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ASSIGNMENT

(Tutor Marked Assignment)


Course Code: LSE-05
Assignment Code: LSE-05/TMA/2018
Maximum Marks: 100
Instructions: Attempt all questions. Write your answers for part I and II in separate answer books. Draw neat
and labelled diagrams wherever necessary. Be precise in your answer. Apart from the content, your answer
will be graded for using your own language, clarity and logical presentation.

Part I-(Animal Physiology)

1. Describe the function of the following: (2×5=10)


(i) Neurotransmitters
(ii) Pituitary gland
(iii) Pacemaker in mammalian heart
(iv) Bicarbonate ions in mammalian blood
(v) Brown fat

2. (a) What is the sliding filament model of movement of muscles? How does the (5)
sliding movement occur at molecular level?
(b) Draw a diagram to explain the interaction of hormones in the menstrual cycle in (5)
human females.

3. (a) How is glucose transported into epithelial cells of the small intestine? (5+5)
(b) Explain the digestion of fats in the body.

4. Describe the structure and function of the following parts of a nephron: renal (10)
corpuscle, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct.

5. (a) What is membrane potential? With the help of a suitable diagram explain how (2+3)
resting potential is maintained in a nerve cell.
(b) What is action potential? How is it propagated in a mammalian nerve? (5)

Part II-(Plant Physiology)

6. (a) Define water potential? Discuss the effect of solute, pressure and matric (4+1)
pressure on water potential.
(b) Describe the mechanism of control of stomata with proper diagram. (5)

7 (a) List the criteria of essentiality of mineral element? (5)


(b) Describe the mechanism of active transport through plasma membrane of plant (5)
cell.

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8. (a) Discuss Red Drop and Emerson Enhancement Effect. (5)

(b) Draw and describe Z scheme to illustrate the movement of electron in PS I (5)
(Photosystem I) & PS II (Photosystem II).

9. (a) What are the function of essential elements. Mention the role and deficiency (5)
symptom of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur?

(b) What are hormones? Discuss the practical Applications of Auxins. (5)

10. Write notes on the following: (2×5=10)


(i) C4 Plants
(ii) Apical dominance
(iii) Vernalisation
(iv) Phytochrome
(v) Long day plant and Short day plant

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LSE-05/ 2018
Animal Physiology

Part I
1. Describe the function of the following:
(i) Neurotransmitters

Answer- Neurotransmitters, also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals


that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a
neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or
gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic
cleft, where they are received by neurotransmitter receptors on the target cells. Many
neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids,
which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps
for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their
exact numbers are unknown, but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely
identified.

(ii) Pituitary gland

Answer- The pituitary gland is a tiny organ, the size of a pea, found at the base of the brain. As
the “master gland” of the body, it produces many hormones that travel throughout the body,
directing certain processes or stimulating other glands to produce other hormones.

(iii) Pacemaker in mammalian heart

Answer- Sino-atrial nodal cells of mammalian hearts: ionic currents and gene expression of
pacemaker ionic channels. The cardiac pacemaker is a sino-atrial (SA) nodal cell. The signal
induced by this pacemaker is distributed over the heart surface by a specialised conduction
system and is clinically recorded as the ECG.

(iv) Bicarbonate ions in mammalian blood

Answer- The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes this reaction in the red blood cells, where
carbon dioxide and water are converted into bicarbonate and hydrogen ion. While still in the
tissues, bicarbonate diffuses out of the red blood cell into the plasma, where it serves as a very
important pH buffer.

(v) Brown fat

Answer- Everyone has at least a little bit of brown fat. Unlike regular old white fat, which stores
calories, mitochondria-packed brown-fat cells burn energy and produce heat.

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It was once thought that, in humans, only babies had brown fat. But in 2009, researchers found
small amounts of brown fat in adults. What's more, they found that people with lower body mass
indexes (BMIs) tended to have more brown fat. This finding suggests "a potential role of brown
[fat] in adult human metabolism," the researchers wrote in their findings.
2. (a) What is the sliding filament model of movement of muscles? How does the
sliding movement occur at molecular level?

Answer- Sliding filament theory - The sliding filament theory explains the mechanism of
muscle contraction based on muscle proteins that slide past each other to generate movement.
According to the sliding filament theory, the myosin (thick) filaments of muscle fibers slide past
the actin (thin)filaments during muscle contraction, while the two groups of filaments remain at
relatively constant length. Before the 1950s there were several competing theories on muscle
contraction, including electrical attraction, protein folding, and protein modification. The novel
theory directly introduced a new concept called cross-bridge theory (classically swinging cross-
bridge, now mostly referred to as cross-bridge cycle) which explains the molecular mechanism
of sliding filament. Cross-bridge theory states that actin and myosin form a protein complex
(classically called actomyosin) by attachment of myosin head on the actin filament, thereby
forming a sort of cross-bridge between the two filaments. These two complementary hypotheses
turned out to be the correct description, and became a universally accepted explanation of the
mechanism of muscle movement.

The sliding filament theory was born from two consecutive papers published on the 22 May
1954 issue of Nature under the common theme "Structural Changes in Muscle During
Contraction". Though their conclusions were fundamentally similar, their underlying
experimental data and propositions were different.

Huxley-Niedergerke hypothesis- The first paper, written by Andrew Huxley and Rolf
Niedergerke, is titled "Interference microscopy of living muscle fibres". It was based on their
study of frog muscle using interference microscope, which Andrew Huxley developed for the
purpose. According to them:
the I bands are composed of actin filaments, and the A bands principally of myosin filaments;
and during contraction, the actin filaments move into the A bands between the myosin filaments.

Huxley-Hanson hypothesis - The second paper, by Hugh Huxley and Jean Hanson, is titled
"Changes in the cross-striations of muscle during contraction and stretch and their structural
interpretation". It is more elaborate and was based on their study of rabbit muscle using phase
contrast and electron microscopes. According to them:

● the backbone of a muscle fibre is actin filaments which extend from Z line up to one end
of H zone, where they are attached to an elastic component which they named S
filament;

● myosin filaments extend from one end of the A band through the H zone up to the other
end of the A band;

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● myosin filaments remain in relatively constant length during muscle stretch or
contraction;

● if myosin filaments contract beyond the length of A band, their ends fold up to form
contraction bands;

● myosin and actin filaments lie side-by-side in the A band and in the absence of ATP they
do not form cross-linkages;

● during stretching, only the I bands and H zone increase in length, while A bands remain
the same;

● during contraction, actin filaments move into the A bands and the H zone is filled up,

● the I bands shorten, the Z line comes in contact with the A bands; and

● the possible driving force of contraction is the actin-myosin linkages which depend on
ATP hydrolysis by the myosin

A muscle contraction can be explained by the cycle of molecular events that take place between
actin and myosin filaments. In a single cycle, a myosin head binds to an actin filament, performs
a power stroke, and then releases. Note that for the two filaments to disconnect, the myosin
head must bind to a fresh molecule of ATP. After myosin releases actin, it hydrolyzes its ATP
and initiates another cycle of actin/myosin interactions.

Although we focused on a single myosin head, in fact a myosin filament has many myosin
heads. Each myosin filament is also surrounded by six actin filaments to which the different
myosin heads can bind. Therefore, when a myosin head breaks its contact with actin, other
myosin heads still connect to actin filaments and thus prevent the sarcomere from sliding back
to its relaxed position.

The relaxation of the sarcomere occurs after calcium returns to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Whereas the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is by a passive event in which
calcium moves through ion channels, the return of calcium is an active event that requires
energy. The control of muscle contraction happens at the level of free calcium in the cytoplasm
all other components involved in muscle contraction are always present and essentially await
calcium ions to begin the action.

(b) Draw a diagram to explain the interaction of hormones in the menstrual cycle in
human females.
Answer-
3. (a) How is glucose transported into epithelial cells of the small intestine?
Answer- Whether a cell uses facilitated diffusion or active transport depends on the specific
needs of the cell. For example, the sugar glucose is transported by active transport from the gut
into intestinal epithelial cells, but by facilitated diffusion across the membrane of red blood cells.

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Epithelia form linings throughout the body. In the small intestine, for instance, the simple
columnar epithelium forms a barrier that separates the lumen from the internal environment of
the body (note that the internal environment in which body cells exist is the extracellular fluid or
ECF). The epithelium forms a barrier because cells are linked by tight junctions, which prevent
many substances from diffusing between adjacent cells. For a substance to cross the
epithelium, it must be transported across the cell's plasma membranes by membrane
transporters.

Not only do tight junctions limit the flow of substances between cells, they also define
compartments in the plasma membrane. The apical plasma membrane faces the lumen. In the
drawing, the apical plasma membrane is drawn as a wavy line, because intestinal epithelial cells
have a high degree of apical plasma membrane folding to increase the surface area available
for membrane transport (these apical plasma membrane folds are known as microvilli). The
basolateral plasma membrane faces the ECF. Epithelial cells are able to transport substances
in one direction across the epithelium because different sets of transporters are localized in
either the apical or basolateral membranes.

Absorption - Absorption is the means whereby nutrients such as glucose are taken into the
body to nourish cells. Glucose is transported across the apical plasma membrane of the
intestine by the sodium-glucose cotransporter (purple). Because transport of Na+ and glucose is
coupled, we need to add the free energy inherent in Na+ transport to the free energy inherent in
glucose transport to get the overall free energy for the process. Just after a meal, there will be
abundant glucose in the lumen of the intestine, favoring absorption. Towards the end of the
absorptive phase of a meal, however, the cotransporter is still able to move glucose into the cell
(uphill against its concentration gradient) because of the strong Na+ concentration gradient. The
Na+ gradient is established by the Na+/K+-ATPase (red), which is located on the basolateral
membrane. The activity of the cotransporter increases the glucose concentration inside the
cells, allowing glucose to be transported into the ECF via the glucose transporter (blue).
Facilitated diffusion of glucose into the ECF is a passive process, since glucose flows down its
concentrationgradient.

(b) Explain the digestion of fats in the body.(5+5)


Answer- Fat digestion may be the last thing on your mind when munching on a handful of nuts,
but maybe it shouldn't be. Digestion, which can take 40 hours on average, is an important
process from which you obtain all of your nutrients. Proper fat digestion requires that the
gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs -- the liver, gallbladder and pancreas -- work
together in perfect harmony.

Mouth and Stomach - The process of digestion starts in the mouth, although fat does not get
broken down at this point. Mechanical digestion occurs as your teeth grind food and break it
apart into smaller pieces. Chemical digestion takes place as lingual lipase, an enzyme in your
saliva, begins to emulsify fat and saliva moistens the food to make it easier to swallow. When
the food reaches your stomach, the muscles there begin to churn and move to further break it
down. Once it leaves the stomach, the food has become a semi-liquid substance referred to as
chyme.

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Small Intestine - The small intestine is the main site for absorption of nutrients and the
digestion of fat. When chyme enters the duodenum -- the upper portion of the small intestine --
hormones signal the gallbladder to contract. These contractions push bile, which is made by the
liver, out of the gallbladder and into the common bile duct, which connects the gallbladder to the
small intestine. At the same time, the pancreas, located just underneath the stomach, secretes
bicarbonate ions, which neutralize the pH of the chyme entering the small intestine, and lipases,
enzymes that break down fat.

Creation of Micelles - Fats are hydrophobic, which means they do not dissolve in water. Left to
their own devices, fat molecules would clump together and form one big fat molecule that is not
easily digested. Bile prevents this from happening. Bile molecules have a hydrophobic, or water-
fearing, end and a hydrophilic, or water-loving, end. The hydrophobic end sticks to each fat
molecule and the hydrophilic protrudes to prevent the molecules from sticking together. The
combined structures of fat molecules and bile molecules are called micelles.

Breakdown of Micelles - Once fat molecules become micelles, lipases go to work, breaking
down fat molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides, which pass through the small intestine.
After they pass through the small intestine, fatty acids are converted to triglycerides, which
combine with cholesterol, phospholipids and protein to form a structure called a chylomicron.
The protein coating of the chylomicron makes it water-soluble so it can travel through the lymph
vessels and eventually the bloodstream.

4. Describe the structure and function of the following parts of a nephron: renal
corpuscle, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct.
(10)
Answer- Renal corpuscle - The renal corpuscle is composed of two structures, the glomerulus
and the Bowman's capsule. The glomerulus is a small tuft of capillaries containing two cell
types.

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The structure on the left in blue and pink is the renal corpuscle. The structure on the right is the
renal tubule. The blue structure (A) is the Bowman's capsule (2 and 3). The pink structure is the
glomerulus with its capillaries. At the left, blood flows from the afferent areteriole (9), through the
capillaries (10), and out the efferent arteriole (11). The mesangium is the pink structure inside
the glomerulus between the capillaries (5a) and extending outside the glomerulus (5b).

The renal corpuscle in the cortex (outer layer) of the kidney. At the top, the renal corpuscle
containing the glomerulus. The filtered blood exits into the renal tubule as filtrate, at right. At left,
blood flows from the afferent arteriole (red), enters into the renal corpuscle and is filtered in the
glomerulus; blood flows out of the efferent arteriole (blue).

Proximal tubule - The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the
kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle. It is conventionally divided into
the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and the proximal straight tubule (PST).The proximal
tubule regulates the pH of the filtrate by exchanging hydrogen ions in the interstitium for
bicarbonate ions in the filtrate; it is also responsible for secreting organic acids, such as
creatinine and other bases, into the filtrate.

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Fluid in the filtrate entering the proximal convoluted tubule is reabsorbed into the peritubular
capillaries. This is driven by sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+
ATPase in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells. Sodium reabsorption is primarily
driven by this P-type ATPase. This is the most important transport mechanism in the PCT.

Loop of Henle - Loop of Henle, long, U-shaped portion of the tubule that conducts urine within
each nephron (q.v.) of the kidney of reptiles, birds, and mammals. The principal function of the
loop of Henle appears to be the recovery of water and sodium chloride from the urine. This

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function allows production of urine that is far more concentrated than blood, limiting the amount
of water needed as intake for survival. Many species that live in arid environments such as
deserts have highly efficient loops of Henle.

Distal tubule - The distal tubule is the point of the nephron where pharmacological salt wasting
is intentionally encouraged by the use of the thiazide diuretics (i.e., hydrochlorothiazide) in order
to cause a diuresis in individuals who have edema and require the loss of water.

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Collecting duct - Simple columnar epithelium and simple cuboidal epithelium in the collecting
ducts of the pig kidney. The walls of the large and small connecting tubules (a and b
respectively), the circular structures, are formed by simple columnar epithelium (a) and simple
cuboidal epithelium (b).

The collecting duct system participates in the regulation of other electrolytes, including chloride,
potassium, hydrogen ions, and bicarbonate.

5. (a) What is membrane potential? With the help of a suitable diagram explain how
resting potential is maintained in a nerve cell.
Answer- Membrane potential - In cells of all types, there is an electrical potential difference
between the inside of the cell and the surrounding extracellular fluid. This is termed the
membrane potential of the cell. While this phenomenon is present in all cells, it is especially
important in nerve and muscles cells, because changes in their membrane potentials are used
to code and transmit information.

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The membrane of an axon contains a large number of protein channels along its length, which
all fall under three categories: the sodium/potassium pumps, the voltage-gated sodium channels
& the voltage-gated potassium channels. In the resting potential, only the sodium/potassium
pumps are involved.

This ATP dependent sodium/potassium pump pumps 3 sodium ions (Na+) out of the axon and 2
potassium ions (K+) into the axon. The membrane is more permeable to potassium ions than it
is to sodium ions (this is because most of the potassium channels are open whilst most of the

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sodium channels are closed) therefore potassium ions constantly leak out of the axon
cyctoplasm. This causes a net difference in concentration of the two ions accross the
membrane. This gives rise to a potential difference accross the membrane, a slight difference in
charge, with the inside of the membrane slightly negative compared to the outside of the axon.
In a typical human axon this is about -70mV, but can vary grately between organisms.

It is important for the axon to have this slight negative potential difference accross the
membrane as it enables an actional potential to start.

(b) What is action potential? How is it propagated in a mammalian nerve?


Answer- Potential- In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a
specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations
to similarly depolarise.

As an action potential (nerve impulse) travels down an axon there is a change in polarity across
the membrane of the axon. In response to a signal from another neuron, sodium- (Na+) and
potassium- (K+) gated ion channels open and close as the membrane reaches its threshold
potential. Na+ channels open at the beginning of the action potential, and Na+ moves into the
axon, causing depolarization. Repolarization occurs when the K+ channels open and K+ moves
out of the axon, creating a change in polarity between the outside of the cell and the inside. The
impulse travels down the axon in one direction only, to the axon terminal where it signals other
neurons.

Propagation- In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication by


providing for—or, with regard to saltatory conduction, assisting—the propagation of signals
along the neuron's axon towards synaptic boutons situated at the ends of an axon; these
signals can then connect with other neurons at synapses, or to motor cells or glands. In other
types of cells, their main function is to activate intracellular processes. In muscle cells, for
example, an action potential is the first step in the chain of events leading to contraction. In beta
cells of the pancreas, they provoke release of insulin.[a] Action potentials in neurons are also
known as "nerve impulses" or "spikes", and the temporal sequence of action potentials
generated by a neuron is called its "spike train". A neuron that emits an action potential, or
nerve impulse, is often said to "fire".

Action potentials are generated by special types of voltage-gated ion channels embedded in a
cell's plasma membrane. These channels are shut when the membrane potential is near the
(negative) resting potential of the cell, but they rapidly begin to open if the membrane increases
to a precisely defined threshold voltage, depolarising the transmembrane potential.When the
channels open, they allow an inward flow of sodium ions, which changes the electrochemical
gradient, which in turn produces a further rise in the membrane potential. This then causes
more channels to open, producing a greater electric current across the cell membrane, and so
on. The process proceeds explosively until all of the available ion channels are open, resulting
in a large upswing in the membrane potential. The rapid influx of sodium ions causes the
polarity of the plasma membrane to reverse, and the ion channels then rapidly inactivate. As the
sodium channels close, sodium ions can no longer enter the neuron, and then they are actively
transported back out of the plasma membrane. Potassium channels are then activated, and

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there is an outward current of potassium ions, returning the electrochemical gradient to the
resting state. After an action potential has occurred, there is a transient negative shift, called the
afterhyperpolarization.

Part II-(Plant Physiology)

6. (a) Define water potential? Discuss the effect of solute, pressure and matric
pressure on water potential.
Answer- Water potential - Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume
relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water potential quantifies the tendency of water to
move from one area to another due to osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects
such as capillary action (which is caused by surface tension). The concept of water potential
has proved useful in understanding and computing water movement within plants, animals, and
soil. Water potential is typically expressed in potential energy per unit volume and very often is
represented by the Greek letter ψ.

Water potential integrates a variety of different potential drivers of water movement, which may
operate in the same or different directions.

Effect –

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(b) Describe the mechanism of control of stomata with proper diagram.
Answer- Stomata are small pores present in the epidermal cells of leaves in plants. Stomata
are open during the day and close during night.Stomata take in carbon dioxide required for the
photosynthetic activity during the day. They give out excess water released in the process of
respiration during night along with carbon dioxide. Opening and closing of stomata is controlled
by concentration of solutes in the guard cell.

Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata

Opening of stomata: Solutes from neighbouring epidermal and mesophyll cells enter the guard
cells lowering its osmotic potential and water potential. This lowered water potential and osmotic
potential will allow movement of water into guard cells from neighbouring cells. Guard cells
become turgid due to water accumulation in them which results in the opening of the guard
cells.

Closing of stomata: As the somata open the solute concentration is reduced. This makes the
water from the guard cells to move away into neighbouring cells. Now, guard cells becom flaccid
with no water. They collapse against each other and result in the closing of stomata

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Diagram -

7 (a) List the criteria of essentiality of mineral element?


Answer- This concept was propounded by Arnon and Stout (1939) and they considered 16
elements essential for plant nutrition. For an element be regarded as an essential nutrient, it
must satisfy the following criteria;

1. A deficiency of an essential nutrient element makes it impossible for the plant to complete the
vegetative or reproductive stage of its life cycle.

2. The deficiency of an element is very specific to the element in question and deficiency can be
corrected /prevented only by supplying that particular element.

3. The element must directly be involved in the nutrition and metabolism of the plant and have a
direct influence on plant apart from its possible effects in correcting some micro-biological or
chemical conditions of the soil or other culture medium.

4. in its absence the plant is unable to complete a normal life cycle.

5. that the element is part of some essential plant constituent or metabolite.

(b) Describe the mechanism of active transport through plasma membrane of plant cell.
Answer- Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of
their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the
concentration gradient. Active transport requires cellular energy to achieve this movement.

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There are two types of active transport – primary active transport that uses ATP, and secondary
active transport that uses an electrochemical gradient. An example of active transport in human
physiology is the uptake of glucose in the intestines.

Primary active transport, also called direct active transport, directly uses metabolic energy to
transport molecules across a membrane.[14] Substances that are transported across the cell
membrane by primary active transport include metal ions, such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+.
These charged particles require ion pumps or ion channels to cross membranes and distribute
through the body.

Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases. A primary
ATPase universal to all animal life is the sodium-potassium pump, which helps to maintain the
cell potential. The sodium-potassium pump maintains the membrane potential by moving three
Na+ ions out of the cell for every two [15] K+ ions moved into the cell. Other sources of energy
for Primary active transport are redox energy and photon energy (light). An example of primary
active transport using Redox energy is the mitochondrial electron transport chain that uses the
reduction energy of NADH to move protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane against
their concentration gradient. An example of primary active transport using light energy are the
proteins involved in photosynthesis that use the energy of photons to create a proton gradient
across the thylakoid membrane and also to create reduction power in the form of NADPH.

Model of active transport - ATP hydrolysis is used to transport hydrogen ions against the
electrochemical gradient (from low to high hydrogen ion concentration). Phosphorylation of the
carrier protein and the binding of a hydrogen ion induce a conformational (shape) change that
drives the hydrogen ions to transport against the electrochemical gradient. Hydrolysis of the
bound phosphate group and release of hydrogen ion then restores the carrier to its original
conformation.

8. (a) Discuss Red Drop and Emerson Enhancement Effect.


Answer- Emerson Red Drop and Enhancement Effect - The phenomenon of red drop shown
by Emerson and Lewis was quite puzzling. This is not due to decrease in light absorption
because the quantum yield measures only light that has actually S been absorbed.

This oMy indicates that light of £ f. wavelengths greater than 680 nm is much less efficient than
light of shorter wavelengths. In subsequent experiments, Emerson and his colleagues
measured photosynthesis using red and far-red light after adjusting their fluence rates to give
equal rates of photosynthesis.

They observed that the quantum yield obtained using both red and far-red light simultaneously
was much higher than the sum of the yields obtained with red and far-red light separately

This phenomenon is known as Emerson enhancement effect or often as Emerson effect.

These puzzling phenomena of red drop and enhancement effect led to the conclusion that two
different reaction centers or photochemical events are involved in photosynthesis. One event is
driven by red light (= 680 nm) and the other driven by far-red light (>680 nm). Optimal

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photosynthesis occurs when both events are driven simultaneously or in rapid succession.
These two photochemical events are now known as Photosystem II and Photosystem I and they
operate in series to carry out photosynthesis optimally. Photosystem II absorbs red light of 680
nm well and is driven very poorly by far-red light. On the other hand Photosystem I absorb
preferentially far-red light of wavelengths greater than 680 nm.

•The rate of photosynthesis is measured as the number of O2 molecules produced per quantum
of light absorbed

• Robert Emerson et al (1958):Experimental material Chlorella Emerson Experimental material


Chlorella

• Studying rate of photosynthesis at different wavelengths of light (390-760 nm)

• Monochromatic light of different wavelength is used and rate of photosynthesis is measured

• The sudden fall in photosynthetic yield in the far red region (greater than 680 nm) compared to
the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum is called “Emersons red drop”

• The increase in photosynthetic yield by the combined effect of red (680 nm) and far red light
(700 nm) is called Emerson enhancement effect or Emerson effect.

• This work provide experimental evidence for the presence of two photo systems-PS I & PS II

(b) Draw and describe Z scheme to illustrate the movement of electron in PS I


(Photosystem I) & PS II (Photosystem II).
Answer- The “Z ‐scheme” descr
of photosynthesis. The vertical axis in the figure represents the reduction potential of a particular
species—the higher the position of a molecular species, the more negative its reduction
potential, and the more easily it donates electrons. See Figure -

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In the Z ‐schem
n e, electrons are
donated to the lower (non ‐excited) oxidiz
to P680*, which “jumps” to a more actively reducing species. P680* donates its electron to the
quinone ‐cytochrom
om cytochrome e bf chain,
bf is with proton pum ping.
donated to PSI, converting P700 to P700*. This electron, along with others, is transferred to
NADP, forming NADPH. Alternatively, this electron can go back to cytochrome bf in cyclic
electron flow.

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9. (a) What are the function of essential elements. Mention the role and deficiency
symptom of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur?
Answer- Functions of essential elements- The following points highlight the eleven important
functions of essential elements of plants.

Function # 1. Constituents of Biomolecules:

Carbon and hydrogen are components of all organic substances. Many of them also contain
oxygen. Nitrogen is a constituent of all amino acids, proteins, nucleic acid, chlorophyll, auxin,
cytokinins and vitamins. Sulphur occurs in two amino acids— methionine and cysteine. They
form a number of proteins.

Phosphorus is present in nucleotides, higher nucleotides (e.g., ADP, ATP, CDP, and CTP),
coenzymes like NAD+ and NADP+, RNA, DNA and phospholipids. Fe is found in cytochromes.
Mg is a component of chlorophyll. Ca and Mg produce spectates of middle lamella.

Depending upon the organic compound formed, mineral elements are of two types:

(a) Frame-work Elements:

They produce cell walls and storage products of plants, i.e., С, H, O.

(b) Protoplasmic Elements:

The elements produce protoplasmic constituents like proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophylls,
cytochromes, ferredoxin, i.e., С, H, O, N, S, P, Mg, Fe.

Function # 2. Energy Related Compounds:

Magnesium is a component of chlorophyll that takes part in conversion of light energy into
chemical energy. Phosphorus is component of ATP which functions as energy currency of the
living systems.

Function # 3. Osmotic Potential:

Most of the osmotic potential of cell sap is due to inorganic salts. Osmotic potential is required
for water absorption and maintenance of cell turgidity.

Function # 4. Movements:

Free K+ takes part in stomatal and other turgor movements.

Function # 5. Buffer Action:

Weak acids and their salts function as a buffer against changes of pH.

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Function # 6. Oxidation Reduction System:

Metals with variable valency act as electron carriers, e.g., Iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and Copper
(Cu+, Cu2+).

Function # 7. Toxic Effects:

Many elements become toxic in higher concentration than the normal, e.g., Сu, B, Mn, Mo, Zn.
Others are toxic even in smaller concentration, e.g., Pb, Ni, Se, Al, Hg.

Function # 8. Balancing Elements:

Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ minimise the toxic effect of heavy elements.

Function # 9. Permeability:

Sodium, Potassium and some other monovalent increase membrane permeability while Calcium
and other divalents decrease the same.

Function # 10. Catalytic Effects

Many enzymes require mineral elements as cofactors. Mg2+ is activator of several enzymes of
both respiration (e.g., hexokinase, phosphofructokinase) and photosynthesis (e.g., RuBP
carboxylase, PEP carboxylase).

Zinc is activator of carbonic anhydrase and alcohol dehydrogenase. Molybdenum is required for
functioning of di-nitrogenase and nitrate reductase. Mn2+ is involved in photolysis of water. K+
is known to be cofactor of some 40 enzymes.

Function # 11. Phloem Transport:

Boron and Potassium are involved in the translocation of organic substances in the phloem.

Phosphorus
Regions of requirements:

Used mostly in younger tissues.

Functions:

It is a constituent of phospholipids (membrane lipids), nucleic acids, nucleotides, coenzymes,


ATP, metabolic intermediates, sugar phosphates in photosynthesis etc.

Deficiency Symptoms:

(i) Purple or red pigmentation on leaves

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(ii) Premature fall of leaves and floral buds

(iii) Delay in seed germination

(iv) Older leaves affected first and become dark brown,

(v) Stunted and slender stem in young plants,

(vi) Accumulation of carbohydrates in Glycine max (Soybean),

(vii) Vascular tissues reduce in tomato plants.

Nitrogen - Functions:

(i) It is the major constituent of proteins, purines, pyrimidines, vitamins, cholorophyll and
hormones,

(ii) It is also present as a component of coenzymes like FAD, NAD, NADP etc.

(iii) Older leaves when turn yellow, their nitrogen passes to younger parts in the form of amines
and amides.

Deficiency Symptoms:

(i) Stunted growth due to reduced cell division and dormant lateral buds.

(ii) Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves),

(iii) Suppressed or late flowering,

(iv) Increase in starch content but decrease in protein content,

Sulphur -
Functions:
(i) It is a constituent of amino acids like cysteine, cystine and methionine,

(ii) It is also the main constituents of Coenzyme A, Vitamins (thiamine and biotin), ferridoxin etc.

(iii) It is essential for stabilizing the structure of protein by formation of disulfide bond (S-S)
between two cysteine residues to form a cystine,

(iv) Characteristic pungent odour of mustard, onion, garlic etc. is due to presence of sulphur
containing volatile oils.

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Deficiency Symptoms:

The sulphur deficiency symptoms are similar to those of nitrogen deficiency because sulphur
and nitrogen are constituents of proteins.

(b) What are hormones? Discuss the practical Applications of Auxins. (5)
Answer- A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in
multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to
regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3
classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and
proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term
hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same
cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling).

Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation
and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory
perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement,
reproduction, and mood. Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in
the target cell resulting in a change in cell function. When a hormone binds to the receptor, it
results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway.

Practical application of Auxins -


The following points highlight the six practical applications of auxins. The applications are: 1.
Rooting 2. Prevention of Pre-Harvest Drop of Fruits 3. Parthenocarpy 4. Inhibition of Buds to
Prevent Sprouting 5. Shortening of Internodes and 6. Selective Weed Killers.

1. Rooting:- Besides indole acetic acid, some other synthetic auxins especially naphthalene
acetic acid and indole butryic acid are widely employed in initiating early and vigorous rooting in
plants which are propagated by cuttings.

2. Prevention of Pre-Harvest Drop of Fruits:- Premature falling of the fruits can be checked
by the application of auxins such as 2, 4-D and 2, 4 6-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid which delay
the formation of the abscission layer.

3. Parthenocarpy:- Parthenocarpic seedless fruits are obtained on commercial scale by the


application of auxins in many plants.

4. Inhibition of Buds to Prevent Sprouting:- Auxins like a-naphthalene acetic acid prolong the
dormancy of buds in potato tubers and thus are very useful in preventing the eyes of potato
tubers to sprout during storage.

5. Shortening of Internodes:- In apples and pear the fruits are developed on dwarf spurs.
Treatment of the other termi­nal shoots with a-naphthalene acetic acid prevents the elongation
of their internodes so that they also become dwarf. The latter may also bear the fruits.

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6. Selective Weed Killers:- At higher concentrations the auxins may have profound herbicidal
properties and are utilised in the eradication of the weeds. The significance of their activity lies
in their selective toxic action on plants. For instance 2, 4-dichIoro phenoxyacetic acid. (2, 4-D) is
a potent weed killer and most of the broad-leaved dicotyledonous plants which occur as weeds
are killed by this synthetic auxin, but usually the cereals (which are monocotyledonous) remain
unaffected.

10. Write notes on the following:


(i) C4 Plants
Answer- A C4 plant is a plant that cycles carbon dioxide into four-carbon sugar compounds to
enter into the Calvin cycle. These plants are very efficient in hot, dry climates and make a lot of
energy. Many foods we eat are C4 plants, like corn, pineapple, and sugar cane.

A C4 plant sounds like something that should be associated with Hollywood action movies!
However, it is just a type of plant that uses a specific photosynthesis mechanism (C4
photosynthesis) in order to avoid photorespiration. Photorespiration is a wasteful reaction that
occurs when plants take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide instead of taking in carbon
dioxide and releasing oxygen.

All plants make energy during the Calvin cycle (the process where plants take up CO2 and turn
it into sugar energy); however, in hot, sunny, dry climates, C4 plants are much more efficient
than C3 plants (plants that perform C3 photosynthesis - the most common type).

(ii) Apical dominance


Answer- Apical dominance is the phenomenon whereby the main, central stem of the plant is
dominant over (i.e., grows more strongly than) other side stems; on a branch the main stem of
the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.

Plant physiology describes apical dominance as the control exerted by the terminal bud (and
shoot apex) over the outgrowth of lateral buds.

(iii) Vernalisation
Answer- Vernalization (from Latin vernus, "of the spring") is the induction of a plant's flowering
process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent. After
vernalization, plants have acquired the ability to flower, but they may require additional seasonal
cues or weeks of growth before they will actually flower. Vernalization is sometimes used to
refer to herbal (non-woody) plants requiring a cold dormancy to produce new shoots and leaves
but this usage is discouraged.

Many plants grown in temperate climates require vernalization and must experience a period of
low winter temperature to initiate or accelerate the flowering process. This ensures that
reproductive development and seed production occurs in spring and winters, rather than in
autumn.

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(iv) Phytochrome
Answer- Phytochrome
Phytochrome (from Greek root words meaning “plant” and “color”) is the photoreceptor involved
in regulating many photomorphogenic processes in plants. It is one of a subset of photoreceptor
proteins that are photochromic. Photochromic photoreceptors exist in two different forms, with
different light-absorbing properties, and can be reversibly interconverted between these forms
by consecutive absorption of light in the appropriate wavebands. In the case of phytochrome,
the two forms have maximal absorption in the red and far-red region of the spectrum, and are
referred to as Pr and Pfr,respectively. The basis for this transformation is a cis-trans
isomerization within the chromophore.

(v) Long day plant and Short day plant


Answer- A plant's classification as a long-day or a short-day species is determined by
photoperiodism, a term for the amount of daylight or darkness needed for plants to grow, bloom
or change color. Photoperiodism is the reason that many plants placed in the garden at different
times all bloom within a few days of one another. Photoperiodism affects many vegetable plants
as well as flowering plants.

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