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2.

4 Mode theory for circular waveguide


¾ For planar waveguide (1D), there are TE (E z = 0) and TM (H z= 0) modes
exist; single parameter, integer m describe the number of modes
¾ How about Optical fiber (2D), TE, TM, or else modes? How many
parameters (integers) to specify modes?

Exact solution from vector Maxwell’ equations :


1. 2 integers ν , m are necessary to specify modes
2. Type of modes: TE νm TM νm HE νm EH νm

3. TE νm TM νm : ν = 0, TE νm (E z = 0), TM νm (H z = 0) correspond to
meridional rays traveling within fiber
4. HE νm EH νm : hybrid modes, both Ez and Hz are nonzero
5. HE modes: E z dominates
6. EH modes: H z dominates
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide

Light propagates
only in core !

β/ k

Light propagates
in cladding !
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
Approximate solution from scalar equations based on weakly guiding fiber
approximation:

What is weakly guiding fiber approximation : index difference Δ << 1

1. Using LP j m modes to describe instead of TE νm TM νm HE νm EH νm


LP: linear polarized
2. Correspondence between LP and traditional exact modes Æ see table

1. Each LP 0m mode is derived from an HE 1m mode


2. Each LP 1m mode comes from TE 0m , TM 0m , and
HE 2m modes
3. Each LP ν m mode ( ν >= 2) is from an HE ν+1, m and
an EH ν-1, m mode

We’ll talk about this in the following section


2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide

2.4.1 Over view of Modes

‰ The stable field distribution in the x


direction with only periodic z
dependence is known as a mode
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide

2.4.1 Over view of Modes

‰ For low-order modes the fields are tightly concentrated near the center of
slab (WG, optical fiber), with little penetration into cladding region
‰ For high-order modes, the fields are distributed more toward the edges of the
guide and penetrate further into cladding region
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.1 Over view of Modes
Cutoff condition : propagation angle for a given mode just equals the critical angle.

β 2π n1
θ β = k1 cos θ = cos θ
n1 λ
n2
Critical angle : cos θ =
k n1
h
n2 For guided modes, propagation constant in the range:
2π n 2 2π n1 k 2 ≤ β ≤ k1
≤β ≤ or
λ λ
Cutoff condition: β = k 2 = n2 k
Propagation constant
- Guided mode : bound mode guided inside of core β ≥ k 2 = n2 k
- Radiation modes : refracted mode by cladding β < k2
- Leaky mode : partially confined into core β < k2
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.2 Summary of Key Modal Concept
Question : what parameter could determine if the fiber is Single-
mode fiber (SMF), or multi-mode fiber (MMF) ?
‰ Parameters: Fiber : a, n1, n2 Source : λ
‰ V number is an important parameter connected with cutoff condition,
determined how many modes a fiber could support.
2π a
V = n12 − n 22
λ
‰ Lowest-order mode : HE11
‰ Single mode condition : V < = 2.405
‰ When V > 10 , the total number of modes : M ≈V2 /2
Pclad 4
‰ Fraction of average optical power residing in cladding : ≈
P 3 M
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.3 Maxwell’ Equations

Maxwell Equations! Wave Equations!



→ →
∂D
→ ∂2 E

∇× E = − B

∇× H = ∇ E − εμ
2
=0
∂t ∂t ∂t 2

→ →
∇⋅D = 0 ∇× B = 0
→ ∂ 2
H
∇ 2 H − εμ =0
∂t 2
¾ Light is electromagnetic wave

2.4.4 Waveguide Equations

¾ Goal: Derive wave equation in


cylindrical coordinate system:
¾ Cylindrical coordinate system: r, φ, z
→ →
j (ω t − β z )
E = E 0
(r ,φ )e
→ →
j (ω t − β z )
H = H 0
(r ,φ )e
Fig 2-15 Cylindrical coordinate
(fiber is a cylinder shape!)
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.4 Waveguide Equations
‰ Step 1: Find E components in r, φ , z direction

→ → → ∂
( r , φ ) e j (ω t − β z ) ∇× E = − B
E=E 0 ∂t
→ → →

H = H ( r , φ ) e j (ω t − β z ) → ∂
0 ∇× H = D
∂t

B = μH , D = ε E
With help of ∂ → jω , ∂ → − j β , we can find following Eqs.
∂t ∂z
E H
1 ⎛ ∂H z ⎞ 1 ⎛ ∂Ez ⎞
r direction ⎜ + jr β H φ ⎟ = jωε Er , (2.33a ) ⎜ + jr β Eφ ⎟ = − jωμ H r (2.34a)
r ⎝ ∂φ ⎠ r ⎝ ∂φ ⎠
∂H z ∂E
φ direction j β Er + z = jωμ H φ (2.34b)
jβ H r + = − jωε Eφ (2.33b) ∂r
∂r
1⎛ ∂ ∂H r ⎞ 1⎛ ∂ ∂Er ⎞
⎜ − ⎟ = jωε Ez ⎜ (rEφ ) − ⎟ = − jωμ H z (2.34c)
z direction
r ⎝ ∂φ
( rH φ )
∂φ
(2.33c) r ⎝ ∂φ ∂φ ⎠

2.4.4 Waveguide Equations

‰ Step 2: Write components Er , Eφ , Hr , Hφ in terms of Ez , Hz :

1 ⎛ ∂Ez ⎞
⎜ + jr β Eφ ⎟ = − jωμ H r (2.33a) j ⎛ ∂Ez μω ∂H z ⎞
r ⎝ ∂φ ⎠ Er = − ⎜β + ⎟ (2.35a )
q 2 ⎝ ∂r r ∂φ ⎠
∂E
j β Er + z = jωμ H φ (2.33b)
H ∂r j ⎛ β ∂Ez ∂H z ⎞
Eφ = − ⎜ − μω ⎟ (2.35b)
1⎛ ∂ ∂Er ⎞ q ⎝ r ∂φ
2
∂r ⎠
⎜ ( rEφ ) − ⎟ = − jωμ H z (2.33c)
r ⎝ ∂φ ∂φ ⎠ j ⎛ β ∂H z μω ∂Ez ⎞
Hr = − ⎜ − ⎟ (2.35c)
q 2 ⎝ r ∂r r ∂φ ⎠
1 ⎛ ∂H z ⎞
⎜ + jr β H φ ⎟ = jωε Er , (2.34a ) j ⎛ β ∂H z ∂Ez ⎞
r ⎝ ∂φ ⎠ Hφ = − ⎜ + ωε ⎟ (2.35d )
q 2 ⎝ r ∂φ ∂r ⎠
∂H z
E jβ H r + = − jωε Eφ (2.34b)
∂r
1⎛ ∂ ∂H r ⎞ with q 2 = ω 2εμ − β 2 = k 2 − β 2
⎜ ( rH φ ) − ⎟ = jωε Ez (2.34c)
r ⎝ ∂φ ∂φ ⎠
Using equation 2.33a, 2.34b to find Hr and Eφ
Using equation 2.33b, 2.34a to find Er and Hφ
2.4.4 Waveguide Equations
‰ Step 3: Find wave equations for E and H:

j ⎛ β ∂H z μω ∂Ez ⎞
Hr = − ⎜ − ⎟ (2.35c)
q 2 ⎝ r ∂r r ∂φ ⎠
j ⎛ β ∂H z ∂Ez ⎞
Hφ = − ⎜ + ωε ⎟ (2.35d ) ∂2 E ∂ ∂2
q 2 ⎝ r ∂φ ∂r ⎠ z + 1 Ez + 1 Ez + 2
∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂φ 2
q Ez = 0 (2.36)
1⎛ ∂ ∂H r ⎞
⎜ ( rH φ ) − ⎟ = jωε Ez (2.34c)
r ⎝ ∂φ ∂φ ⎠

j ⎛ ∂Ez μω ∂H z ⎞
Er = − ⎜β + ⎟ (2.35a )
q 2 ⎝ ∂r r ∂φ ⎠

j ⎛ β ∂Ez ∂H z ⎞
Eφ = − ⎜ − μω ⎟ (2.35b) ∂2 H ∂ ∂2
z + 1 Hz + 1 Hz + 2
q ⎝ r ∂φ
2
∂r ⎠ q H z = 0 (2.37)
∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂φ 2
1⎛ ∂ ∂Er ⎞
⎜ ( rEφ ) − ⎟ = − jωμ H z (2.33c)
r ⎝ ∂φ ∂φ ⎠

¾ Electric and magnetic field vector solution (mode) could be achieved by


solving the wave equation for the field components in z-direction !
2.4.5 Wave Equations for Step-index Fibers
‰ Solve Wave equation using separation of variable method :
∂2 E
z + 1 ∂E
z + 1 ∂2 E
z + 2
E z = A F1(r ) F2 (φ ) F3 ( z) F4 (t )
∂r r ∂r r ∂φ
q Ez = 0 Separation-of-
F3 ( z ) F4 (t ) = e j (ωt − β z )
2 2 2
Wave equation variables method
∂2 H ∂ ∂2
z + 1 Hz + 1 Hz + 2 F2 (φ ) = e jνφ
∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂φ 2
q Hz = 0
ν is an integer
∂ 2 F1 1 ∂F1 ν2 This is a well-known differential
+ + ( q 2
− ) F = 0 (2.41)
∂r 2 r ∂r equation for Bessel functions
1
r2
¾ Cutoff conditions :
¾ In fiber core: q = ω εμ − β 2 = k12 − β 2 > 0
2 2

k 2 ≤ β ≤ k1 q 2 = ω 2εμ − β 2 = k22 − β 2 < 0


¾ In cladding:
So, solutions for fiber and fiber cladding are different, using Bessel function Jv(ur)
for core and modified Bessel function of the second kind Kv(wr), which is based
on conditions: F1 → finite for r → 0, F1 → 0 for r → ∞

Solution for fiber core Solution for fiber cladding


Ez1 (r < a ) = AJν (ur )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z ) Ez 2 (r > a) = CKν ( wr )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z )
H z1 (r < a ) = BJν (ur )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z ) H z 2 (r > a) = DKν ( wr )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z )
with u 2 = k12 − β 2 k1 = 2π n1 / λ with w2 = β 2 − k22 k2 = 2π n2 / λ
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.6 Modal Equations

Ez1 (r < a ) = AJν (ur )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z ) (2.42) Ez 2 (r > a) = CKν ( wr )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z ) (2.44)
H z1 (r < a ) = BJν (ur )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z ) (2.43) H z 2 (r > a) = DKν ( wr )e jνφ e j (ωt − β z ) (2.45)
with u 2 = k12 − β 2 k1 = 2π n1 / λ with w2 = β 2 − k22 k2 = 2π n2 / λ
Solution β can be determined by Boundary conditions :
Tangential components Eφ , Ez , and Hφ , Hz at r = a must be continue

At r = a,
E z1 = E z 2 AJν (ua ) = CKν ( wa ) (2.47)
H z1 = H z 2 BJν (ua ) = DKν ( wa ) (2.51)

Eφ 1 = Eφ 2 j ⎛ β ∂Ez ∂H z ⎞ j ⎛ β ∂H z ∂Ez ⎞
Eφ = − 2 ⎜ − μω H
⎟ (2.35b) , φ = − 2 ⎜
+ ωε ⎟ (2.35d )
Hφ1 = Hφ 2 q ⎝ r ∂φ ∂r ⎠ q ⎝ r ∂φ ∂r ⎠

j ⎡ jνβ ⎤ j ⎡ jνβ ⎤
− A
⎢⎣ a Jν (ua ) − Bωμ uJν
'
(ua ) = C
⎥⎦ w ⎢⎣ a Kν ( wa ) − Dωμ wKν
'
( wa ) ⎥⎦ (2.50)
u2 2

j ⎡ jνβ ⎤ j ⎡ jνβ ⎤
− B
⎢⎣ a νJ (ua ) + Aωε 1uJν
'
(ua ) =
⎥⎦ w2 ⎢⎣ D Kν ( wa ) + Cωε 2 wKν
'
( wa ) ⎥⎦ (2.52)
u2 a
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.6 Modal Equations

¾ A set of four Eqs, right side = 0, therefore, only if the determinant of the
coefficients is zero, there is a solution exists.

(2.47)
(2.50)
(2.51)
(2.52)

¾ Eigenvalue equation for β :


2.4.7 Modes in Step-Index Fibers Equations
¾ 2 integers ν , m are necessary to specify modes
¾ We have ν, but Where does m come from ?
from oscillatory behavior of Jv Æ m roots of Eq.2.54 for a given ν
¾ These roots are designed as βνm, and corresponding modes: TEνm TMνm HEνm EHνm

format long
clear
clc
z = (0:0.001:15)'; zero_j0 = 2.405; 5.520; 8.654; 11.792
zero_j1 = 3.832; 7.016; 10.173
j0=besselj(0,z); zero_j2 = 5.036; 8.317; 11.520
j1=besselj(1,z); zero_j3 = 6.180; 9.561;
j2=besselj(2,z);
j3=besselj(3,z);

figure(1)
plot(z,j0,'r',z,j1,'b',z,j2,'g',z,j3,'y');
ylabel('Jv(x)');xlabel('x');
axis([0 15 -0.5 1]);grid
title('Bessel functions of the 1st
kind');
legend('v=0','v=1','v=2','v=3');

zero_j0=z(find(abs(j0)<1.2e-4))'
z=z(100:end);
j1=j1(100:end);
j2=j2(200:end);
j3=j3(300:end);
zero_j1=z(find(abs(j1)<1.3e-4))'
zero_j2=z(find(abs(j2)<1.5e-4))'
zero_j3=z(find(abs(j3)<1e-4))'
2.4.7 Modes in Step-Index Fibers Equations

¾ Modes: TEνm TMνm HEνm EHνm


¾ Special cases: When ν = 0 , modes are: TE0m TM0m

¾ Corresponds to TM0m modes (Hz=0)


2.4.7 Modes in Step-Index Fibers Equations

¾ Cutoff conditions: It means a mode is not longer bound to the fiber core
β = k 2 = n2 k w=0

¾ Normalized frequency V: V = ( u + w ) a = ⎛ 2π a ⎞ ( n 2 − n 2 ) = ⎛ 2π a ⎞ NA 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ λ ⎠ ⎝ λ ⎠
1 2

¾ HE11 has no cut off, but we have single-mode condition which is: V < = 2 .4 0 5
¾ Question: how do we get this number ? Æ From 1st zero of J0

¾ When number of mode M is


large ( >10), we have:

V2
M =
2
2.4 Mode theory for circular waveguide
2.4.7 Modes in Step-Index Fibers Equations

Example 2-3 (p56)


A step-index fiber has a normalized frequency V=26.6 at a 1300-
nm wavelength. If the core radius is 25 μm, let us find the
numerical aperture.

Problem 2-19 (p84)


Determine the normalized frequency at 820 nm for a step-index
fiber having a 25-μm core radius, n1=1.48, and n2=1.46.
(a) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 820 nm ?
(b) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 1320 nm?
(c) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 1550 nm?
(d) What percent of the optical power flows in the cladding in each
case?