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Merriam-Webster defines diversity as “the quality or state of having many different forms, types, ideas,
etc.” Another definition of diversity reads: “the state of having people who are different races or who
have different cultures in a group or organization”. (“Diversity.” Merriam-Webster. N.d., n.p. Web. 11 Aug. 2016. http://www.merriam-

Our world is diverse. You might find a dominant culture in your society, but there will definitely still be
subcultures within the dominant culture. This is the reason why we have cultural pluralism.

Drennan, Malia. "What’s your Culture Type?." Christian Veterinary Mission. N.p., 18 Jun. 2015. Web. 17 Aug. 2016. http://cvmusa.org/blog/tag/sharing-faith-across-cultures/

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Cultural Pluralism is present when you are a smaller group found in a larger society, and you are
able to maintain your unique cultural identity (your cultural practices, your values, the norms of your
small group) while the larger society accepts and does not mind your unique practices because
they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.

This means that “cultural pluralism” is present when there is

a dominant or larger society
a smaller society within the larger one

When the dominant culture/society is weakened, then the society can pass from having “cultural
pluralism” to having “multiculturalism”.

The Philippines is a good example of cultural pluralism. Our dominant culture is the Filipino culture
(family-centric, hospitable towards guests, etc) but at the same time we have plenty of subcultures (like
the cultures of the indigenous peoples). Clearly, we accept the Ivatan culture or the Igorot culture. The
rest of the Filipinos who are not Ivatan or Igorot are OK with these subcultures because they don’t go
against our country’s laws.

Quismundo, Tarra. "Taiwan’s ‘rock star’ tribal folk share same ancestry with Filipinos." Inquirer.net. Inquirer, 6 Apr. 2015. Web. 17 Aug. 2016. http://globalnation.inquirer.net/120343/taiwans-rock-star-

If, for example, there was a subculture in the Philippines where a tribe required the killing or the sacrifice
of a human every year, then this would not be OK. Killing or taking the life of another human being is
against the law. Murder is illegal in all countries.

Looking at pluralistic societies is a good way to see that although there are different ways of looking at
things by people all over the world, at the same time, we can all still live harmoniously.

The video below is an example of how people of the world can differ in their outlooks and norms. What is
beautiful for you? White skin? Long straight hair? Broad shoulders? In each society, the concept of
beauty may vary. Here is a quick video that explores what is considered beautiful for them.

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Click to enable Adobe Flash Player

TheRichest. “The Definition Of 'Sexy' Around The World.” Online video clip. YouTube. N.p., 18 May 2015. Web. 21 January 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CzlFh3DZF8g

Racism Sexism Deviance Ethnocentrism

Racism is the belief one’s race is better or superior to another race. It is the belief that a person’s
traits will automatically be determined by their inborn biological characteristics.

Racist people believe that because of your skin color, your customs, your place of birth, your
language, or any such characteristic is enough reason for you to be treated as if you were less than


If you don’t know about them, then you could be a victim of these issues that most people commonly
experience. Or worse—if you don’t know about them, you could already be offending a lot of other
people (and you wouldn’t even be aware of it!).

Let’s say that you are a dark-skinned woman and you’re on vacation in a different country. You’re looking
forward to 4 days of relaxing on beautiful beaches and basically seeing the tourist spots with your
friends. On your first day there, you have to ride a tricycle to get to your hotel. The driver looks at you
and he says that you have to pay double because you are “fat fat”.

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Buzzer Joy. "Tricycle Driver Earns Praise for Returning Brand New Cellphone Left by Passenger." Buzz Flare. N.p., 23 Apr. 2016. Web. 16 Aug. 2016

You try to ignore the comment for the rest of the day, but in the afternoon, when you are out in the town
with your friends, a store owner of a small shop suddenly laughs when you walk past his store. He is
laughing and pointing at you, then he says, “What a big, black, fat girl!” You are shocked and you want to
tell the man how offended you are with what he said, but then you remember that you are in a different
country. Even if you are hurt, you couldn’t find it in yourself to be mean to them, too.

James, Brianne. "23 Things You Should Never Say to a Black Woman." Her Campus. N.p., 18 Jan. 2016. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

Things just get worse from then. You couldn’t join your friends when they went on day tours, because the
people who manned the boats required you to pay double as well. They thought that the boat might sink
if you entered it. You didn’t mind paying extra. It wasn’t about the money. It was really because you
couldn’t stand and sit there in the same space with people who would stare at you, and point, or laugh,
and call you “black” or “fat”.

There was even another time when an old woman from another shop in the town grabbed your stomach
and said, “Why so much fat fat?” While the children who were there stared at you, and agreed. “Yes,
she’s so big, black, and fat fat! Hahaha!”

You couldn’t enjoy the vacation at all, so for the majority of the 4 days you stayed in your hotel room,
looking longingly out the window, instead of staying out under the sun on the beach.

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If you were really the woman in the example above, you’d feel horrible, right? You don’t deserve to be
treated that way. Even if others from a different culture/society/country don’t have anything in common
with you, it isn’t right to say and do things that offend you and make you feel like you aren’t good

But why is that the case? We hear this a lot sometimes, and we know that no one deserves to be treated
badly. But why is it wrong?

It is because of something we call Human Rights. Every human, who is born into this world (whether
they want it or not), has human rights. This is why you need to learn about the issues that stem from our
diversity. No matter how diverse the people in this world, each and every one of them has what YOU
have—universal human rights.

Just imagine a world like what is shown in this video.

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Click to enable Adobe Flash Player

ADRAInternational. “ADRA Animated Short: Human Rights.” Online video clip. YouTube. N.p., 23 August 2012. Web. 5 January 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?


The issues that have been mentioned in the video are only some of the things that plague our diverse
world. Unfortunately, these are realities that many people face even to this day. Can people break out of
the chains of these cruel abuses?

There have been efforts for this to happen.

In 1948, the leaders of several countries adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Human rights are the basic rights and the freedoms that you have because you are a human being.
They are applicable to every person in our world. Wherever you live, whatever your nationality, ethnic
origin, sex, religion, skin color, language, age, or any other characteristic—you have the right to these
basic human rights.

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“Human-Rights Quotes." Quotes Gram. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Aug. 2016. http://quotesgram.com/human-rights-quotes/

Our human rights are based on 6 principles:

Universal and Inalienable
Interdependent and Indivisible
Equal and Non-Discriminatory

Universal and Inalienable

Universal means that these rights are applicable to every single nation, every State, and to all people,
regardless of their economic, political, and cultural backgrounds. Every State has the duty to uphold
these human rights for its people. They are also inalienable. These human rights cannot be taken away,
unless the situation requires the removal of it based on due process. One example is how people who
are sent to prison will be restricted from their right to liberty if they are found guilty of a crime.

Interdependent and Indivisible

All of the human rights (civil and political rights, economic, social, and cultural rights, and collective
rights) are interdependent and indivisible. You cannot remove one without affecting the others
negatively. In the same way, when you improve one, then it helps in the advancement of the others.

Equal and Non-Discriminatory

In all the different treaties and international law agreements, "non-discrimination" is a principle always
mentioned and is ever present as a central theme in these international conventions. These last 2
principles make sure that every person is treated the same way. It prohibits discrimination based on a
comprehensive list that has been drafted (including categories such as race, sex, age, color, religion,
geographical origin, birth status, and many more).

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Dupre, Deborah. "Miss India Celina Jaitly’s Gay Rights Music Vid Released." Before It’s News. N.p., 3 May 2014. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

Each and every one of us can enjoy these human rights. The State and government has the duty to
make sure that we do. At the same time, we must remember that each person that we meet also has
these rights, so we must treat them exactly how we would like to be treated.

Mila, Karmila. "PKN: Human Rights." Mila Karmila. N.p., 10 Nov 2013. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

Because we all ‘look’ different today, is it possible to meet a person who comes from a different culture
or a different society and still think that you are both the same?

Social anthropologist Wade Davis talks a little bit about what it means to celebrate culture and sameness
in this short video excerpt below:

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Click to enable Adobe Flash Player

Fontaine, Luc. "Wade Davis from National Geographic." Vimeo. DocuFilm, 4 May 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. https://vimeo.com/93820499


Click on the tabs below to see how each of these issues are exhibited in society.

Racism Sexism Deviance Ethnocentrism

The most common example of racism is way back in the 17th century in the United States. There was
rampant racism back then, all the way until the 1960’s!

The "white" Americans were racist against the "black" Americans. This racism stemmed from the
belief that the color of their skin was an indicator that those who were black would automatically grow
up to be criminals or people who would be no good for their society.

Mila, Karmila. "Apartheid and Racism." Bad News About Christianity. N.p., 10 Nov 2013. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

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"Racial segregation in the United States." Wikipedia. N.p., 8 Aug. 2016. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

Alexis Z. "Themes." tes. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

The racism back then was so bad that the privileges of white Americans (education, citizenship, land
acquisition, voting rights, or due process of criminal procedure) were not given to those of “inferior
races” (Blacks, Asian Americans, or Latin Americans).

Unfortunately, until today, there are still some traces of this racism. Some people will still judge others
based on the color of their skin. For example, this Thai beauty ad that came out this 2016 says that
you will only “win” if you have white skin. In the video, you’ll see that the actress’ skin slowly turns
black, and as it gets darker and darker and darker, she obviously looks unhappy about it.

Can you imagine how offensive that is for people who are born with dark skin?

People do not become less beautiful just because of skin color. They don’t become weird or bad or

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ugly just because they come from a different race.

Fasciano, Marisa. "Extreme Prejudice." Teaching Tolerance. N.p., 2015. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

To learn more about how racism is found in our world today, here is an article you can check out:

"We’re all racist. But racism by white people matters more" by Mona Chalabi

Here is an excerpt from the article, illustrating its point that we’re all a little bit racist:
“...when people imagine a racist, they probably envisage a white skinhead sitting in a pub ready to start
a fight with the first black or brown person who walks through the door. That’s a convenient picture to
conjure up – it’s pretty easy to comfort yourself that you’re nothing at all like that awful bastard.

In fact, though, everyone – of whatever colour – is racist. As part of a TV documentary I’ve been
working on, I’ve seen how our brains have a tendency to automatically associate our own race with
good and other races with bad, whoever we are.

Psychological tests showed me this. I looked at the results of 2,846 British people who took an “Implicit
Association Test”, designed to analyse automatic racial preferences.

On average, white Brits demonstrated a moderately strong bias towards their own race and black Brits
showed a very weak bias towards their own race. I don’t think white people are born with some sort of
racism gene – the main thing that explains those different scores is the way that society has geared up
our brains differently.”
(Chalabi, Mona. "We’re all racist. But racism by white people matters more." The Guardian N.p., 5 Oct. 2015. Web. 5 Jan. 2016.)

But just because we’re all racist sometimes, does not make racism OK. We are all capable of
change, so we can definitely try our best to avoid saying or doing things that are racist or
discriminating to others.


Human Rights Fundamentals

To learn more about human rights, you can check this site out.

Laura Bates on "Everyday Sexism"

The speaker in this video is a woman who shares about what “everyday sexism” is.

Doc Brown
This video is a talk from a male comedian in the UK and he speaks about how he has observed sexism in his society.

Elayne’s “Worst Holiday” experience in the Philippines

This video is a vlog by Elayne Peddy. She describes why her experience in the Philippines was the worst holiday she’s ever had, and why she would not want to return
to our country.


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Cherry, Kendra. "What Is Ethnocentrism?." About. N.p., 4 Dec. 2014. Web. 5 Jan. 2016.

dachary. "What’s the Best Bra for Women Who Work in Construction?." Bigger Bras. N.p., 30 Mar. 2015.
Web. 17 Aug. 2016. http://www.biggerbras.com/blog/whats-bra-women-work-construction/

“Diversity.” Merriam-Webster. N.d., n.p. Web. 11 Aug. 2016. http://www.merriam-


Moffitt, Kimberly. "Deviance in Sociology: Definition, Theories & Examples." Study. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan.
2016. http://study.com/academy/lesson/deviance-in-sociology-definition-theories-examples.html

"Republic Act No. 4136." Official Gazelle. N.p., 20 Jun. 1964. Web. 17 Aug. 2016.

Rogers-Anderson, Sabrina. "The rise of the stay-at-home dad." Kidspot. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Aug. 2016.

Yelnick, Juli. "Ethnocentrism in Sociology: Definition & Examples." Study. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2016.

"Your Human Rights." United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. N.p., n.d. Web. 5
Jan. 2016. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx

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