Lovingly shall nestle near

In a wonderland they lie

Dreaming as the days go by
Dreaming as the summers die

Ever drifling down the stream

Lingering in the Golden gleam
Life, what is it but a dream?

Is all our life, then, but a dream

Seen faintly in the golden gleam
Athwart timis dark resisless stream

Bowed to the earth with bitter woe

Or laughing at some raree show
We flutter Idly to and fro

Man’s little day in haste we spend

And, from its many moontide, send
No glance to meet the silent end.
_ Lewis Caroll

O Captain! My Captain! Our fearful trip is done
The ship has weathered every rack, the prize we sought is won
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exusting.
While follow eyes the steady keel, the (people all exulting) vessel grim and daing
But O heart! Heart! Heart!
O the bleeding drops O red!
Where on the deck my captain lies
Fallen cold and dead.

O captain! My captain! Rise up and hear the bells

Rise up for you the flag is flung for you the bugle trills
For you the bouquets and ribborid wreaths for you the shores crowding
For you they call the swaying mass, their eager faces turning
Here captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head
It is some dream that on the deck
You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will
the ship is anclored safe and sound its voyage closed and done
From fearful trip the victorship comes in with object won
Exult, O shores! And ring o bells
But I, with mountful tread
Wake the deck my captain lies
Fallen cold and dead
_ Walt Whitman

Enter Brutus, Cassius with the Plebians
Plebians – “We will be satisfied! Let us be satisfied”
Then follow me and give me audience fuands.
- Cassius, go you into the other street and part the numbers
- Those that will hear me speak let em stay here
- Those that will follow cassius, go with him
- And public reasons shall be rendered of caesai’s death.
First Plebian - /will hear Brutus speak
Another Plebian - /will hear Cassius and compare their reasons
When severally we hear them rendered
Exit Cassius with some of the plebians. Brutus goes into the pulpil
Third Plebian – The Noble Brutus is ascended silence
Brutus speech
Be patient till the last.....
Romans, Countrymen and lovers! Lend me you
Hear me for my cause, and be silent that you may hear.
Believe me for mine honour that you may believe
Censue me in your wisdom,
And awake your senses that you may be the better judge
If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar’s
To him I say that Brutus love to caesar was no less than his.
If then that friend demand why Brutus rose against caesar,
This is my answer
Not that I loved caesar less, but that I loved Rome more
_ William shakespere
Brutus – Marcus Jurius Brutus (politician)
Cassius – Gaius Cassius Longinus (Military brother in law)
Plebian – Common romans who worked hard to support families and pay taxes.
Caesar death March – 15 44BC
Reason for assasination : Rissing Autocracy theatre of Pompey


IMAGERY – It refers to language that produces pictures in mind
It may be for either of the senses
Eg. “O, she cloth teach the torches
to born bright!
It seems she hangs upon the
Cheek of night
Like a rich jewel in ethiope’s car (African skin)

“O r sinking as the light wind

lives ordies
And full – grown lambs loud bleat
_ John Keats
METONYMY – Referring to something by name of something closely connected to it
Eg. Indi will stand against terrorism
I am all ears, tell me
I’ve been reading sidney sheldon all day
ALLEGORY – Abstract ideas and principles through character and figures.
These are alone to convey meanings and concepts through symbolic figures actions.
ELLIPSIS – A figure of speech where words are left out but can be still understood
“John can speak 7 languages, but Ron just 2”
PATHETIC FALLACY – Animals and things shown as human feelings
“The flowers weep for the death of Lycidas”
ASSORANCE – The effect created when 2 syllabus in words that are close together have some vowel
Sound but different consonents. Or some consonants but different vowels.
Eg. The engineer held the stearing to steer the vehicle
PARADOX - A statement that may seem absurd or contradictory but yet can be true, or at least
make sense
Eg. This is the beginning of the end.
“I can resist anything but temptation”
_ Oscar wilde
 All’s well that ends well
 As you like it
 The comedy of errors
 Cymbeline
 Love’s labor lost
 Measure to measure
 The mery wives of windsor
 Antony & cleopatra
 Coriolanus
 Hamlet
 Julius ceasar
 King lear
 Macbeth
 Othello
 Romeo & Juliet
 Timon of Athens
 Titus Andronicus
 Merchant of venice
 A mid summer’s night dream
 Much ado about nothing
 Prince of tyre
 Taning of the shrew
 The tempest
 Twelth night
 Troillus & cressida
 Two gentlemen of venora
 Winter’s tale
 The sonnet
 A lover’s complaint
 The rape of lucrece
 Funeral elegy
 Verrus & Adonis
Lyrical Ballads (1798)
 Tirron lee
 We are seven
 Lines written in early spring
 Expostulation and reply
 The tables turned
 The thorn
 Lines composed – a few miles above Tintern Abbey
Lyrical Ballads (1800)
 She dwelt among untrodden ways
 Three years she grew
 A slumber did my spirit seal
 Lucy grey
 I travelled among unknown main nutting
 The two april mornings
 The ruined cottage
 The kitten at play
Poems (1807)
 Resolution and independent
 I wandered lovely as a cloud (Daffodils)
 My heart leaps up
 Ode – Intimations of immortality
 Ode – to duty the solitary reaper
 Elegiac stanzas composed upon west minister Bridge 1802
 London – 1802
 The world is too much with us
 Guide to thje lakes (1810)
 To the cuckoo
 The exclusion (1814)
 Laodamia
 The Prelude (1850)
A Canadian heroine Hollywood
Against her will Lady’s Holm
Two Rival lovers
Leaves from the Backwards
The night cometh sacred songs and solos
Poems (1881)
 The Happy prince & other stories (1888)
 Lord Arthur Savile’s crime and other stories
 House of pomegranates
 Intentions
 The picture of Dorian gray
 The soul of man under socialism
 Lady windermer’s farm
 A woman of no importance
 An ideal husband
 The importance of being earnest
 De profundis
 The Ballad of reading goal
 The selfish giant
 A Pilgrimage beyond sea
 Hypersion – A romance
 Evange line
 Kavanagh
 The golden legend
 The song of Hiawatha
 The new England tragedy
 The devine tragedy
 Christus – A mystery
 After math
 The Arrow and the song
 Voice of the night
 Ballads and other poems
 Poems on slavery
 Belfry of Bruges and other poems
 Birds of passage
 The sea side and fire side
 Jales of a wayside inn
 House hold poems
 Flower – de – lule
 Three books of songs
 The mosque of Pandora
 Keramos and other poems
 In the heaven
 In the harbour
 Michael angelo – a fragment
 Ultima thule


THEME :- The lead role is played by a giant who has a villa with the garden.
Children play in the garden and are happy since they have a place with grass and 12 peach
One day the Giant returned and chased the children away he built a compound wall and
prevented Intrusion.

Condition of Garden after children left

Winter did not clear
hail and frozen snow
covered the Garden

one day when the giant saw one day the end stood a little child trying to get up a tree.


There is a house now far away where once
I received love... that woman died
The house withdrew intosilence, snakes moved
Among books I was them too young.
To read, and my blood turned cold like simili the moon
How often I think of going
There to peer through blind eyes of windows or
Just listen to the frozen air
Or in wild despair, pick an armful of
Darkness to bring it here to lie
Behind my bedroom door like a brooding
Dog... you cannot believe, darling
Can you, that I lived in such a house and
Was proud and loved... I who have lost
My way and beg now at strange’s doors to
Receive love, atleast in small change


Remember, no men are strange, No countries foreign
Beneath all uniforms, A single body breathes
Like ours, the land our brothers walk upon
Is earth like this, in which we all shall lie
They too, aware of sun and air and water
Are fed by peaceful harvests, by war’s long winter starv’d
Their hands are ours,and in their lines we read
A labour not different from our own
Remember they have eyes like ours that awake
Or sleep, and strength that can be won
By love, in every land is common life
That all can recognize and understand.
Let us remember, whenever, we are told
To late our brothers, it is ourselves
That we shall dispossess, betray conde
Remember, we who take arms against each other.

It is the human earth that we defile

Our hells of fie and dust outrage the innocence
Of air that is everywhere our own
Remember, no men are foreign, and no countries strange.
_ James kirkup

PHRASES (Phrasal verbs)

These are words formed by combining a verb with a preposition(or) an adverb to give a new meaning
1. Carry
 Forward – include in the next list
 Off – win – out – perform
 On – continue – over – continue past a point
 Through – complete successfully
2. Draw
 In – arrive, out – continue longer/prepare up – prepare
3. Lay
 Down establish rules, kill
 Into – criticise – out – proposal
 Off – stop
 On – organise
4. Stand
 About – spend time in a place waiting
 Around – doing nothing
 Back – keep distance
 By – sticking onto
 For – substitute
 Up – support
 Upto – resist damage
5. Turn
 Away – return
 Down – refuse
 In – submit
 Into – become
 On – start orinitiate
 Off – stop
 Out – produce, stop


Author – R.K.Narayan
Swaminathan – sum taught by father
Characters in sum – Rama, Krishna
The question in sum – Rama sells 10 mangoes for 15 annas Krishna wants 4 mangoes. What is the
Shankar – Swami’s class mate (brilliant boy)
Samuel – called as “pea” due to his size
Answer for the sum put forward – 6 annas

Characters and plot
 Who play in Giant’s garden – Children
 How many peach trees were there – 12
 Who was the Giant’s friend – Cornish ogre
 How long was giant away – 7 years
 What did giant do after chasing away the children – wall and put a notice board
 What did the notice board display – Tress passers will be prosecuted
 When spring arrived, what was it still in Giant’s garden – winter
 Why was winter still on in giant’s garden – Because the children didn’t come and play in
selfish giants garden
 In absence of spring who were there in the garden – snow, frost northern wind and hail
 One morning, Giant woke upto hear music, who sang it – A little linet
 Why did the spring come back? – The children had returned to play in the garden through a
hole on the wall
 Why the little boy could not climb the tree – He was too small
 Why was he crying – he could not climb the tree
 What did the tree do?- It bent its branches
 What did the giant do to the little child – He lifted him to climb the tree
 What did the giant do after realising his mistake – He took a big axe and broke wall
 Why was the giant sad? – Because the little boy didn’t turn up again
 After many years, what did the giant see? – A tree covered with golden branches and silver
 What did the giant see when he came close to the child?- Marks of wounds on palms of childs
hands and feet
 What did the child say about the wounds?- Those were the wounds of love
 Who is the little child portrayed as – Lord Jesus
 What did the child said to the Giant – you shall come to my garden, paradise
 What did the child see when they came back to the garden that afternoon – Giant lying down
under the tree covered with white blossoms...


The athletes had come from allover the country
To run for the gold, for the silver and bronze
Many weeks and months of training
All coming down to these games
The blocks were all lined up for those who would use them
The hundred yard(race) dash was race to be run
There were Nine resolved athelets in the back of stanly live
Praised for the sound of gun
The signal was given, the pistol exploded
And so did the runners all changing ahead
But the smallest amongthem, he strumbled and staggered
And fell to the asphact instead.
The eight other runners pulled up on their heels
The ones who had trained for so long to complete
One by one they all turned around and went back to help him
And brought the young boy to his feet
Then all the 9 runners joined heads and continued
The 100 yard dash now reduced to a walk
And a barmer above said “Special Olympics”
Could not have been more on the mark
That’s how the race ended, with nine gold medals
They came to finish line holding hards still
And a standing ovation and 9 beaming faces
Said more than these words ever will
_ David Roth
Softly, in the dusk, a woman is singing to me
Taking me back down the vista of years till I see
A child sitting under the piano in the boom of tingling strings
And pressing the small, poised feet
Of a mother who smiles as she sings

Inspite of myself, the insidious mastery of song

Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong
To the old Sunday evening at home with winter outside
And hymns in the cosy parlour, the tinkling piano our guide

So now it is vain for singer to

burst into clarmour unpleasant sound
with the great black piano appasionate
The glamour of childish days is upon me, my manhood is cast
Down in the flood of remembrance I weep like a child for the past
_ D.H.Lawrence


 Lead role - Hubert, 14 year old boy
 No. Of thieves in the story – 3
 What they did to Hubert – they beat him and stole his horse
 He went limping to a paratial mansion where a family function was going on. He heard the
thieves hide into the cupboard till night to rob the house hold
 He wanted to warn the in mater of the impending damage
 What did the boy Hubert use – Jobaco snuff
 The robbers went on a sneezing spree and they were evaluated with the help of servants
 Hubert got back the horse and goodwill of the family
 Moral: Wisdom did not seek only the aged to express itself


1 Aerial Antenna
2 Aubergine Eggplant
3 Solicitor Attorney
4 Beet root Beet
5 Bin, dustbin Garbage can/trash can
6 Biscuit Cookie
7 Bonnet Hood
8 Carpark Parking lot
9 Catalogue Catalog
10 Chemist Duggist
11 Centre Center
12 Cloak room Check room
13 Colour Color
14 Cosy Cozy
15 Cross road Intersection
16 Draught Draft
17 Dressing gown Robe
18 Licence License
19 Earthwire Groundwire
20 Engaged Busy
21 Enquiry Inquiry
22 Favourite Favorite
23 Film Movie
24 Flat Apartment
25 Flavour Flavor
26 Football Soccer
27 Fibre Fiber
28 Garden Yard
29 Harbour Harbor
30 Headmaster Principal
31 Holiday Vacation
32 Hunour Humor
33 Indicator Blinker
34 Jewellery Jewelery
35 Jumper Sweater
36 Kilometre Kilometer
37 Post box Mail box
38 Lift Elevator
39 Managing director CEO
40 Match Game
41 Mobile Cellphone
42 Motorbike Motorcycle
43 Motorway Freeway, Highway, xpressway
44 Mummy Mommy
45 Grey Gray
46 Cheque Check
47 Underground Sub way
48 Queue Line
49 Tyre Tire
50 Timetable Schedule
51 Odour odor
52 Programme Program
53 Loo Restroom
54 Postal code Zipcode
55 Mould Mold
56 lorry Truck

A Noiseless, patient spider

A Noiseless, patient spider
I marked when on a little promontory it stood isolated
Mark’d how to explore the vacant vast surrounding
It launch’d forth filament, filament, filament out of itself
Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them
And O my soul where you stand
Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space.
Ceaselessly musing venturing, throwing,
Seeking the spheres to connect them
Till the bridge you will need be form’d, till the ductile anchor hold
Till the Gossamer thread youtling catch somewhere, O my soul
_ Walt Whitman

Steady throb
Then staccato rythm
Harmonic cacophony to oblivious ears
The tempo is fickle
Now synchronized, now not
A mirror of his changing moods
Now sure, now steaped in thoughts
Bleary eyes, sinews taut yet steady
Decades of practice
Heirlooms of rich traditions
Instant evidence
The knocking softens, fades
To a mild judicious tap
Virgin rock takes form
Rugged lines melt
Shap edges mage
Into smooth moulded curves
He steps back, surveys with
Close scrutiny, then sharp cirtral glave
The days of toil
Hammer and chisel laid aside
Only blood shot eyes betray
Deep pride, then revevence
Lo! God in mans image


Speech that came like leech – craft
And killed us almost, bleeding us white
You bleached our souls soiled with impurities
You batched our heads amid tempestous seas
Of a purer drearier delinght
O tongues of fire! You came devouring
Forests of Night shade, creepers that enmesh
Trees that never remembered to grow
Andshrubs that were but jhorn nills in our flesh
You were the dawn, and sunlight filled the spales
Where owls were hoveing
O winged seeds! You crossed the furrowed seas
To nestle in the warm and silent earth
Like a golden swarm of fireflies you came’
Pining for a new agony, a new birth
You blossomed into a nascent lovliness
You ripened into nectar in fruit jars
That hing linke clustered stars
O winging words! Like homing bees you borrow
Grown murmurous the honey of delight
Pollened within our hearts the coming morrow
Sweetened within our souls for aeons bright
You kindle in the far corners of the earth
The music of an ever-deepening chart
The burthen of a wareless, winterless spring
The gospel of an endless blossoming
Fathomless words, with Indo-Aryan blood
Tingling in your veins
The spolls of ages, global merchandise
Mingling in your strains
You pose the cosmic riddles
In the beginning was the word
And the word was god
The word is in the middle
And the word is man
In the end will be the word
And the word will be god in man
The world in gloom and splendour pusses by
And thou in midst of it with brows that gleam
A creature of that old distorted dream
That makes the sound of life an evil cry
Goodmen perform just deeds and bravemen die
And win not honour such as gold can give
While the vain multitude plod on, and live
And serve the curse that pins them down
But i
Think only of the unnumbered broken hearts
The hunger and mortal strife for bread
Old age and youth alike mistaught misfed
By want and rags and homelessness made vile
The griefs and hates, and all the meaner parts
That balance thy one grim misgotten pile


Think me not unkind and rude
That I walk alone in grove and glen
I go to the god of the wood
To fetch his word to men
Tax not my sloth that I
Fold my arms beside the brook
Each cloud that floated in the sky
Writes a letter in my book
Childe me not, Laborious band
For the idle flowers I bought
Every aster in my hand
Goes home loaded with a thought
There was never mystery
But tis figured in the flowers
Was never secret history
But birds tell it in the bowers
One harvest from thy field
Homeward brought the oxen strong
A second crop thurie cures yield
Which I gather in a song
_ R.W. Emerson


 The farmer – kesavan nain
 Big time farmer – outhakutty
 Area of the field – 50 para
 Kesavan hair was against use of fertilizers
 He became Obsole as they were using tractors
 Kuttichovan – friend of Kesavan Nair
 Thirumalpad – moneylender who gave land in lease
 Kutty mapilla – other friend of Kesavan Nair who advised kesavan nair to open the bund
 Who opened the bund to drain water – outhakutty
 Thirumani is reffered to – thirumalappad
 New lease deal – 100 bushes of paddy
 Kesavan nair sold off his cow to raise money
 Finally kesavan nair had a good harvest


Today the world is a little mole my own

No need to remember the pain
A – blue – frocked woman caused, throwing
Words at me like pots and pans to drain
That honey coloured day of peace
“why don’t you join the other, what
A peculiar child you are

On the lawn, in clusters, sat my

Schoolmates sipping
Sugarcane, they turned and laughed
Children are funny things, they laugh
In mirth at others tears, I burned
My fake in the sun-warmed hedge
And smelt the flowers and pain

The words are muffled now, the laughing

Faces only a blus, the years have
Sped along, stopping briefly
At beloved halts and moving
Sadly on, My mind has found
An adult peace, No need to remember
That picnic day when I lay hidden
By a hedge, watching the steel white sun
Standing lonely in the sky.


 Storm raged all night
 Saruli – Lead role 13 year old
 Trees fell due to storm
 Old man in saruli’s village – Diwan singh
 Trees fell because they were made
 Weak by cutting them to collect resin
 Oaks that bring rain were cut and pines were planted to tap resin
 Saruli’s friend – Jaman
 Jin containers to collect resin well removed by saruli and her friends
 Person who was in charge of collecting resin – Lai – singh
 DFO supported the cause of saruli in protecting the trees
 The children together with saruli protected the trees and the forests


 Kari’s age when he was given to take care of – 5 months
 Age of Author – 9 years
 40 pounds of twigs to clew and play with
 Kari helped by calling the author to save a drowning boy
 Kari helped the drowning boy by pumping out water he had drank while drowning
 Both kari and the author helped the drowning boy
 The rope the author found around his neck – kari’s trunk
 The drowning boy was from Author’s village
 How did the author lead kari? – By holding his ear
 Where did the Author take kari everyday - River


 Lead role – Malar
 Malar was pulled up by her teacher as she was found dreaming
 Malar wanted to act in a play or dance
 Malar’s friend – Nila
 The Neem tree in the school campus was to be cut at principal’s advice
 Neem tree was to be cut to construct a New toilet
 Malar was given the role of curtain raiser because she could not participate in dance
 Malar compared herself with the neem tree, and asked why she should be removed
 Principal decided that some other place would be chosen for toilets
 The neem tree would continue to blossom
 Story line – Malar whilst comparing herself to the neem tree, saved it from being cut and
made principal changing her mind


Tendai – A small boy who heard the tales of Ant eater from his Grandmother
Pangolin – Another name for the scaly ant eater
Dassie – African rat
 No one harms a pangolin because it is perceived as an animal that would bring good luck
CA Scaly Ant eate – Pangolin
 The first race :-
Down the path
They climb to top of the Kopje and come down the main path that goes straight down
Dassie ran fast as it was its familiar path and pangolin ran hard puffing taking up its heavy
scaled body and Dassie won the race
 The second race :-
They ran down a slope and Dassie started running.
The pangolin rolled up into a scaly ball and rolled without any difficulty
At finishing line the scales unrolled it to it original form
He owed his success tothe father “There is always more than a way to do a thing”
 It was a thick forest. A buttterfly flew into it
 It saw lots of tiny particles dancing in the beam
 It asked the sunbeam what were those dancing always
 The sunbeam said those were particles of dust always prevality but visible only in a sunbeam
 Sun beam says they are all preset in universe. These dust particles were large and hence
 Butterfly asks in awe that if there were dancing atoms in that solid rock
 The butterfly asks of what makes the atoms to planets move, and where they derive the
energy from
 The sunbeam replied, “The energy of cosmos is eternal and can never be destroyed
 The sunbeam declares the superior nature of energy and that the forms they take in transition
 The butterfly understood the dance of naature and felt the dance of atoms in the universe was
someway connected in way to the part of what was around it

Match the places poet Dramatist with suitable option

Boat songs – T.V. Padma
Adityan – boatman
Karikalan – chola euperor
Discovery – Gayatri pahlajai
Discovery – to study stars
Make dreams that just don’t dissapear – discovery
Tsuna mika – A little girl
Her dream bicycle
Malar lived – Keeranur (pudukottai)
Shanthi – Malar’s mother
Kathirvel – Malar’s father
Ponni – Elder sister
Mallika – Second sister
Biking – Judith Nicholas
AN OPEN LETTER – chief seaful
 Header of a northern tribe in North of America
Night – William blake
The fairy crane – A japanese folk tale

Genre – Melancholly
Common passion of 2 friends – Fishing
Area of the story occurance – France
Names of 2 friends – Monsieur Morissot and Monsieur Savage
Monsieur morrissot profession – Watch maker
Savage’s profession – Fishing chum
Common things between 2 friends – similar taste and feelings
What did they take in the cafe – Absinthe
What and where did they plan? – To go on a fishing trip to a place called colombes
What did the colonel give them to enter the military lines – A password to access
Name of the river – siene
Who are referred to as prussions – Germans
What did they do at the banks of siene – They started fishing
What did they hear suddenly – the rumbling sound of cannon fire
Name of the mountain along river siene – Mont valerion
What did they agree mutually – that they would never be free
What happened when they were fishng – They were captured by german soldiers, seized, bound and
carried in a boat to lle marante
What were they doubted for – As spies entering Germany controlled area
What did the German officer – The german officer askedthem the password to access
Who was first taken to separate cell to enquire – Monsieur Morissot followed by savage
What did the German officer say to 2 friends – if they didn’t give pw they would be killed
What did the 2 friends do to each other – they shook hands and bade each other Good bye
How many shots were fired – 12
How were the bodies of 2 friends disposed – Tied to a store and thrown into the river siene

Lead role – Ivan omitritch
Who bought the lottery ticket – Ivan’s wife
What was the serial number – Series 9499 No: 26
Name of his wife – Masha
To which series the prize was won – Series 9499
What was the prize money – 75,000
What was Ivan’s plan for the prize money – 25,000 on property 10,000 on furnishing travelling,
paying derots 40,000 on bank deposit for interest
What did Ivan’s wife suggest on prize money – Travel abroad to South France, Italy (or) India
What did Ivan think the money will make his wife into – she would keep it to herself, her relatives
would live up
What does the Author summarize the feelings of the couple on learning that each one would feel –
The author outlines, the change in attitude of husband and wife and the ill feeling about each other
and the hatred growing on the thought that what money is going to do to them
To what number of lottery ticket, the prize money fell – Series 9499, Number : 46
What was Ivan omitritch’s feeling after knowing the result – He scolded his wife on not keeping the
house clean

Lead role – Gunga Ram
His principle – No creatures should be killed, all life is sacred
Whom did the devote Gunga Ram feed milk everyday – Kalanag, the Black Cobra
Whom did Gunga Ram worship – Lord siva, Brahma and Vishnu
What did he wear on his forehead – He wore a “v” mark, the mark of Vishnu
What did he advise to his children – Not to kill animals and birds
What did he offer Kalanag everyday – He kept a saucer of milk near the Anthill and believed it drank
it everyday
What did the children do to Kalanag – They saw him coming out took sticks and broke the back of
Kalanag took it in a tin box to school to save it as specimen
What did Gunga ram do? – He brought a saucer of milk to the injured snake to the school
What did the snake Kalanag do to Gunga ram – The snake Kalanag hissed violently and bit Gunga
ram on his face and bitten on his forehead too right on “The mark of Vishnu”

The location of the story – Greenwich
The theme of the story built under lead roles – Epidemic of pneumonia
Roommates around whom the story revolves – Sue and Joanna (Johnsy)
Who was the unseen stranger – Mr.Pneumonia
Who was affected by Pneumonia – Joanna (johnsy)
What did joanna wanted to paint – The Bay of Naples
What was joanna counting on par with her mounting fever – She was counting the leaves on the old
ivy vine
What did joanna think (on) corelation with the ivy vine – Joanna was counting the number of leaves
on ivy vine and believed that she was counting her days too
What did Joanna tell sue – That she would leave when the last leaf falls apart
Who lived in the ground floor beneathe the studio – Behrman the painter
What was Behrman’s ambition – To paint a masterpiece that would create an ever lasting statement
What did Behrman say about Joanna’s belief – He termed it foolishness
What made joanna strong and beleived that she would pull through – She saw the last leaf fight to its
survival she got the resolve from it
What did the doctor say after examin joanna – He said joanna was recovering and she would live on
What happened to Mr.Behrman – He was found dead due to pneumonia he had contacted 2 days ago
What did the janitor and his men find in Behrman’s room – Scattered brushes pallettes with green and
yellow mixed
What happened exactly – The night when the last leaf fell, Mr.Behrman had painted the portrait of the
last leaf and hung it on the wall. Joanna derived motivation on seeing the last leaf and fought her bock
to health. It was the ultimate masterpiece of Mr.Behrman, the painter

Where did the Author plan to go? – Munsiyari, the land of snow
Where is Munsiyari located?- It is situated in kumaon, Bordering Tibet and Nepal
What is the name of the Glacier – Milam Glacier
Who were the actual inhabitants of Munsiyari village – The Bhutia’s
Who agreed to be the Author’s Tour Guide – Khemnam, A65 year old man
Who was the Author’s porter – Laxmi, A sturdy young man
What were the Ghost villages of Milam valley – Burfer and Bilju
What was the other Glacier enroute to Milam Glacier – Nanda pal
Where was the Pilgrimage enroute to Milam Glacier – Suraj kund
The base camp of the trek – Ragash kund
What are the peaks that are viewed from the Ghost village Bilju – Nanda devi main and Nanda
What is the exact location of munsiyari – Munsiyari Tehsil Pithoragarh distirct Uttarkhand
Location of the temple – Tanjore
Built in – 1010AD by Raja Raja Chola
Speciality of Thanjavur – Granary of Tamil nadu home of carnatic music, dance and traditional
Thanjavur palace – Built in 16th century by Nayaks and renovated by Marathas
Area of Brihadeeshwara temple – 750’ * 400’
Weight of topmost stone of the Vimanam at Brihadeeshwara temple – About 80 tonnes
What is the folklore about the stone in the vimanam – It says a Ramp was built from Sara pallam
4kms away and pulled by elephants
Height of shiva linga in the Sanctum Sanctorum of Brihadeeshwara temple – 8.7m high
Apart from huge sivalinga, what is the attraction at the temple – Giant Nandhi statue
Description of temple Gopuram – 58m tall 13 storeyed

Location of yaanaimalai – Madurai
Author suffered from an eye defeat called – Retinitis Pigmentosa
Author’s wife mahema suffred from – Paralysis
Perceived age of Madurai – 2400 years
Location of yaanaimalai – North-eastern outslots of Madurai
Reason for the hill’s name – when seen from Madurai, it resembles a seated elephant
Name of the big wells used for irrigation of paddy fields – Yettrams
when was the travellogue written by the Author – October 1986
What’s special about yaanaimalai – A monolith hill
From what direction does the hill yaanaimalai looks like a seated elephant – South west
The drawing of the hill was completed by the Author in – 2002


Whose woods these are I think I know
His house is in the village though
He will not see me stopping there
To watch his woods fill up with snow

My little horse must think it Queer

To stop without a farm house near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year

He gives his harness bells a shake

To ask if there is some mistake
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake
The woods are lovely, dark and deep
But I have promises to keep
And miles to go before I sleep


I was angry with my friend
I told my wrath, my wrath did end
I was angry with my foe
I told it not, my wrath did grow

And I Water’d it in fears

Night and morning with my tears
And I sunned it with smiles
And with soft deceitful wiles

And it grew both day and night

Till it bore an apple bright
And my foe behold it shine
And he knew that it was mine

And into my Garden stole

When the night had vieled the pole
In the morning glad I see,
My foe outstretched beneath the tree


Once upon a time, son
They used to laugh with their hearts
And laugh with their eyes
But now they only laugh with their teeth
While their ice-block cold eyes
Search behind my shadow

There was a time indeed

They used to shake hands with their hearts
But that’s gone, son
Now that’s gone, now they shake hands without hearts
While their left hands search my empty pockets

Feel at home, “come again”

They say, and when I come
Again and feel
At home, once, twice
There will be no thrice
For then I find doors shut on me

So I have learnt many things, son

I have learned to wear many faces
Like dresses – home face
Office face, street face, host face
Cocktail face, with all their conforming smiles
Like a fixed portrait smile
And I have learned too
To laugh with only my teeth
And shake hands without my heart
I have learned to say “Good bye”
When I mean “Good – riddance”
To say “Glad to meet you”
Without being glad, and to say “It’s been
Nice talking to you”, after being bored

But believe me, son

I want to be what I used to be
When I was like you I want
To unlearn all these muting things
Most of all, I want to relearn
How to laugh, for my laugh in the mirror
Shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare Fangs

So show me son
How to laugh show me how?
I used to laugh and smile
Once upon a time when I was like you
_ Gabriel Okara Nigeria


One infant grows up and becomes a jockey
Another plays basketballor hockey
This one the prize ring hates to enter
That one becomes a tackle or center
I am just glad as glad can be
That i am not them, that they are not me

With all my heart I do admire

Atheletes who sweat for fun or hire
Who take the field in Gaudy pomp
And main each other as they romp
My limp and bashful spirit feeds
On other people’s heroic deeds

Now ‘A’ runs ninenty yards to score

‘B’ knocks the champion to the floor
Cracking vertebrae and spines
Lashes his steed across the line
You’d think my ego it would please
To swap positions with one of these

Well, ego it might be pleased enough

But zealous athelets play so rough
They do not ever in their dealings
Consider one another’s feelings
I’m glad that when my struggle begins
Twixt prudence and ego, prudence wins

When swollen eye meets guarled fist

When snaps the knee and cracks the wrist
When official dom demands
Is there a doctor in the stands?
My soul in true thanks giving speaks
For this modest of physiques

Atheletes, i’ll drink to you

Oreat with you,
Or anything except complete with you
Buy tickets worth their radium
To watch you gambol in the stadium
And reassure myself a new
That you are not me and I’m not you


I heard a thousand blended notes
While in a grove I sate reclined
In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to the mind

To her fair works did nature link

The human soul that through me ran
And much it grieved my heart to think
What man has made of man

Through primrose tufts, in that sweet bower

The periwinkle trailed its wreaths
And ot is my faith that every flower
Enjoys the air it breathes

The birds around me hopped and played

Their thoughts I cannot measure
But the least motion which they made
It seem’d a thrill of pleasure

The budding twigs spread out their fan

To catch the breezy air
And I must think, do all I can
That there was pleasure there

If this belief from heaven be sent

If such be Nature’s holy plain
Have I not reason to lament
What man has made of man


We are proud and feel so tall
Our virtues though be few and small
Our nature it is that whatever we try
We do with devotion deep and true

Defeat we Repel, courage our fort

Cringing from others we haven’t done
To seek a gain we adore none
We are proud and feel so tall

We deem it our duty and mission in liffe

To bless and praise the desewing ones
Never shall we fail in what we commit
Shall nourish the ones that nourish the world

We are proud of the position we

Hold; humble as we are
Our pride springs from the way we live
Ours is a path of dignity and honour
A life that knows no kneeling and bending
We are proud and feel so tall.

Everest is not the only peak, every

Hillock has a summit to boast
The height you reach is not that we care
He who does not stoop is a king we adore
We how before competence and Merit
The ones that are true and stand on their own
Are really the ladder for rise of man
Honour is a property, common to all;
In dignity and pride, No one need to be poor
We are proud and fee so tall.

Nouns : (ngah;r;nrhy;)
A word used to Identify any of a class of people, places or things.
In a Sentence it plays the role of subject, object, complement appositive or adjective
Types of Nouns:
1. Common Noun
2. Proper Noun
3. Concrete Noun/Material Nouns
4. Abstract Noun
5. Collective Noun
Common Noun:
Noun that refers to people (or) things in general
 Boy, girl, country, bridge, day, night etc.
Proper Noun:
The name which specifies an identity
 Latha, Mary, United states, New Delhi, India etc
 In written form, proper nouns begin with capital letters
Concrete Noun:
It refers to people and things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled heard or
 Dog, Building, Coffee, tree, rain, beach etc.,
Abstract Noun:
A Noun refferring to ideas, Qualities and conditions and things which have no physical reality
 Goodness, Sarrow, Happiness, Joy, Poverty
Material Noun:
A Noun is the name of a raw material (or) Substance out of which other things are made of
 Gold, Copper, Cement, Paper
Collective Noun:
It refers to groups or things as a collection
 Family, Battery, Shoal, fishes, flocks
_ A word that can function of a Noun. It is used by to refer someone or something mentioned
elsewhere in discourse
Subject: I, you, He, She, It, We, You, They
Object: Me, you, Him, Her, It, Us, You, Them
Possessive: Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Its, Ours, Yours, Their
Project Possessive: My, Your, His, Her, Its, Our, Your, Their
Reflex Pronoun: Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves

A word used to Describe an action, State or occurance
Types of Verbs:
Action Verbs : Verbs that expresses action
Eg. Give, walk, run etc
Transitive Verbs: It always has a Noun that receives action. It may have an indirect object.
 Ram raises his hand
 Krishna gave kumar a pencil
Non – Transitive Verb : It does not have a direct or indirect object.
 Ram raises slowly from seat
 His book will lie there all day
Linking Verb: It helps to connect subject to a noun or adjective
 Arun became a Business man
 Ram is in love with sita
Helping Verb: It conveys additional information
 George could listen to New songs
 The Trek might be dangerous
ADVERBS – (chpr;nrhy;)
A word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another verb.
1. Adverbs of Time : Follows a verb yesterday, today, tomorrow, now, then, daily, yet.
2. Adverbs of Place: Follows a verb or an object
Above,in, before, front, back, inside out etc
3. Adverbs of Frequently: Between S – V or V – V ocassionaly, frequently, often mostly,
recently, sometimes
4. Adverbs of Manner : Follows verb or object
Eg. Loudly, badly, cowardly, bravely, willingly, angrily
5. Adverbs of Degree : Qualifies an adjective
Eg. Very, too, almost, entirely, mostly, better, enough
6. Adverbs of Reason : Precedes a verb
Eg. Hence, so, as, therefore, because
7. Adverbs of Affirmation : After V, before Ad, Begining of sentence
Eg. Certainly, definitely, actually, firmly, confidentially
8. Adverbs of Negation : Precedes a verb
Eg. Hardly, scarely, never, nowhere, neither, nor
9. Interrogative Adverbs : Start of a sentence
Eg. Wh – Questions, how many, how much
10. Relative Adverbs : Centre of a sentence or between clauses
Eg. When, where, how long, how, why etc
A word used with a Noun to describe the attributes (or) Quantity
1. Adjectives of Quality : precede noun
Eg. Honest, large, useful, happy, happy
2. Demonstrative Adjectives : Points out a person
Eg. This, that, these, those, such
3. Distributive Adjectives :
Eg. Each, every, neither, either
4. Emphasising Adjective;
Eg.own, very
5. Adjectives of Quantity : Signifies Quantity
Eg. Some, enough, all, half, little, any, great, sufficient
6. Adjectives of Number :
Eg. Some, three, some, many, several
7. Possessive Adjectives:
Eg. My, our, your, his, her, their
8. Exclamatory Adjectives :
Eg. Beauty! Genius! Blessing! Non-sense!

Word that Qualifies orspecifices an object
Articles : A, An, The, Some
Definite article : It specify a thing in particular
Article: The
 Give me the keys
 Shall we go to the movie?
Indefinite Article : It qualifies a singular form of a thing
Singular Indefinite : A, An
 Give me a cup of coffee
Plural Indefinite :
 Give me some coffee
Propositions : A word placed before a Noun or Pronoun to show in what relation with some other
word in a sentence
In – ,y; After - gpd;G
With – ,lk; Since - y; ,Ue;J
Into – cs; After - gpwF
For – Mf – f;fhf Behind – gpd;dhs;
Of – f;F Between - ,ilNa
With – cld; Among -
From – ,Ue;J Beside - gf;fj;jpy;> mUfpy;
To – f;F - ,lk; Besides - NkYk;
By – My; But - jtpu
Off – tpl;L Than - tpl
At – ,y; place Till - tiu
At – f;F time Until – tiuf;Fk;
On – Nky; During - nghOJ
Above – Nky; Under - mbapy;
Over – NkNy Down - fPo;
Within – f;Fw; Below - mbapy;

1) The temple is in centre of the city
2) I am going to chennai with my father
3) Raju fell into the Jank
4) Ram bought a watch for Seetha
5) I am fond of playing Cricket
6) I am Leaving to Airport
7) This pen was gifted to me by John
8) He fell off the boat
9) The conference is planned at Ooty
10) The meeting is scheduled at 7.30 p.m
11) The book is on the table
12) The roof is thached above the hut
13) The crow is flying over the tree
14) He returned from office within an hour
15) Meet me after half an hour
16) I have been Residing in Chennai since 2000
17) The entire team was behind him during his hard times
18) Ram and Lakshman shared the property between themselves
19) The theives had equally shared the l00t among themselves
20) The library is beside the senate hall
21) He has a car besides owning a two wheeler
22) He started early but he couldn’t reach in time
23) Its better to face problems than to evade it
24) She was waiting for him till he came back
25) Ram was playing football until his father called him home
26) Balu broke his finger during a match at coimbatore
27) The shoes are under the table
28) The bus is travelling down the hill
29) The temple is located below the hill
30) The sub-cutaneous layer is beneath the exoderm

Positive : Shows the Normal state of Quality
Comparitive : Shows the comparative superiority of one against another
Superlative : Shows the Supreme quality of an entity
Bright - Brighter - Brightest
Brave - Braver - Bravest
Easy - Easier - Easiest
Fat - Fatter - Fattest
Cunning - More cunning - Most cunning
Beautiful - More Beautiful - Most Beautiful
Positive : Identify the adjective in first degree
Comparitive – 2. Entities Comparison,
Adjective in second degree - +than
Superlative – Only entity
The + adjective in third degree
Active Voice : It describes a sentence where the subject performs the action stated by the verb
Passive Voice : The subject is acted upon by the verb
 Rama killed ravana
Ravana was killed by rama
 Ram is going to watch a movie tonight
A movie is going to be watched by Ram tonight
Collective Nouns :
1) A Battery of soliders
2) A Circle of friends
3) A Crew of sailors
4) A Crowd of people
5) A Gang of thieves
6) A School of children
7) A Mob of protesters
8) A Panel of experts
9) A Party of visitors
10) A Bevy of beauties
11) A Band of musicians
12) A Board of directors
13) A Bunch of crooks
14) A Caravan of vehicles
15) A Choir of singers
16) A Class of pupils
17) A Dynesty of kings
18) A Pack of thieves
19) A Staff of employees
20) A Team of players
21) A Tribe of natives
22) A Colony of ants
23) A Herd of cattle, elephants
24) A Plague of locusts, crickets, bees (swarm)
25) A Hive of bees
26) A Brood of chicken
27) A Shoal of fishes
28) A Colony of cubs, penguins
29) A Flock of birds
30) A host of spanows
31) A Litter of kittens, piglets
32) A Kennel of puppies, dogs
33) A Pack of wolves
34) A Pack of whales
35) A Pride of lions
36) A troup of apes
37) A Boquet of flowers
38) A Bunch of grapes
39) A Collection of coins
40) A Pack, Deek of cards
41) A String of pearls
42) An Album of stamps
43) An Archipelago of islands
44) A Cluster/bundle of firewood
45) A Cluster of coconut
46) A Clutch of eggs
47) A Fleet of ships / of Aeroplanes
48) A Galaxy of stars
49) A Range of mountains
50) A Bundle of papers
LIST – 2
1) Donkeys - Bray
2) Bees - Buzz
3) Beetles - Drone
4) Birds - Sing
5) Bulls - Bellow
6) Calves - Bleat
7) Cats - Mew
8) Chickens - Cackle
9) Cock - Crow
10) Cows - Moo
11) Dogs - Bark
12) Ducks - Quack
13) Elephants - Trumpet
14) Frogs - Squeak, Croak
15) Hares - Sqieak
16) Horses - Neign
17) Lions, Tiger - Roar
18) Mike - Squet, Squeal
19) Monkeys - Chatter
20) Owls - Hoot
21) Pigs - Grunt Squeel
22) Sheep - Bleat
23) Snake - Hiss
24) Sparows - Chirp
25) Wolves fox - Howl
Gerund: Verb + ing form
Functions as a Noun
Eg. Walking is good for health
Smoking is injurious to health
Infinitive : to + verb
Basic form of verb
1. To swim is a good exercise
Swimming is a good exercise
2. Walking is good for health
To walk is good for health
3. To see is to believe
Seeing is believing
WH Questions
What - vd;d
Why - Vd;
Where - vq;F
When - vg;NghJ
Whose - ahUila
Who - ahh;
Whom - ahiu
Which - vJ
How many - vt;tsT (vz;zpf;if)
How much - vt;tsT (msT)
1. What is the time please?
2. Why are you late?
3. Where are you going?
4. When did the incident happen
5. Who are those people
6. Whom do you want to meet?
7. Whose care is this?
8. Which one of these books is yours?

1. How many times do you want to tell me this story?

2. How much money do you want?
_ Sounds phonetically similiar but spells and means differently
_ Always used in poetic rhyming schemes and to initiate a degree of passion
1) Accessary, Accessory
2) Ad, add
3) Ail, ale
4) Air, heir
5) Allowed, aloud
6) Arc, ark
7) Sweet, suit, suite
8) Bait, bate
9) Bard, baned
10) Bare, bear
11) Baron, barren
12) Bass, bass
13) Bery, bury
14) Billed, build
15) Course, coarse
16) Board, bored
17) Bread, bred
18) Not, knot
19) No, know, now
20) Bridal, bridle
21) Censor, sensor
22) Chord, cord
23) Complement, compliment
24) Coo, coup
25) Dual, duel
26) Find, fined
27) For, fore, four
28) Guessed, guest
29) Knead, need
30) Made, maid
31) Mined, mind
32) Morning, mourning
33) Navel, naval
34) Packed, pack
35) Pause, paws
36) Principal, principle
37) Draft, draught
38) Farther, father
39) Flour, flower
40) Gorilla, guarilla
41) Hail, hale
42) Knows, nose
43) Medal, meddle
44) Missed, mist
45) Muscle, mussle
46) One, wone
47) Pain, pane
48) Plain, plane
49) Rain, reign, rein
50) Claws, class, clause
1) Simple or Declarative Sentences
 Sentences that are used to pass ones information
2) Commend or Intenogative Sentences
 Expressing a Request or an order
3) Question (or) Intenogative Sentences
 Statements which inquire about a Query
4) Exclamatory Sentences
 Statements that express an emotion
Eg. Grammer is vital to understand the language better

Eg. Did you attend the meeting ?
Are you going to capital?

Command or Imperative
Eg. Close the door.....
Would you mind closing the door?

Eg. Wow! You look absolutely glorious!
Alas! The king is dead!

Match the places, Poet, Dramatist, Painta etc.
 Swept away – Susannah Hickling
No men are foreign James Kirkup
Wooden bowl – Leo Tolstay
Lottery ticket – Antomelt
Chemmeen – Thakkazhi sivasakara pillai
Prahadeeswara Temple – Thanjavur
Elephant hills – Madurai
Mountain railways – Darjeeling
Empoli – Italy
Etna – A volcalic Mountain
Patient spider – Whitman
Bilju – The ghost village
Pieros – Paintings by Italian painter Piero Della Francesca 1420-1492
Baldovinetti – Painting by florentive painter Allessio Baldovinetti
Cassoni – Name of painting by Francesco Pessellino – An Italian Renaiasence Painter
Virgil – Classical Roman Poet
Moliere – French Dramatist 1622-1673
Botticalli – Italian Renaissance Painter 1445-1510
John Julius Angerstain – A patron of fine arts and a collector
Leonardo Davinci – (1452-1519) Italian Renaissance Painter
Raffoel Sanzio – Italian Renaissance painter
Giovanni Boldini – Italian Renaissance painter
Giovanni Bellini – Italian Renaissance painter
Christopher Anstey – English writer and poet
Giovanni Da Empoli – A fictional painter
Quattrocento – Fifteenth century
Sandro Botticelli’s – “Annunliation” is painted from 1489-1490
1) Arunachal Pradesh Bardo chham
2) Assam Bagurambha, Bihu, Jhumur
3) Chhatisgarh Raut Nacha
4) Goa Fugdi
5) Gujarat Dhandiya ras, Garba, Tippani
6) Himachal Pradesh Nati
7) Haryana Rasleela, Ragini
8) Karnataka Veeragase, Yakshagana
9) Jammu & Kashmir Dumhal, Rauf
10) Jharkhand Jhumar Damkach, Chhau
11) Kerala Chakyar koothu, Duffmuter, Margamkali,
Oppana, Padayani, Theyyam
12) Madhya Pradesh Grida, Maanch, Phulphati
13) Maharashtra Lavani
14) Mizoram Cheraw
15) Nagaland Cheng lo
16) Odisha Chhau, Goti Pua, Bagh Nach, Dalkhai
17) Puduchery Garadi
18) Punjab Bhangra, Giddha, Malwai Giddha, Kikkli
19) Rajasthan Ghoomar, Kalbelia, Katchi Godi, Teratali
20) Sikkim Singhicham
21) Tamilnadu Paraiattam, Kummi, Kolattam, Karagattam,
Mayilattam, Poikkal Kuthirai, Oyilattam,
Puliyattam, Tharukoothu
22) Telangana Perini Shiva Thandavam
23) Tripura Hojagiri
24) Uttar Pradesh Mayor Nrithya Rasleda
25) West bengal Alkap, Domni, Dhanali
1) Success is not something to wait for
It is something to work for – Jessica Cox
2) I may have been affected by polio but education has helped me to Realize my dreams –
3) Owning things is Human, sharing them is divine – Oscar wilde
4) Man is born free but is every wherein chains – Jean Jacques Rousseau
5) The highest result of education is tolerance – Hellen keller
6) If I can’t carry forest on my back Neither can you crack a Nut – Ralph Waldo Emerson
7) Many of life’s failures are expenenced by people who did not realise how close they were to
success when they gave up – Edison
8) What is learned with pleasure is truly learned with in measure – Khalil Gibran
9) She left India as a student, but she would see the nation of her birth, all of it, from hundreds of
miles above – George bush abouts Kalpana Chawla
10) The legacy you leave is the one you live – Abraham Lingon
11) To be yourself in aworld that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest
accomplishment – Ralph Waldo Emerson
12) The heights reached by great man reached and kept
Were not attained by sudden flight
But when their companions slept
Were toiling upward in the night – H.W. Long fellow
13) That’s one small step for a men
One giant leap for mankind – Neil Armstrong
14) Under the wide and starry sky
Dig the grave and let me lie – R.L.Stevenson
15) I was not born for one corner, the
Whole world is my native land – Seneca the Philosopher
16) Envy is ignorance and imitation is suicide – Emerson
17) Count your blessings, not your troubles – Dale Carnegie
18) Fraility, thy name is women – M.K.Gandhi
19) Don’t let any one tell you “you can’t do it” – Sunitha Williams
20) Th e duty to yourself is two fold – G.K. Gokhale
21) To call woman weaker sex is a libel
It is a man’s injustice to woman
Who said these words about women? – Mahatma Gandhi
22) A nation without a vision is like a ship cruising on high seas without aim or direction –
Jawaharlal Nehru
23) Success does not mean the absence of failures – Edwin . c. Bliss
24) India is a nation of billion people A nations progress depends upon how its people think – Dr.
APJ. Abdul Kalam
25) I would sweep them out of existence 17 i had the power – Mahatma Gandhi
26) If women of Asia wake up they will dazzle the world – M.K. Gandhi
27) Letus, collectively set the second National vision of developed India I am confident – APJ.
Abdul Kalam
28) Honesty and truth are interrelated honesty is basically an expression of truth – Kiran Bedi
29) The only thing to kill is impatience and rashness, because it makes you act without applying
thought – Vishwanathan Anand
30) Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested
– Francis Bacon
1) Why did the Authors parent imagine him to be a Dr or Er.
He had good score in science and maths.
2) Authors Ambition – Musician
3) Authors parents view on music
They loved listening to classical music
4) Newspaper included music in
Arts and Entertainment
5) Who according to karl paulnack added music in their culture – Ancient greeks
6) According to Greek – 2 sides of coin are – Music and Astronomy
7) Astronomy was seen as a study of relationship between
Observable permanent external objects
8) According to Author music helps us in finding – The inside soul
9) Which according to the Author is the most profound musical composition of all time as stated
by Author – Quartet – Olivier Messiaen in 1940, Nazi camp, Prisoners and guards.
10) Why is that considered special
Composed in dreadful Nazi campt. It does not have basic essentials of life but had music for
the releif.
11) Why the Author didn’t play the piano in september – 12, 2001 morning.
September – 11 twin tower blast occured, Hence he thought no one would be pleased to hear
12) What was the first organized event the Author saw on the evening of september -11
People sang around fire houses
13) What were the Americans singin
“we shall over come” – Beautiful America
14) Who is the Author of “We shall overlone” – Charles Tindley
15) Who were the Authors of America the beautiful – Cindy caravan/Guy caravan and others
16) What is the first organized public event that Author remembered
Brahms Requiem, Lincoln centre Newyork Philharmonic
17) Who recovered the people from shock after September 11, 2001
Art and by music in large
18) What the Author experts other to do along with mastery music – To save the planet
19) According to Author, How mastering music can save planet
By removing hatred among people even between borders
20) According to Author what can bring peace to planet and whats the Reason for wars between
the nation – Music, Releigious of the world
Grammy grammy
Please comb my hair
Grammy grammy
Please comb my hair
You always take your time
You always take such care
You make me sit on a cushion
Between your knees
You rub a little coconut oil
Parting my hair as Gentle as a breeze
Mummy mummy
She’s always in a hurry – hurry
She pulls my hair, sometimes she tugs
But Grammy
You have all the time in the world
And when you’ve finished
You always turn my head and say
“Now who’s a Nice girl”?
_ Grace Nicholas
I can talk with a friend
And walk with a friend
And share my umbrella
In the rain
I can play with a friend
And stay with a friend
And learn with a friend
And explain
I can eat with a friend
And complete with a friend
And even sometimes
I can ride with a friend
And take pride with a friend
A friend can mean
So much to me
_ Vivian Gould
To cook and eat
Is an art
Yet a part
Of everyday life
We take it for granted
Not knowing
Not caring
That others
May not have this thing
Which we so foolishly
_ Emma Richards
My country! In your days of glory past
A beauteous halo circled round your brow
And worshipped as a deity you were
Where is that glory, where that reverse now
Your eagle pinion is chained down at last
And grovelling in the lowly dust are you
Your minstrel has no wreath to weave for you
Save the sad story of your misery
Well-let me dive into depths of time
And bring from out of the ages that have rolled
A few small fragments of those wrecles sublime
Which human eyes may never more behold
And let the guadon of my labour be
My fallen country! One kind wish from you
_ Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
He stalks in his vivid stripes
The few steps of his cage
On pads of velvet quiet
In his quiet rage
He should be leaking in shadow
Sliding through long grass
Near the water hole
Where plump deer pass
He should be snarling around houses
At the jungle’s edge
Baring his white fangs, his claws
Terrorizing the village
But he’s locked in a concrete cell
His strength behind bars
Stalking the length of his cage
Ignoring visitors
He hears the last voice at night
The patrolling cars/and stares with
His brilliant eyes at the brilliant stars
_ Leslie Norris