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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED

JHANSI

SUMMER TRAINING -
2019
ROTATIONAL REPORT AND
PROJECT REPORT ON POWER
TRANSFORMER

UNDER GUIDANCE OF:

MR. PRABHAT KATIYAR


Sr. ENGINEER (BAY-9)

BHEL, JHANSI

Submitted by: Soumya Jain


Medi-Caps University
EE-2nd year
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am highly thankful and indebted to B.H.E.L. engineers and technical staff for
providing me vital and valuable information about the different facts of an
industrial management system and their respective departments thus helping me to
gain an overall idea about the working of organization.

I am also thankful to Engineers of Bay-9 department for giving his precious time
and help me in understanding various theoretical and practical aspects of my
project on Power Transformer and their processes of manufacturing and testing,
under whose supervision I accomplished my project.

I would like to thank my parents who have been a constant source of


encouragement & inspiration during my studies & have always provided me
support in every walk of life.

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PREFACE

At very outset of the prologue it becomes imperative to insist that vocational


training is an integral part of engineering curriculum. Training allows us to gain an
insight into the practical aspects of the various topics, with which we come across
while pursuing our B.Tech i.e. Summer training gives us practical implementation
of various topics we already have learned and will learn in near future. Summer
training always emphasizes on logic and common sense instead of theoretical
aspects of subject.

On my part, I pursue three weeks training at B.H.E.L. Jhansi. The training involved
a study of various departments of the organization as per the time logically
scheduled and well planned given to me.

The rotation in various departments was necessary in order to get an overall idea
about the working of the organization.

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TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE No.
1. About BHEL, Jhansi………………………………………………....6
2. ROTATION REPORT
i. Store.......................................................................................................10
ii. Fabrication…………………………………………………………….10
iii. Bay 3…………………………………………………………………..12
iv. Bay 4…………………………………………………………………..14
v. Bay 5…………………………………………………………………..15
vi. Bay 6…………………………………………………………………..16
vii. Bay 7…………………………………………………………………..17
viii. Bay 8…………………………………………………………………..18
ix. Bay 9 ………………………………………………………………….19
x. Transformer Engineering ……………………………………………...21
xi. Technology………………………………………………………….....22
xii. Transformer Commercial……………………………………………...24
xiii. Locomotive Production.………………………………………………25
xiv. Locomotive Manufacturing……………………………………………26
xv. Locomotive Commercial………………………………………………26
xvi. Central Quality Services ……………………………………………...27
xvii. Testing…………………………………………………………………28
xviii. Work Engineering Services……………………………………………28

3. REPORT ON POWER TRANSFORMER


i. Introduction………………………………………………………..29
ii. Principles of transformers…………………………………..……..29
iii. Losses in transformers……………………………………..……...30
iv. Materials Used in Transformers…………………………………..31
v. Windings and insulations …………………………………….33

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vi. Magnetic Circuit…………………………………………………..38
vii. Voltage Regulator and tap changer………………………………..42
viii. Cooling arrangements………………………………………………43
ix. Design Procedure ………………………………………………45
x. Transformer auxiliaries and oil preservation systems………………46
xi. Manufacturing and assembly……………………………………….47
xii. Drying and impregnation…………………………………………...48
xiii. Testing of Transformers…………………………………………….48

4. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………...49
5. REFERENCES………………………………………………………...49

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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
JHANSI
A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
B.H.E.L. is an integrated power plant equipment manufacture and one of the
largest engineering and manufacturing companies in India in terms of turnover.
They were established in 1964, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical
Equipment industry in India. The company has been earning profits continuously
since 1971-72 and playing dividends since 1976-77.

They are engaged in the design, engineering, manufacturing, construction, testing,


commissioning and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core
sector of economy, viz. Power, Transmission, Industry, Transportation(Railway),
Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas and Defense. They have 16 manufacturing
divisions, two repair units, four regional offices, eight service centers and 15
regional centers and currently operate at more than 150 projects sites across India
and abroad. They place strong emphasis on innovation and creative development
of new technologies.

They have a share of 57% in India’s total installed generating capacity contributing
69% to the total power generated from utility sets as of March 31, 2013.

Anticipating the country’s requirement, in 1974, BHEL started a new plant in


Jhansi which would manufacture power and other type of transformer in addition
to the capacity available at BHEL in Bhopal. The Bhopal plant was engaged in the
manufacture transformers of large rating and Jhansi unit would concentrate on
power transformers, instrument transformers, traction transformers for railway etc.

The plant of BHEL is equipped with most modern manufacturing processing and
testing facilities for the manufacture of power, special transformer and instrument
transformer, Diesel shunting locomotives and AC/DC locomotives. The layout of
the plant is well streamlined to enable smooth material flow from the raw material
stages to the finished goods. All the feeder bays have been laid perpendicular to the
main assembly bay and in each feeder bay raw material smoothly gets converted to
sub-assemblies, which after inspection are sent to main assembly bay.

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PRODUCT PROFILE OF B.H.E.L., JHANSI

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LAYOUT PLAN OF B.H.E.L. JHANSI

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ROTATION
REPORT

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MAIN AIM OF ROTATION

Main aim behind the rotation of various departments is that one can understand the
working of each and every department and to see that how people (workers, middle
level executives, top officials) work incorporate environment.
Main departments of BHEL Jhansi are
 Production
 Administration

PRODUCTION UNIT DEPARTMENTS

1. STORE:
It is one of the prime departments of material management department.
There are separate stores for different type of material in the B.H.E.L.
There are three sections in store:
 Control Receiving Section
 Custody Section
 Scrap Disposal Section

2. FABRICATION:

Fabrication is nothing but production.


This shop deals with the manufacturing of transformer and locomotive
components such as tanks, plates and nuts & bolts. It comprises of three bays
i.e. Bay 0, Bay 1 and Bay 2.

A. Bay 0:

This is the preparation shop where according to the required drawings, the cutting of
different components of different materials is done. This section has the following
machines:
 Planer machine – used to reduce thickness.
 Cutting machine --

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o CNC/ANC Flame cutting machine – used to cut MS using Oxy-Acetylene flame.
Its fully computerized. The figure is loaded into a computer attached to machine
and flame thus cuts figure accordingly.
 Shearing machine- used for cutting metal sheet. Cutting range is 2mm to 6mm.
 Bending machine- It is hydraulically operated. Pressure gauge is used to the pressure
applied. It consists of a ramp (tool) for up-down motion and the item is leveled on it.
 Rolling machine- used to reduce the roll thickness. roller material is High Carbon Steel.
It consists of 3 rollers. The upper roller is fixed whereas below 2 rollers are used for up-
down motion.
 Flattening machine- used to straighten or to flattening the job using power hammer.
 Radial Drilling machine- In this machine, tool can move radically. Different drill tools
are used from 2mm to 100mm dia.
 Nibbling machine- Used for straight cutting, circle cutting, nibbling, circular and square
punching.
 Plano milling machine
 Plasma cutting machine- Used for non-ferrous metals.
 Hydraulic guillotine shear- used to cut the sheet which has maximum cross-sectional
area (3200*13 sq. mm).
 Pacific hydraulic shear &pressure- hydraulically operated machine to cut the sheet of
different thickness.
 Hydraulic power press- has the capacity of 100 tones and used for flattening the objects.
 Butler machine- for facing, taping and shot cutting.

B. BAY 1:
It is an assembly shop where different parts of tank come from bay 0. Here welding
processes are used for assembly, after which a rough surface is obtained which is
eliminated by Grinder operating at 1200 rpm.
Electrode dia. Welding Temp.
2.5 60-120℃
3.15 100-170℃

C. BAY 2:

It is also assembly shop dealing with making different object mentioned below:

 Tank assembly > Tank cover assembly > End frame assembly.

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 Foot assembly > Cross feed assembly > Core clamp assembly > Pin and pad assembly.

The various process of assembly is fitting, welding and testing. Before assembly, short blasting
(firing of small materials i.e., acid picking) is done on different parts of jobs to clean the surface
before painting.
Shot blasting-It is firing of small materials with the high pressure of 7 kg i.e. acid picking.
Painting- After shot blasting, the tank is painted for corrosion resistant.
After assembly some tests known as NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS are carried out. They are:
 Ultrasonic Tests: To detect the welding fault on the CRO at the fault place high
amplitude waves are obtained.
 Die Penetration Tests: Red solution is put at the welding & then cleaned. After some
time, white solution is put. Appearance of a red spot indicates a fault at the welding.
 Magnetic Crack Detection: Magnetic field is created & then iron powder is put at the
welding. Sticking of the iron powder in the welding indicated as a fault.
 X-Ray Test-It is same as human testing and fault is seen in X-ray film.

3. TRM BAY – 3:
It is split in two parts, half consists of machine shop and the other half consists of winding of dry
type transformer.
Here are basically three sections:
1. Machine Section.
2. Copper Section.
3. Tooling Section.
a. MACHINE SECTION:
The shop consists of following machines:
1. Lathe machine

2. Radial arm drilling machine- used for drilling & boring.

3. Horizontal boring machine-It is computerized and used for making bore, facing etc.
4. Milling machine:
 Horizontal milling machine – It is used for making gear and cutting operations.
 Vertical milling machine – By this machine facing, cutting & T slot cutting is done
5.Grinder:
 Tool cutter grinder- Used for cutting tools and also grind them.
 Hydraulic surface grinder- It consist of magnetic platform. Cooling oils are used as
coolant.
 Vertical grinder machine-Used for grinding purpose.

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6. Hydraulic power press- Used for straightening the material. The capacity of this machine is
25 tons.
7. Resistance brazing machine- used for overlap connections.
8. Bend saw machine- Bit is used for cutting circular object. In this machine blade width is inch
and thickness is ¾ inch.
9. Electric Furnace-Used for heating the object.
10. Hydraulic punching machine-Used for making small pieces of material for desire purpose.
Range of this machine is 12mm to 250mm.
11. Hydraulic shearing machine-Used for cutting the material in range between 12mm to
25mm.
b. COPPER SECTION:
This part is only with copper cutting, bending, tinning etc. Machine used are as listed below.

Tube slitting machine-This machine is developed here & is used for cutting the tube along its
length & across its diameter. Its blade thickness is 3 mm.
Shearing machine-It is operated hydraulically & its blade has V-shape & a thickness of 15 mm.
Die and punching machine-It is also hydraulically operated & has a die & punch for making
holes.
Hydraulic bending machine- used for bending job up to 90 degrees.
Fly press machine- used to press the job.
Bend saw machine -used for cutting job having small thickness.
Water cooled brazing machine-It contain two carbon brushes. The sheet is put along with a
sulfas sheet & the carbon brushes are heated. A lap joint is formed between the sheets as the
sulfas sheet melts.
Linking belt machine- It creates a smooth surface.
Hydraulic press machine-To press the job.
Solder pot machine-It has a pot that contains solder. Solder has a composition of 60% Zn &
40% Pb.

c. TOOLING SECTION:
In this section the servicing of tools is done.
Blade shape machine-It sharpens the blade using a circular diamond cutter. Blade of CNC,
cropping line machine is sharpened here.
Mini surface grinder machine-It serves grinding purposes. It has a grinding wheel made of
Aluminum Oxide.
Tool & surface grinding machine- specially used to grind the tool used in Bay 7.
Drill grinding machine-To grind the drills.

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4. TRM BAY 4:
power transformer winding section.

TYPES OF WINDING
1) Reverse section winding.
2) Helical winding
3) Spiral winding.
4) Interleaved winding.
5) Half Section winding
There are four types of coils fixed in a transformer.
1) Low voltage coil (LV)
2) High voltage coil (HV)
3) Tertiary coil.
4) Tap coil.
Conductors are covered by cellulose paper for insulation.
For winding, first the mould of diameter equal to inner diameter of required coil is made. The
specifications of coils are given in drawing. The diameter of is adjustable as its body is made up
of wooden sections that interlock with each other. Interlocking can be increased or decreased to
adjust the inner diameter of coil.

The Moulds are of following types:


1. Belly types.
2. Link types.
3. Cone types.

5. TRM BAY 5:
It is core and punch section.
The lamination used in power, dry, ESP transformer etc. for making core is cut in this section.
CRGO (Cold rolled grain oriented) silicon steel is used for lamination, which is imported from
Japan, Korea, U.K. or Germany. It is available in 0.27 & 0.28 mm thick sheets,1m wide &
measured in Kg. The sheets are coated with very thin layer of insulating material called “carlites”
to avoid short circuiting.
various type of lamination of cores are:
a) Side leg- this lamination is at the extreme ends of the core which stand vertical. They are
isosceles trapezium in shape with angle of 45o.
b) Central leg- This as the name suggests is central vertical portion of the core. It is a
diamond shaped with vertical edges longer. At the narrower edge one side is kept longer
than the other for making a well-fixed joint; the angles are kept 450.
c) Yoke- The horizontal lamination of the core is called yoke. They are also isosceles
trapezium in shape with angles of 450.

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For the purpose of cutting & punching the core three machines are installed in shop.
1. Slitting machine: It is used to cut CRGO sheets in different width.
2. CNC cropping line pneumatic: It contains only one blade, which can rotate 90 degrees
about the sheet. It is operated pneumatically.
CNC cropping line hydraulic: It is all so used to cut the CRGO Sheet. It contains two
blades, one is fixed and the other rotates 90 degrees above the sheet. It is operated
hydraulically. M4 quality sheet 0.23-0.33 mm thickness is used

Core
Transformer
CRGO sheet

6. TRM BAY 6:
4 different types of Transformers are manufactured in this section:
i. 3-phase Freight loco Traction Transformer
ii. 1-phase Freight loco Traction Transformer
iii. 3-phase ACEMU
iv. 1-phase ACE

ACEMU coil of single phase assembly is done here for local trains which is generally for 3
coaches where DC series motor are used. In loco all coaches are connected to single transformer
of 6531KVA of 3 phase which is connected to 15KV supply which is further convert to DC
supply and then using GOD pure DC is converted to pure AC.
SOD: - filter the light given by large transformer(1050KVA).
GOD: - auxiliary supply.
Now vacuum drying pump is used for moisture removal which converts it into steam.
Oil issued: - used for cooling and insulation resistance.
Cooling Temp. is 50℃ and winding Temp. is 55℃.
Conservator: - oil is present in it. If oil level is low then transformer burn.

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7. TRM BAY 7:
This is the insulation shop.
Various types of insulation which are to be used in transformers are prepared in this bay.

MATERIALS USED:
1) Pre-compressed board: This is widely used for general insulation & separation of
conductors in the forms of block.
2) Press board: This is used for separation of coils e.g. L.V. from H.V.
3) Perma wood: Size 4mm to 25mm.
4) Fiber glass: This is a resin material & is used in fire prone areas (Used in DTT)
5) Bakelite: Size 4mm to 25 mm.
6) Gasket: It is used for protection against leakage.
7) Silicon rubber: It is used for dry type transformer.

The machine used for shaping the insulation material are-


1) Cylindrical machines.
2) Circle cutting machine- Used for cutting the circular objects
3) Scarping machine (used for taper cutting) & Lines in machines (to remove burrs).
4)Punching Press and Drilling machine.
5) Bench saw (specially for OD)
6) Jig saw (specially for ID)
7) Circular saw
8) Rolling Machines-Used to roll the press board.

8. TRM BAY 8:

two types of transformers are assembled in this bay:


1) Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
2) Instrument Transformers
a) Current Transformer (CT) up to 400kV class.
b) Electromotive Voltage Transformer (EMVT) up to 220kV class.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER:

These are used for measurement. Actual measurement is done by measuring instruments but
these transformers serve the purpose of stepping down the voltage to protect the measuring
instrument. They are used in AC system for measurement of current voltage and energy and
can also be used for measuring power factor, frequency and for indication of synchronism.

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They find application in protection of power system and for the operation of over voltage, over
current, earth fault and various other types of relays.

In power lines current & voltage handled is very large & therefore direct measurement are not
possible as these current & voltage are for too large for any other of reasonable size & cost. The
solution lies in steeping down the current & voltage with instrument transformers that would be
mattered with instruments of moderate size. The transformers are also used for protective
purpose.

Body:
 The main body is a bushing which also acts as insulators in which the winding is placed.
 It has a top and bottom chamber.
 The top chamber is the cylindrical tank of mild steel. It has terminals for connection of
HV coils.

a) Current transformer: It is a step-down transformer. The body is divided in to three


parts – top chamber, bushing, bottom chamber. Top chamber is the cylindrical tank of
mild steel. It has terminal for connection of HV coil. It also has oil window to indicate
the oil level. Below it is bushing which houses the winding and also act as insulator. It
has several folds or rain sheds to provide specific electric field distribution and long
leakage path. Some bushings are cylindrical while modern ones are conical, as the
amount of oil porcelain used is reduced without any undesirable effects. Bottom chamber
houses the secondary winding. There is also a connection box to which the connection of
low voltage coil is made.

b) Voltage Transformer: It is also a step-down transformer and outer construction is same as


that of CT. the difference is only in winding.

ESP TRANSFORMER:

The Electrostatic Precipitator transformer is used for environmental application. It is used to


filter in a suspended charge particle in the waste gases of an industry. They are of particular use
in thermal power stations and the ash is used in cement industry.

The ESP is a single-phase transformer. It has a primary and secondary. Both are connected in
series. Input is given as 373.5 volt. In secondary coil 0.3mm steel plate is used and 0.5mm is for
insulation. The core is laminated and is made up of CRGOS. It is a step-up transformer. An AC
reactor is connected in series with primary coil. The output of the transformer must be DC and
this is obtained by rectifying AC using a bridge rectifier (bridge rectifier is a combination of
several hundred diodes). A radio frequency choke (RF choke) is connected in series with the DC
output for the protection of the secondary circuit and filter circuit. The output is chosen negative
because the particles are positively charged. The DC output from the secondary is given to a set
of plates (electrodes) arrange one after the others. Impurity particles being positively charged
stick to these plates, which can be jerked off. For this a network of plates has to be setup all

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across the plant. This is very costly process in comparison with the transformer cost. A relive
vent is also provided to prevent the transformer from bursting it higher pressure develops, inside
it. It is the weakest point in the transformer body. An oil temperature indicator and the secondary
supply spark detector are also provided.

ESP is of two types.


1. Si oil type.
2. Transformer oil type.
It is also known as Rectifier Transformer as it converts AC into DC.

9. TRM BAY 9:
power transformers assembly shop.
After taking input from different bays 0-8, assemblies are done.
Power Transformer is used to step up & step-down voltages at generating & sub-stations. There
are various ratings 11 KV, 22 KV etc. manufactured, they are:
a) Generator Transformer
b) System Transformer
c) Auto Transformer
A transformer in a process of assemblage is called a job. The design of the transformer is done
by the design department & is unique for each job; depends on the requirement of customer. The
design department provid es drawing to the assembly shop, which assembles it accordingly.
The steps involved in assembly are:
A. Core Building: It is made of cold rolled grain-oriented steel CRGO. The punch core is
sent to this shop from core punching shop(BAY-5). Here it is assembled with the help of
drawing a set of 4 laminations is called a packet. The vertical portion of a core is called a
leg. The horizontal one is caller a yoke. Packets of both are interlinked. It provides low
reluctance part without air space. A perfect circle cannot be made so the core is steeped
to achieve a near circle. Wherever the spaces are left, are fitted with thin wooden rod.
After core building the end frames are bolted. The bolts are insulated from the core.
B. Core Lifting: The core is lifted by a crane & is placed vertical. The rest of the assembly
is done on the core in this portion.
C. Unlacing & Core Coil Assembly: The yoke of this core is removed using crane. Bottom
insulation in form of 50 mm thick UDEL sheets is placed. PCB & press board are also
used for filling the gap & to provide a good base for the coil to rest. The coil is then
lowered primary, secondary, common & tap in that sequences.
The following tests are done during unlacing:
Megger test
Ratio test
High voltage
Testing at this stage is called pre-testing.

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D. Replacing & End-frame mounting: After lowering a coil the top insulation similar to
the bottom one is provided. The removed yoke is placed end-frame bolted back into its
position. The connections are then made as per drawing. All the conductors are insulated
using crepe paper. Brazing copper makes the connections. For brazing sulfas is used.

E. H.V.T.G. & L.V.T.G.: Terminals gears are accessories provided at high voltage and low
voltage. Main device used is tap changer. Tap changers can be on-load or off-load. In off-
load type the supply has to be tripped, then the tapings changes but in on-load type the
tapings can be changed while the supply is on. The upper portion of the OLTC contains
mechanism by which tapping is changed. There is switch which changes tap in very small
time (Microseconds). But there is a possibility of sparking. To get rid of it, OLTC is
filled with oil. The bottom part houses the terminals and the mechanism, which makes
automatic connections. The terminals are made of thick Al strops.
F. Vapor Phasing & Oil Soaking: It is well known fact that water (impure) is a good
conductor electricity. Therefore, moisture presence in transformer will affect insulation;
the process of moisture removal from transformer is called vapor phasing. The job is put
in dummy tank and place in a vacuum vessel. It is an airtight chamber with heating
facilities. A solvent vessel is released is the chamber which enters all transformer parts
and insulations. It absorbs water rapidly. The job is heated in vacuum. All the solvent
vapor is sucked out with moisture and if not taken care of, may burst the job.
After moisture removal tank is filled with transformer oil & soaked for at least three
hours, so that every part gets wet with oil.
The job remains in vessel for three days during phasing. It is then taken out of the vessel
& also out of the dummy tank.

G. Final Servicing & Tanking: After taking the job out of dummy tank all the parts
retightened any other defects are rectified and the job is retimed in mild steel tank. After
this the tanking oil is filled.

H. Case Fitting: The accessories are fixed and final touches given the job. The accessories
included tank cover, fixing bushing, fixing valves etc. The terminals are marked and R
and D (rating and diagram) plate is fixed by bolting and not riveting because it may
require maintenance while opening and closing the tank. The bottom chamber is mild
steel tank with a steel frame attached to its base for earthing.

10.TRE (TRANSFORMER ENGINEERING):


The transformers manufactured in BHEL Jhansi range from the 100MVA to 315MVA and up to
400kV.The various transformers manufactured in this unit are:
Power Transformer
 Generation transformer
 System transformer
 Auto transformer

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Special Transformer
 Freight loco transformer
 ESP transformer
 Dry Type Transformer.
The designing of all these transformers is done by the TRE department according to the
specifications of the customers’ i.e.
1. The input/output voltage.
2. The KVA rating.
3.The weight of iron and copper.
The basic design factors are:
1. The amount of copper and iron losses.
2.The rise in temperature of coils.
3.The ambient condition.
4. Vector group condition.
5. Cooling condition.
The designer has to keep rise between the design factors and selects the optimization of the core
yoke winding etc.
Functioning of TRE
a) Tendering/Submission of offer with EFC
i. Study of customer specifications
ii. Designing
iii. Preparation of material sheet
iv. EFC (Estimated Factory Cost)
v. Guaranteed technical particulars with tender drawings
vi. Type test reports of similar equipment
vii. Deviation/clarification etc.
b) Contract execution
i. Designing
ii. Electrical Specification
iii. Guaranteed technical particulars*
iv. Testing schedule*
v. Customer Drawings*
vi. Components Drawings etc.
vii. Indenting of Materials
viii. Manufacturing information to shops
ix. Shipping instruction for transportation
*Approval required from customer

Basically, there are 4 sections of the TRE department:


^Estimation ^Tendering ^Design ^Drawing Office
The Estimation section calculates all ratings related to power transformer, number of jobs to be
prepared, etc. As per the customer requirement, Tendering section decides materials required and
estimates the cost involved in manufacturing. Using T146 software for power transformer actual

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designing takes place considering actual amount of material and scrap. The designing of core
windings, type of tank assembly, etc. all work under guidelines. The drawing office section
issues all drawings of related customer demand are issued to various shops and accordingly final
product is made.

11.TECHNOLOGY:
This department analysis the changes taking place in the world and suggest changes and
upgrades accordingly. This section mainly deals with continuous modification in the operations
to be performed for the completion of the job. It gets the PSR (Performa of Specification &
routine Sheet) from PPC.
This is very important department because the product must not get obsolete in the market
otherwise they will be rejected by the customer.

This section gives the sequence of operations, time for operations, no. of labors etc., according to
the given standards; it can be modifying the above things to obtain best results.

FUNCTIONS:
Technology functions can be classified as:
 Processing Sequence: The sequence of process of manufacturing is decided for timely
and economic completion of the job.
 Operation Time Estimate: It includes incentive scheme management.
 Allowed Operation Time: It includes incentive amount.
 Facilities Identification: It includes looking for new equipment or plant or tools to
increase productivity.
 Special Process Certification: special processes are the ones requiring expertise for
example identifying errors, cracks, air bubbles in the welding.
 Special Tools Requirement: special tools are allotted, if possible, when required else the
design has to be reconsidered.
 Productivity Projects compilation: It includes the initial analysis of the problem and their
appropriate solution to enhance productivity

BUS DUCT:

Bus ducts are conductors for high power application. They are used in power connections over
150 MW. The bus ducts consist of a mild steel casing and Aluminum conductors held within the
casing with electro-porcelain insulators. The bus ducts are installed with hot air blowing fans to
keep the conductors moisture free at the time of operation. Two types of bus ducts are
manufactured:

1. Segregated Bus Ducts (SBD)


2. Isolated Bus Ducts (IBD)

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12 . TRC (TRANSFORMER COMMERCIAL):
The objective of this department is to interact with the customers. It brings out tenders & notices
& also responds to them. It is department that places the contracts of building the transformers &
after delivery further interacts with the customer regarding faults, this department does failure &
maintenance. All such snags are reported to them and they forward the information to the
concerning department.
The works of the commercial department are:
 Tenders and Notices.
 Interaction with design department
 Place of work
 Approximate cost of work
 Earnest money
 Place and time where document can be seen.
 Amount if any to be paid for such document.

The main functioning of this department is divided in 3 parts:


a) Tendering
b) Execution
c) Closing
The Tendering section bring orders from different sectors of market viz power sector,
industry sector, etc. After bringing of order it comes under execution section which ensures
timely delivery of order. The contract execution group ensures to fulfill all the terms on
which they have agreed with the customer. At last, contract closing group measures
performance. Also, meetings with customer are conducted and bank guarantee and money for
completing job is asked from customer.

LOCOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT
This unit was started in 1985.
A locomotive is a rail vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
“LOCO” means from a place.
“MOTIVE” means causing motion.
A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own. It is used to move a train.
This department of Jhansi consists of two sections the first is manufacturing & other is design.
The diesel, AC, AC/DC locomotives are manufactured here.

1. THE DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE:


Salient features:
a) Flatbed under frame.
b) All pneumatic valves provide in single panel.
c)All electrical Equipment provided in single panel.

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d)Improved filtration system.
e) Brush less traction alternators.
f) Fault display on control desk with alarm.
g) Simple driving procedure.
h) Automatic wheel slip detection & correction.
I)Multiple unit operation up to three locomotives.
j) Air & vacuum brakes.

2. THE AC LOCOMOTIVE
Salient features:
a) Operate on 25 KV AC Single-phase lines.
b) Driving cab at both ends.
c)Corridors on both sides for maintenance.
d)All pneumatic valves at one place.
e) Automatic wheel slip detection & correction.
f) Multiple unit operation up to three locomotives.
g) Fault display on driver’s desk.
h) VCB in AC circuit.
I)Air & Vacuum brakes.

3. THE AC/DC LOCOMOTIVE


Salient features:
a) Designed to operate both in 1500 V DC & 25 KV AC lines.
b) Driving cab at both ends.
c) High adhesion bogie.
d) Corridors on both sides for maintenance.
e) All pneumatic valves at one place.
f) Automatic wheel slip detection & correction.
g) Multiple unit operation up to three locomotives.
h) Fault display on driver’s desk.
i) Static inverter for auxiliary supply.
j) FRP control desk.
k) VCB in AC circuit.
l) Air & Vacuum brakes.
m) Air dryer for brake system.

12.LOCOMOTIVE PRODUCTION (LMP):


There are following products are manufactured at Loco shops
>Alternating Current Locomotive (ac Loco) >WAG-5H >AC./D.C. Loco
>WCAM-2P > WCAG-1 >WAG-7 >WAG-9
W-broad gauge A-running in AC mode
C-running in DC mode G-hauling goods train

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P-hauling passenger train M-hauling passenger& goods train
 Diesel Electric Locomotive Shunting (DESL)
 350 HP
 700 HP
 Single Power Pack (SPP): One 700 HP m/c is made as a single
 Unit. It is a meter gauge locomotive
 450 HP
 1400 HP
 1150 HP
 1350 HP
 2600 HP
 1150 HP and 1350 HP DESL s are non-standard locomotives and are modified versions
of 1400 HP DESL based on requirement of customer.
Under mention are the new non-conventional products designed and developed for Indian
Railways based on their requirement.

 OHE (Overhead electric) recording and testing cars


 UTV (Utility vehicle)
 RRV (Rail cum road vehicle)
 DETV (Diesel electric tower car)
 BPRV (Battery power road vehicle)
 BCM (Blast cleaning machine)
 200 T Well wagon for BHEL Haridwar
 Metro Rake-Kolkata Metro Railways

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13.LMM (LOCOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING):
This section deals with manufacturing of locomotives. The main parts of the
locomotive is -
 Under frame: The frame on which a locomotive is built
 Super structure: The body of locomotive is called superstructure or Shell and is made of
sheet of Mild steel
 DC motor
 Alternator
 Compressor: When air pressure is 5kg/cm2, it will lift up pantograph.
 Flower
 Budipine: It will control and power low power equipment.
 Static Rectifier-MSR: converts 1-phase AC supply to 110V DC to charge battery.
 Static Converter-SC: converts 1-phase 1000V AC supply from overhead extension(OHE)
to 3-phase 440V AC supply.
 Exchanger
 Blower-MVMT: It will suck air through 3 ducts. These ducts are directly connected to
Traction motor for cooling it.
 ATFEX: It is braking transformer.
 Bogie-The wheel arrangement of a loco is called a bogie. A bogie essentially contains

1-wheel axle arrangement

2-Suspension

3-Brake rigging

Traction transformer: It is fixed on under frame and gets supply from an overhead line by
equipment called pantograph. The type of pantograph depends on supply. This transformer steps
down voltage and is fitted with a tap changer. Different taps are taken from it for operating
different equipment. One tap is taken and is rectified into DC using MSR and is fed to the DC
motor.

Railways has two types of power supplies – 25 KV, 1 Phase ,50hz AC and1500 V DC

An AC/DC loco is able to work on both of these supplies. For e.g. WCAM-3.

14.LMC (LOCOMOTIVE COMMERCIAL):

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This department is divided into 3 sections:
a) Tendering
b) Execution
c) Service after sales

The Tendering section Looks upon requirements of customer, estimate cost of project and
other information of tender. On receipt of tender forms formal tender enquiries are issued to
engineering dept., production planning and control, central dispatch cell. If tender is technically
acceptable then offer is submitted to customer. Offer includes technical, commercial details and
other terms and conditions. On opening of technical bid, the commercial bid of technically
qualified tenderers is opened and order is placed on lowest value tender.

The Contract Execution section on receipt of purchase order issue internal work orders for
execution of work as per the contract. To maintain the key dates of the contract internal meetings
with concerned departments are held on regular basis to monitor the progress. After the supply of
equipment and other materials and billing the major responsibility of this section is to collect the
payment from customer. After the dispatch of full material and collection of full payment and
fulfilling all other requirements, the contract is formally closed by this section.

The after-sales service section looks upon 2 types of work:

a) Within Warranty period – free of cost service and replacement of material on account of
failure of material due to faulty material or bad workmanship.
b) Beyond Warranty – services and material on chargeable basis.

15.CQS (CENTRAL QUALITY SERVICES):


First, we get acquainted with a few terms concerning this department.
Quality: It is the extent to which products and services satisfy the customer needs.
Quality Assurance: All those plants and systematic action necessary to provide adequate
confidence that a product or service will satisfy the given requirement is called quality
assurance.
Quality control: The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill
requirement for quality are quality controlled.
Quality Inspection: Activities such as measuring, testing, gauging one or more
characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirements to
determine conformity are termed as Quality Inspection.

16.TESTING:

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Here basically there are basically following tests conducted on power transformers:

1. ROUTINE TEST- It is conducted on all transformers. They are:


a) Ratio test: To determine the Voltage Transformation ratio on each tapping between HV
and LV.
b) Vector Group: To verify the internal connection of the coils(Windings) and the
connection to the terminal.
c) Winding Resistance measurement: To check the healthiness of various joints, internal
connection of the coil and connection to the terminals/Bushings.
d) Magnetizing Current: To measure No load current at low voltage (Supply voltage)
e) Magnetic Balance: To measure flux distribution in each winding by exciting (by applying
voltage) one winding only.
f) Insulation Resistance measurement: To check the healthiness of the insulations provided
on each winding in turn to all other windings, core and frame or tank.
g) Separate source test: To check the healthiness of the insulation of each winding in turn to
all other windings, core and frame or tank with applies single phase voltage.
h) No-load loss measurement: To calculate the Power consumption during No load
condition of the Transformer itself.
I) Load loss & impedance measurement: To calculate the Power consumption during full
Load condition of the Transformer itself.
j) Induced overvoltage test: To verify the A.C. voltage withstands strength of each line
terminal and it’s connected winding to earth and other windings, withstand strength between
phases and along the winding under test.
k) 02 KV core isolation test: To check the isolation of core.

2. TYPE TEST- These are to be conducted only on one unit of same design.
a) Temperature rise test: To observe the maximum temperature when the transformer is
running on continuous full load.
b) Impulse test: To verify the A.C. voltage withstands strength of each line terminal and it’s
connected winding to earth and other windings, withstand strength between phases and along
the winding under test. This test is conducted at a voltage even higher than induced
overvoltage.
c) Auxiliary loss test: To measure the power taken by cooling gear like Fans & pumps.
d) Acoustic Noise level measurement: To measure average sound level generated by the
Transformer when energized at rated voltage and rated frequency at no load.
e) Zero sequence impedance measurement: To calculate the impedance when all three
phases are symmetric.
f) Short time current test (STC test)

Tests conducted on INSTRUMENT TRANSFOTMERS: -

1. ROUTINE TEST
a) Polarity test:
 Instrument used: Polarity meter analog multimeter.

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One of the winding is supplied with 1.5V D.C. supply and the other is connected to ammeter.
If the direction of the deflection is correct implies the connections are correct else it is
wrongly connected.

b) Accuracy test:
It is the test for checking the turn ratio steps:
 A standard transformer primary is connected across the primary of the job.
 As the no. of turns of the secondary transformer is known the no. of turns of secondary
of job is calculated.
 The ratio is taken and the max permissible error should be not more than that specified
by the design.
 Even the phase angle is checked for this max permissible limit.

c) Inter turn insulation test:


Checks for the insulation of the transformer
 Current is given to primary and secondary is open circuited.
 Either of the rated primary current or the 4.5KV peak secondary voltages whichever
appears first is allowed to withstand for 1 min.
 Then if the insulation can withstand then it is said to be okay.

d) Winding resistance:
Error in winding resistance appears if the conductors of different length are used if the
conductors are joined in between to check this winding resistance is checked and if it
appears then the internal points of connections is changed.
e) One-minute power frequency (dry) withstand test-It is the high voltage test used to
check the insulations on primary and secondary. It depends upon the line voltage
system for primary. And for secondary it is 3 or 5 kermes as applicable.
f) Tan d test- It is conducted to justify the quality of insulation. Its limit is 0.005 at
Um/√3 .
g) Partial discharge test- It is used to justify the manufacturing process. Its limit is 10
pc at 1.1Um/√3.

2. TYPE TESTS
a) Temperature rise test
b) Short time current test (STC test)-It is conducted only on CT.
c) Short time withstand capability test- It is conducted only on VT.
d) Impulse test
One-minute power frequency wet withstand test- It is conducted in rainy conditions to
check the external insulations.

17.WE&S (WORK ENGINEERING AND SERVICES):


As the name suggest this section deals with services & maintenance. It has following sections:
a) Plant equipment: This has electronics & elect/mech. Maintenance.
b) Services: This section deals with air, steam & Power equipment.

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c) Telephone Exchange.
d) Township Electrical Maintenance.
e) W.E. & S Planning.

The power distribution is of two types:


1)HT Power Distribution: This is at 11 KV, OCB are used for protection. There are four
substations for this distribution.
2) LT Distribution: This is for the auxiliary in each shop & other section of B.H.E.L. It uses
OCB/OVC/BHEL BHOPAL, 800 KVA 415V Transformer & ACB (English Electro).

This department looks after the commissioning and maintenance of all the machinery used in
the factory. It also has 3 two-stage air compressors for supplying compressed air to the various
bays.
The department has 03 different divisions:

 Electrical Engg.
 Electronics Engg.
 Mechanical Engg.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING:
The factory has a feeder of 11KV. The total load sanctioned for the factory is 2500MVA but
the maximum demand reaches the range of 1700-2000 MVA.

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REPORT ON
POWER
TRANSFORMER

INTRODUCTION:
A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another
without changing frequency. This is very basic definition of transformer. Transformer generally
used in transmission network is normally known as Power Transformer. The term 'Power
Transformers’ refers to the transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits,
and these are usually rated at 500 viands above. Power systems typically consist of a large
number of generation locations, distribution points, and interconnections within the system or
with nearby systems, such as a neighbouring utility. The complexity of the system leads to a
variety of transmission and distribution voltages. Power transformers must be used at each of
these points where there is a transition between voltage levels.
Power transformers are selected based on the application, with the emphasis toward custom
design being more apparent than larger the unit. Power transformers are available for step-up
operation, primarily used at the generator and referred to as generator step-up (GSU)
transformers; step-down operation, mainly used end to feed distribution circuits and to connect
grids operating at different voltage levels through interconnecting transformers. Power
transformers are available as single-phase or three-phase apparatus.
Power transformers have been loosely grouped into three market segments based on size ranges.
These three segments are:

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1. Small power transformers 500 to 7500 kVA
2. Medium power transformers 7500 to 100 MVA
3. Large power transformers 100 MVA and above.

WORKING PRINCIPLE:
The working principle of transformer is very simple. It depends upon Faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction. Actually, mutual induction between two or more winding is
responsible for transformation action in an electrical transformer.

The two coils possess high mutual inductance. If one coil is connected to a source of alternating
voltage, an alternating flux is set up in the laminated core, most of which is linked up with the
other coil in which it produces mutually induced (electromotive force) according to Faraday's
laws electromagnetic induction.
𝒅𝒊
e=𝑴 𝒅𝒕
where, e = induced emf
M = mutual inductance
If the second circuit is closed, a current flow in it and so electric energy is transferred (entirely
magnetically) from the first coil (primary winding) to the second coil (secondary winding).

MAIN CONSTRUCTIONAL PARTS:


1. Primary Winding of transformer - which produces magnetic flux when it is connected to
electrical source.
2. Magnetic Core of transformer - the magnetic flux produced by the primary winding, will
pass through this low reluctance path linked with secondary winding and creates a closed
magnetic circuit.
3. Secondary Winding of transformer - the flux, produced by primary winding, passes
through the core, will link with the secondary winding. This winding is also wound on the same
core and gives the desired output of the transformer.

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LOSSES IN TRANSFORMER:

As the electrical transformer is a static device, mechanical loss in transformer normally does not
come into picture. We generally consider only electrical losses in transformer. When input power
is supplied to the primary of transformer, some portion of that power is used to compensate core
losses in transformer i.e. Hysteresis loss in transformer and Eddy Current loss in
transformer core and some portion of the input power is lost as I2R loss and dissipated as heat
in the primary and secondary winding, as because these windings have some internal resistance
in them. The first one is called core loss or iron loss in transformer and later is known as ohmic
loss or copper loss in transformer. Another loss occurs in transformer, known as Stray Loss,
due to Stray fluxes link with the mechanical structure and winding conductors.

 COPPER LOSS:
Copper loss is I2R loss, in primary side it is I12R1 and in secondary side it is I22R2 loss, where
I1 & I2 are primary & secondary current of transformer and R1 & R2 are resistances of primary &
secondary winding. As the both primary & secondary currents depend upon load of transformer,
so copper loss in transformer vary with load.

 CORE LOSSES:
Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, both depend upon magnetic properties of the materials
used to construct the core of transformer and its design. So, these losses in transformer are fixed
and do not depend upon the load current. So, core losses in transformer which is alternatively
known as iron loss in transformer and can be considered as constant for all range of load.

o Hysteresis loss in transformer is denoted as,


Wh = KhfBm1.6 watts

o Eddy Current loss in transformer is denoted as,


We = Kef2Kf2Bm2 watts

Where, Kh = Hysteresis Constant.


Ke = Eddy Current Constant.
Kf = form Constant.

THREE WINDING TRANSFORMERS:


A transformer may have additional windings apart from the two conventional main windings
depending upon the particular application and type of connection (of the main windings). In
three-winding transformers, the third winding is normally called as tertiary winding and it is
provided to meet one more of the following requirements:
(a) For an additional load which for some reason must be kept isolated from that of secondary.

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(b)To supply phase-compensating devices, such as condensers, operated at some voltage not
equal to primary or secondary or with some different connection (e.g. mesh).
(c) In star/star-connected transformers, to allow sufficient earth fault current (zero-sequence
component current) to flow for operation of protective gear, to suppress harmonic voltages
and to limit voltage unbalance when the main load is asymmetrical, the tertiary windings
delta-connected.
(d) As a voltage coil in a testing transformer.
(e) To load charge split winding generators.
(f) To inter-connect three supply systems operating at different voltages.

MATERIALS USED IN TRANSFORMERS:

Apart from active materials like copper and cold rolled grain-oriented silicon steel, a number of
ferrous, nonferrous and insulating materials are employed for building up a transformer.
Optimum utilization of all materials in consonance with their electrical, mechanical, physical,
chemical and thermal characteristics is necessary for obtaining a compact size transformer. One
basic requirement for all materials used in an oil-filled transformer is that they should be
compatible with insulating oil and should not react with or deteriorate oil.

INSULATING OIL:
Insulating oil in an electrical power transformer is commonly known as Transformer Oil. It is
normally obtained by fractional distillation and subsequent treatment of crude petroleum. Thatis
why this oil is also known as Mineral Insulating Oil. Transformer Oil serves mainly two
purposes one it is liquid insulation in electrical power transformer and two it dissipates heat of
the transformer i.e. acts as coolant. In addition to these, this oil serves other two purposes, it
helps to preserve the core and winding as these are fully immersed inside oil and another
important purpose of this oil is, it prevents direct contact of atmospheric oxygen with cellulose
made paper insulation of windings, which is susceptible to oxidation.

The parameters of Transformer Oil are categorized as:


1. Electrical Parameters – Dielectric Strength, Specific Resistance, Dielectric Dissipation Factor.
2. Chemical Parameter - Water Content, Acidity, Sludge Content.
3. Physical Parameters - Inter Facial Tension, Viscosity, Flash Point, Pour Point.

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Fig.1. Insulation items Fig.2. Transformer leads wrapped with crepe paper

WINDINGS IN POWER TRANSFORMER:


Windings form the electrical circuit of a transformer. Their construction should ensure safety
under normal and faulty conditions. The windings must be electrically and mechanically strong
to withstand both over-voltages under transient surges, mechanical stress during short circuit and
should not attain temperatures beyond the limit under rated and over-load conditions.
Copper and aluminum are the primary materials used as conductors in power-transformer
windings. While aluminum is lighter and generally less expensive than copper, a larger cross
section of aluminum conductor must be used to carry a current with similar performance as
copper. Copper has higher mechanical strength and is used almost exclusively in all but the
smaller size ranges, where aluminum conductors may be perfectly acceptable.
In core-form transformers, the windings are usually arranged concentrically around the core leg.

TYPES OF WINDINGS
The choice of the type of windings is largely determined by the rating of the winding. Some of
the common types of windings are described below.

1. SPIRAL WINDING
This type of winding is normally used up to 33 kV and low current ratings. Strip conductors are
wound closely in the axial direction without any radial ducts between turns. Spiral coils are
normally wound on a Bakelite or pressboard cylinder (Fig. 3).

Fig.3.Spiral coil (single layer, wound on flat side)

Though normally the conductors are wound on the flat side, sometimes they are wound on the
edge. However, the thickness of the conductor should be sufficient compared to its width, so that
the winding remains twist-free (Fig. 4)

Fig.4.Spiral coil (edge wound)

Spiral windings may be made as single layer or multilayer type. In a double-layer spiral coil
where oil duct separates the two layers. For such a coil, both the start and the finish lead lie at
one end of the coil and may at times prove to be advantageous for making the terminal gear.
Normally it is not necessary to provide any transposition between the parallel conductors of a
spiral winding as the lengths and the embracing of leakage flux are almost identical.

33
2. HELICAL WINDING
This type of winding is used in low-voltage and high-current ratings. A number of conductors are
used in parallel to form one turn. The turns are wound in a helix along the axial direction and
each turn is separated from the next by a duct. Helical coils may be single-layer (fig. 5) or double
layer (fig. 6) or multi-layer, if the number of turns is more.

Fig.5.Helical coil (Single layer) Fig.6.Helical coil (Double layer)

3. CONTINUOUS DISC WINDNG OR R-S COIL

This type of winding is used for voltage between 33 and 132 kV and medium current ratings.
These coils consist of a number of sections placed in the axial direction (fig. 7), with ducts
between them.
This is also known as R-S or reverse section coil because one section is given the reverse
winding while one section is given forward winding.

Fig.7.Continuous disc winding

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Fig.8. Arrangement of continuous disc winding

4. HALF SECTIONAL COIL

5. INTERLEAVED DISC WINDING


Fig.9. such a winding, in which interleaving has been done. It will be noticed that it is necessary
to have 2n conductors in hand for winding when n in the number of conductors in parallel.
Conductors of turns 8 and 9 are joined by brazing. A cross-over is given at the bottom of the
disc.

Fig.9.Interleaved disc winding (4 discs per group)

6. COMPOSITE COIL
In this kind, more than one coils are winded on the same mould. These are generally used for
the purpose of tapped coils.

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Fig. Completed winding

Fig. Winding in progress horizontal lathe Fig. Winding in progress vertical lathe

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT
In a transformer, energy is transferred from one electrical circuit to another through the magnetic
field. Transformer core made of laminated sheets provides the magnetic circuit for the flow of
magnetic flux mutually linking the electrical circuits. As against the air core, iron core provides a
comparatively low reluctance path to the magnetic flux with consequent benefit of

36
(a) Smaller magnetizing current,
(b) Increase in the total flux linkage and
(c) A high ratio of mutual to leakage flux resulting in reduction of stray losses.
Its design, type and manufacturing methods have significant bearing on quality, transportability,
operational limitations and guaranteed technical performance of the transformer.

MATERIAL
CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Steel) is used to build the core. CRGO is used to reduce the
hysteresis losses and the lamination made out of these sheets minimizes the eddy’s current
losses. Both surfaces of the core steel sheets are provided with an insulating of oxide coating
(commercially known as Carlita). The stacking factor of lamination improves by using thicker
laminations, but eddy current loss goes up in proportion to square of the thickness of the
lamination. For reducing the eddy current losses, thinner laminations are preferable even though
the stacking factor goes down. Deburring of the laminations improves the stacking factor and
minimizes the eddy losses.

DESIGN OF MAGNETIC CIRCUIT


For a transformer design, the basic governing factors are:
(a) Rating of transformer and its performance.
(b) Operational conditions,
(c) Transport limitations (i.e. height, length, width and weight etc.)
The design of the magnetic circuit, i.e. transformer core is also based on the above considerations
and it has significant bearing on the overall economy of the transformer.
Constructional Features
The type of transformer core construction depends on the technical particulars of the transformer
and transport considerations. In general, it is preferable to accommodate the windings of all the
three phases in a single core frame. Three phase transformers are economical over a bank of
three single-phase transformers.

For single-phase and three-phase transformers, the cores can be broadly classed as:
(a) Single-phase three-limbed core
(b) Single-phase two-limbed core
(c) Three-phase three-limbed core
(d) Three-phase five-limbed core

CRGO CUTTING
BURR LEVEL: The sheets undergo proper cutting and is then available in many shapes like
trapezoidal, octagonal, hexagonal etc. But while cutting the edges of these sheets, there is some
generation of rough surfaces which are known as burr level. The formation of these levels should
be avoided because they produce air gap which increases the losses. To control the burr level, the
cutting of CRGO is done with the help of CNC (Computer Numeric Control) machines.

37
Fig.12. CNC and core assembly

CORE ASSEMBLY
Core building from the finished lamination sheets is done in horizontal position on specially
raised platforms. The lamination sheets are susceptible to mechanical stresses of bending,
twisting, impact, etc. A lot of care is exercised while handling and normally two persons are
needed to hold the two ends of the laminations at the time of laying.
At first the clamp plates and end frame structure of one side of the core assembly are laid out.
Guide pins are used at suitable positions for maintaining the proper alignments during core
building process. Oil ducts are formed by sticking strips on lamination and put in position as
required.

For each packet, the laminations are manufactured in two different lengths and these sets are laid
out alternately, keeping at a time two to four lamination together. The two alternate arrangements
provide overlapping at the corner joints and when the lamination packets are clamped together,
these overlapping edges provide sufficient mechanical strength in holding the edges in tight grip.
After laying out the complete laminations, the clamp plates, and end frame structure of the other
side are laid out and the entire core-end frame structure is properly secured through bolts and
steel bands at a number of positions.

Two commonly used methods of holding the leg laminations together is their clamping by either
mesoglass tape or using skin stressed Bakelite cylinders.

38
In case of resiglass tapes, these are tightly wound around the legs at specified pitch and cured by
heating. The tape shrinks after heating and provides a firm grip. The tensile strength of resiglass
tapes is even higher than that of steel tapes.

In the case of core legs tightened by skin stressed cylinders (base cylinder of innermost coil),
these are lowered from the top and the steel bands and cut progressively. Wooden wedges are
inserted along the packet corners and hammered down, so that the enveloping Bakelite cylinder
and the leg laminations are fitting tightly against each other.

Fig.13. Core assembly process


FITTING OF CORE IN THE TANK

The most commonly used method of putting the core assembly is to rest the core frame on its
feet, which in turn is firmly fixed on the tank base. The extreme end feet are enclosed in a steel
bracket welded on the tank base. The top portion of core assembly is also suitably locked with
the tank cover, so that any possible magnification of the vibration during transit is fully arrested.
An alternative to this is construction of the tank base in the shape of a channel. The laminations
along with the bottom-end frames are jacket from either side against the channel walls of the
tank. As such, no bolts are needed in the bottom yokes and iron losses are comparatively lower.

VOLTAGE REGULATION AND TAPCHANGER


The device tap changer is used for adding or cutting out turns of primary or secondary winding
of the transformer. Basically, tap changing equipment can be divided in two categories.

1. OFF-CIRCUIT TAPCHANGER

Also called No-Load Tap Changer (NLTC) or De-Energized Tap Changer (DETC)
The cheapest method of changing the turn ratio of a transformer is the use of off circuit tap
changer. As the name implies, it is essential to de-energize the transformer before changing the
tap.

39
An off-circuit tap changer, as shown in Fig. 12, consists of principally the following three parts:
(a) Operating handle projecting outside the transformer.
(b) Fixed contact with connecting terminal
(c) Insulating shaft with moving contact system.
The basic transformer winding circuit arrangements using off-circuit tap changer are:
(a) Linear
(b) Single-bridging
(c) Double-bridging
(d) Series-parallel
(e) Star-delta
Depending upon the requirement, any of the above arrangements of the winding can be made use
of to get desired voltage regulation. To prevent unauthorized operation of an off-circuit tap
changer, a mechanical lock is provided.

Fig.14. Off load tap changer

2. ON-LOAD TAPCHANGER (OLTC)


On-load tap changers are employed to change turn ratio of transformer to regulate system voltage
while the transformer is delivering normal load. With the introduction of on-load tap changer, the
operating efficiency of electrical system has considerably improved. Now-a-days, almost all the
large power transformers are fitted with on-load tap changer.

40
Fig.15. On-load tap changer

COOLING ARRANGEMENTS
In power transformer, the oil serves a dual purpose as an insulating medium well as a cooling
medium. The heat generated in the transformer is removed by the transformer oil surrounding the
source and is transmitted either to atmospheric air or water. This transfer of heat is essential to
control the temperature within permissible limits for the class of insulation, thereby ensuring
longer life due to less thermal degradation.

41
1. VARIOUS TYPES OF COOLING

ONAN Type Cooling


In these cases, the heat dissipation is from transformer oil to atmospheric air by natural means.
This form of cooling is known as ONAN (oil natural, air natural) type of cooling.
ONAF Type Cooling
For further augmenting the rate of dissipation of heat, other means such as fans blowing air on to
the cooling surfaces are employed. The forced air takes away the heat at a faster rate, thereby
giving better cooling rate than natural air. This type of cooling is called ONAF (oil natural, air
forced) type of cooling. In this cooling arrangement, additional rating under ONAN condition
viz. after shutting off fans, is available, which is of the order of 70-75%.
OFAF Type Cooling
Still better rate of heat dissipation could be obtained if in addition to forced air, means to force
circulate the oil are also employed. The oil can be forced within the closed loop of transformer
tank and the cooling equipment by means of oil pumps. This type of cooling is called OFAF (oil
forced, air forced) type of cooling.
Mixed cooling transformers of radiator type can have two or three ratings available, one for each
type of cooling, viz, OFAF, ONAF and ONAN.
OFWF Cooling
Since the ambient temperature of water is always less than the atmospheric air, it is possible to
use water as a better heat-transfer media. Such an arrangement employs oil to water heat
exchangers. A prerequisite for such an arrangement is the availability of a source of sufficient
quantity of water. In most of the transformers for hydropower stations, this type of cooling is
used. Such a cooling is leadoff (oil forced, water forced) type of cooling.
Forced Directed Oil Cooling
Additional means of improving the heat dissipation rate are also employed on higher ratings for
transformer. These comprise arrangements which direct the transformer oil in the windings
through predetermined paths. This directed oil flow type of cooling is utilized with advantage in
case of forced oil system. The cool oil entering the transformer tank from the cooler/radiators is
passed through the windings in a pre-decided manner ensuring faster rate of heat transfer. This
type of cooling is called ODAF (oil directed, air forced) or ODWF (oil directed, water forced)
type.

TRANSFORMER AUXILIARIES AND OIL PRESERVATION


SYSTEMS

Transformer auxiliaries play a vital role in ensuring proper functioning of themain equipment.
Some of the auxiliaries provide protection under fault conditions.
Transformer oil being a major insulation requires special attention against contamination by
moisture and oxygen for preservation of quality.

TRANSFORMER AUXILIARIES

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1. GAS OPERATED (BUCHHOLZ) RELAY
The relay serves as main protection for any minor or major faults that may develop inside a
transformer. Such faults always result in generation of gases which causes the operation of
mercury switches giving signal for audible alarm or isolates the transformer from the network. It
comprises a cast housing which contains two pivoted buckets, each bucket being counter-
balanced by a weight. Each assembly carries a mercury switch, the leads from which are taken to
a moulded terminal block.

2. TEMPERATURE INDICATORS
Temperature indicators are precision instruments, specially designed for protection of
transformers and perform the following functions.
 Indicate maximum oil temperature and maximum or hottest spot temperature of winding.
 Operate an alarm or a trip circuit at a predetermined temperature.
 Switch on the cooling equipment when the winding attains a present high temperature
and switch it off when the temperature drops by an established differential (so as to avoid
too frequent on and off operation of the switch).

Normally two separate instruments are used for indicating oil and winding temperatures.

3. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


. A pressure relief device provides instantaneous relieving of dangerous pressure.

4. OIL LEVEL INDICATOR


Normally all transformers are provided with an expansion vessel called conservator, to take care
of expansion in the oil volume due to rise in temperature, when the load on the transformer
increases or due to increase in ambient temperature. The oil level in the conservator
consequently goes up. Conversely, it falls when the temperature or load reduces. It is essential
that the oil level in the conservator is maintained above a pre-determined minimum level. All
large transformers are, therefore, fitted with a magnetic oil level gauge which also incorporates a
mercury switch. The switch closes and actuates an audible alarmin the event of oil level dropping
to near empty position in the conservator.

5. BUSHING AND CABLE SEALING BOX


It is necessary to bring the low and high voltage leads out of transformer tank, to be able to make
connections between transformer and generator or transmission lines, etc. This is accomplished
by terminating these leads through what are known as bushings or cable box.
A bushing is a structure carrying a conductor through a partition in the tankan insulating the
conductor form partition.

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Fig.17. 400 kV oil-impregnated paper bushing

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Fig.18. Connections of bushings

6. TRANSFORMER OIL PRESERVATION SYSTEMS


Transformer oil deterioration takes place due to moisture.
Methods available to reduce oil contamination from moisture are silica gel breather,
thermosyphon filter, sealed conservator tanks using gas cushion, rubber diaphragm or air-cell
sealed refrigerated dryers.

Fig.19. Radiator and fans

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MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY

Manufacturing and assembly of the transformer involves the following mainstages and the
manufacturing techniques basically depend on the design philosophy.
(a) Core building
(b) Coil Assembly: Unlacing, coil assembly, relacing
(c) Terminal gear assembly
(d) Placement of core and winding assembly in tanks.
(e) Processing (removal of moisture)
(f) Servicing and tanking
(g) Processing (removal of moisture)
(h)Case Fitting
(i)Testing

Core building
The base is made up of frames on which core is mounted as shown in figure. The top and
end frame and bottom end frame are connected.

Fig. core Layout

Unlacing of Core
This is basically the phenomenon of removal of top end frame of the core assembly so that
the coils can be mounted on the core

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Core-Coil Assembly
It consists of assembling the windings to the core assembly. Core assembly is placed on a
suitable leveled platform.
Tighten the 3 limbs with webbing tape. Top channels and top Yoke laminations are removed &
placed on a table in the same sequence.Bottom insulation items are placed on bottom yoke on
each core limb. Core wraps are covered to the core limbs & tightened with cotton tape.

Relacing of core
The top yoke is again attached to the rest of the core, the sheets are attached to the core limb in
erect position. Then the job is dipped in oil & then heated to remove any kind of moisture from
itr. After that the job is compressed and achieve the required CD of the coil

Processing & Dry Out


Presence of moisture brings the reduction in electric strength of material & also increases its
volume.
Dry out is necessary in this condition.The final drying out is commenced either when the core nd
winding are placed or when they are fitted into there tank, all main connections made & the tank
placed in an oven & connected to the drying system.

Final Tanking
Tanking means assembling the core coil assembling job into transformer tank with all necessary
accessories according to bill of material & design diagram.

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Connections: -
Low-voltage connections are done on one side of the winding and are designated as LV terminal
gear. On the opposite side, high-voltage connections are done and are designated as HV terminal
gear. Medium voltage leads (in system or autotransformer are taken out on LV side and tapping
connections on either LV or HV side depending upon design layout. Generally, in generator
transformer, a three-phase on-lad or off-circuit tap-changer is mounted on one end and in case of
autotransformer three single-phase tap changers are mounted in front of the windings. Tap
changers are supported from end frame during terminal gear assembly. All leads, i.e. line and
neutral leads of low-voltage, medium-voltage and high-voltage windings, tapping leads, etc., are
laid out and connected using different types of joints (i.e. bolted, crimped, soldered or brazed)
and insulated for the required insulation level. Leads are properly supported by cleats mounted
on end frames.
The clearances between various leads, coil to leads, leads to end frame and other parts are
maintained and checked.
The connections available in this stage are either of the following two types or a combination of
these two types:

a. Star Connection: Also called Wyes winding. Each phase terminal connects to one end of
a winding and other end of a winding connects to other at a central point, so that the
configuration resembles a capital letter Y. The central point may or may not be connected
outside of the transformer.

b. Delta Connection: Also called mesh winding. In delta connection the bottom position
lead of one coil is joined to the top or starting position lead of the second coil and the
bottom lead of second coil are joined to top lead of the third coil and the top lead of the
first coil is connected to bottom lead of third coil. In H.V. side the H.V. main lead is
taken out and the various tap leads are then joined to OLTC (On Load Tap Changer)
through conductors. The conductors to the tap changer can be observed in the H.V.
marked as (3-14) in numbers these are then connected to the tap changer. All the leads
are properly brazed for accurate connections so that same amount of current flows
through each conductor and the ratio can be achieved. In L.V. side the bottom leads of
the L.V. coils are joined together to form neutral. Whereas the top lead positions are
taken out for respective 3-Ø connection.

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TESTING OF TRANSFORMERS
Testing is an important activity in the manufacture of any equipment. While certain preliminary
tests carried out at different stages of manufacture provide an effective tool which assures quality
and conformation to design calculations, the final tests on fully assembled equipment guarantee
the suitability of the equipment for satisfactory performance in service. The basic testing
requirements and testing codes are set out in the national and international standards.
Transformers can be subjected to a wide variety of tests for a number of reasons, including:
• Compliance with user specifications
• Assessment of quality and reliability
• Verification of design calculations
• Compliance with applicable industry standards

Fig.25. Impulse Voltage Generator

~CONCLUSION~
The power transformer is the most important component of the power transmission and
distribution.A transformer works on the principles of induction which states that only the
current and voltages shall be transformed and energy will only get ‘transferred’.

BHEL is a leading Engineering Enterprise which Supplies wide Spectrum of Power


Transformers. These transformers undergo several stages of manufacturing process and at

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the end of every process various tests like type tests, routine tests etc. are performed on
them to ensure its status during manufacture and a reliable operation after manufacturing.

These four weeks helped me a lot in gaining the knowledge on power transformers. It made
me aware of various stages of transformer manufacturing processes and different tests that
are conducted on them.

This report clearly replicates the tremendous growth of a company which continuously
renovated its technology to contribute not only in the infrastructure building in India but
also of the world.

It is an asset for our country to have such a public sctor industry which has fulfilled the
dream of our first Prime Minister Sh. Jawaharlal Nehru by operating in 65 countries and
making it to global.

The vision and mission of this company are successful can be adjudged with the faith of the
stake holders in this company.

BHEL Jhansi although a smaller unit in comparision to otherunits of BHEL, is a very


productive one with the manufacturing of the electric locomotives, power transformers etc.

The work load here can be accessed from the fact that the order of the locomotives has
forced the company to shift its Bus Duct section to other unit of BHEL.

In future also the company is having orders of metro coaches and this clearly shows why
this company is still recession proof.

REFERENCES

[1] www.bheljhs.co.in [2] “Transformers” by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

[3] “Electrical Machines” by P.S. Bhimbra.

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