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Proposal for the underground drainage system with pipes, sumps

and grattings for storm water and runoff

Storm Drain
Tunnels that carry runoff from urban streets. Is also a sewers designed to carry both waste and
storm water

Storm drain with its pipe visible beneath

A storm drain is infrastructure designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious
surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs. Drains
receive water from street gutters on most motorways, freeways and other busy roads, as well as
towns in areas with heavy rainfall that leads to flooding, and coastal towns with regular storms.
Even gutters from houses and buildings can connect to the storm drain. Many storm drainage
systems are gravity sewers that drain untreated storm water into rivers or streams. Storm drains
often cannot manage the quantity of rain that falls in heavy rains or storms Inundated drains can
cause basement and street flooding. In many areas require detention tanks inside a property that
temporarily hold runoff in heavy rains and restrict outlet flow to the public sewer. This reduces
the risk of overwhelming the public sewer. Some storm drains mix stormwater (rainwater) with
sewage, either intentionally in the case of combined sewers, or unintentionally.


curbside storm drain receiving runoff


Full view of a storm drain

There are two main types of stormwater drain inlets: side inlets and grated inlets. Side inlets are
located adjacent to the curb (curb) and rely on the ability of the opening under the back stone or
lintel to capture flow. They are usually depressed at the invert of the channel to improve capture

Many inlets have gratings or grids to prevent people, vehicles, large objects or debris from
falling into the storm drain. Grate bars are spaced so that the flow of water is not impeded, but
sediment and many small objects can also fall through. However, if grate bars are too far apart,
the openings may present a risk to pedestrians, bicyclists, and others in the vicinity. Grates with
long narrow slots parallel to traffic flow are of particular concern to cyclists, as the front tire of a
bicycle may become stuck, causing the cyclist to go over the handlebars or lose control and fall.
Storm drains in streets and parking areas must be strong enough to support the weight of
vehicles, and are often made of cast iron or reinforced concrete.

Storm drain

Some of the heavier sediment and small objects may settle in a catch basin, or sump, which lies
immediately below the outlet, where water from the top of the catch basin reservoir overflows
into the sewer proper. The catchbasin serves much the same function as the "trap" in household
wastewater plumbing in trapping objects.

Most catchbasins contain stagnant water during drier parts of the year and can, in warm
countries,(e.g Nigeria) become mosquito breeding grounds. Mosquitoes may be physically
prevented from reaching the standing water or migrating into the sewer proper by the use of an

"inverted cone filter". Another method of mosquito control is to spread a thin layer of oil on the
surface of stagnant water, interfering with the breathing tubes of mosquito larvae.

The performance of catch basins at removing sediment and other pollutants depends on the
design of the catchbasin (for example, the size of the sump), and on routine maintenance to retain
the storage available in the sump to capture sediment. Municipalities typically have large
vacuum trucks that perform this task but in a less large housing it can be done manually.

Catch basins act as the first-line pretreatment for other treatment practices, such as retention
basins, by capturing large sediments and street litter from urban runoff before it enters the storm
drainage pipes.


Pipes can come in many different cross-sectional shapes (rectangular, square, bread-loaf-shaped,
oval, inverted pear-shaped, egg shaped, and most commonly, circular). Drainage systems may
have many different features including waterfalls, stairways, balconies and pits for catching
rubbish, sometimes called Gross Pollutant Traps. Pipes made of different materials can also be
used, such as brick, concrete, high-density polyethylene or galvanized steel. Fibre reinforced
plastic is being used more commonly for drain pipes and fittings.


Most drains have a single large exit at their point of discharge (often covered by a grating) into a
canal, river, lake, reservoir, sea or ocean. Other than catchbasins, typically there are no treatment
facilities in the piping system. Small storm drains may discharge into individual dry wells. Storm
drains may be interconnected using slotted pipe, to make a larger dry well system. Storm drains
may discharge into man-made excavations known as recharge basins or retention ponds.

Environmental impacts
Clogged drains also contribute to flooding by the obstruction of storm drains. Communities can
help reduce this by cleaning leaves from the storm drains to stop ponding or flooding into yards.

Construction method
The piping, lining and the sumps should be constructed with a minimum fall of 3mm for every
300mm length to allow movement of solid waste and prevent stagnation of water within the pipe.

More importantly the discharge invert be checked before proceeding on this method of
construction, it better advisable to prepare the discharge point before the pipes are laid since the
discharge point is not the final outfall but a flow collectors.

Order of Construction
1. Main road drain first established to give the clear view of flow
2. A large sumps be introduced at the estate gate as a collection mouth to achieve the
needed flow from the piping system because of its limited diameter and volume at per
flow i.e q = av. A = area of pipe, v = velocity of flow
3. Precast foundries manhole cover of a larger diameter be used to trap the surface run off
into the depressed sewer
4. Reasonable depth of burial be maintained for pipes to prevent the impact of HB loading
on the buried pipe.

The final outlet does not permit the design to specify the minimum flow rather, the site
situation at the outfall point has reduced the efficiency of flow in the previous design of
drain, so it may be necessary to establish another cheaper point of discharge with a better
invert near the surrounding road of the estate. This will improve the integrity of the flow
and keep the drain dry at all time which will subsequently reduce hazardous situation that
can be caused by stagnant water at the sumping points.

 Possibility of flash flood during heavy rain

 Possibility of mosquitoes if not periodically maintained
 Less flow rate since gravity flow may be induced
 Numerous number of sumps
 High percentage camber for the road

Solution to the enumerated challenges

 The trough system of drain should be checked and compared with the pipping
system in terms of cost and effectiveness.
 The site should be checked by comparing the natural flow to determine the
possibilities of detecting another outlet which obviously will be cheaper if any.
 The internal road may be raised to create additional head for drains

The domestic waste: Are the domestic wastes be discharged along with the surface
runoff or the central system will take care of them?

Conclusion: If another discharge point can be discover near the site apart from the
existing one, the natural flow induced system will be done effectively well and allow design and
construction of dry underground drain.