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By:

Dr. S. SUMATHI
Assessment

 Test : 40%
Solo

 Assignment 30%
Group of 2

 Practical 20%
Group of 2

 Practical 10%
Solo – hand drawing
OBE- OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION

• Bachelor of Environmental Engineering (HONS)


• Programme Objective (PEO) – 3
• Programme Outcome (PO) – 12
• Psychomotor Skill (hands-on skill)
• This course is related to PO5:
– Apply original engineering techniques and state of the
art engineering and IT resources to model, simulate and
analyse complex engineering problems within the
relevant constraints and range of validity
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

• Reproduce image using drawing commands and


techniques in draughting technical drawings;

• Demonstrate technical and structural engineering


drawings using CADD

• Change object view to isometric/auxiliary/section


projection using CADD

• Construct designer’s ideas and instructions into


orthographic view with dimensioning and tolerancing
using CADD.
Topics

Introduction to technical drawing


Technical Sketching and Shape Description
Introduction of Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD).
Draw command/ Modify command
Viewing command/ Layers and object properties
Layouts and Viewports/ Printing and plotting
Orthographic projections
Sectional views
Auxiliary views
Isometric drawing
Dimensioning/ Tolerancing

To produce and plot complete structural drawing relevance to engineering


Introduction

• Creating engineering drawings is a Drafting Technology


• A form of art
• Useful in all fields of Engineering (Mechanical, Civil,
Architectural, Electrical, Aerospace, Chemical,
Environmental etc.)
• The main purpose is to communicate to other engineers
• Drawings do the communication best merely because a
“picture is worth a thousand words”.
• Engineers are very picky about their drawings and must
pay attention to detail.
Drafting sheet

• Any type of paper can be used


• To see clear view of the layout
• Larger sized paper such A3 can be used
to see bigger projection
• Lettering follows ASME
Name: Material: Scale: Date:
Technical Sketching

• Sketching using free-hand or on graph paper

• A view of an object is called “PROJECTION”

• There are 4 types of sketch projection


– Multi-view
– Isometric
– Oblique
– Perspective
Types of projection

• Multi-view
- With 6 main faces
• Isometric
- With certain angle, exp: 30º
• Oblique
- With front face at true position and back distorted at 45º
• Perspective
- With projectors converging at 1 or 2 or more vanishing
point
Oblique Isometric

Multi-view Perspective
Standard Practice

• In order to create sketches & drawings that can be


accurately interpreted

• Example:

– Which view to show

– How they should be orientated

– How to represent key information

– Other details
Scale
• Sketches are not made to any scale

• But should be sketched in their correct


proportions

• The size of sketch is purely optional, depending


on the complexity of the object

• Ex: Small objects are drawn bigger to show its


details clearly

• Normally in ratio format, e.g. (1:20)

• Length of DRAWING TO ORIGINAL length


Lines

• The chief of drawings are lines

• Lines denotes the differences in dimension of the object

• There are 3 main lines;


– OBJECT LINES

– HIDDEN LINES

– CENTER LINES

• Other types of line are: leader, dimension & extension


OBJECT/VISIBLE LINES

 Depict the visible edges of an object.

 The edges you would see looking at the


object with your naked eyes.

 They shown as dark, solid lines.


HIDDEN LINES

 Depict invisible edges inside an object.

 The edges you would not see looking at


the object with your naked eyes.

 They are shown as dashed lines.


CENTER LINES

 Depict the center of any cylindrical-


shaped object whether it be a cylinder
or hole.

 They are shown as a long line followed


by a short line, followed by a long line.
DIMENSIONS, THEIR COMPONENTS
& NOTES

• Dimensions tell how far it is from one point on an object to


another point.

• The most basic type is called a Linear Dimension because it


gives the straight-line distance from one point to another.

• Dimensions have four basic components:


– Dimension Text

– Dimension Line & Arrows

– Extension Lines

– Gap & others


ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

• Orthographic projection: a technique used to create multi-


view drawings to project the size and location of
geometric features from one view to another (the rays are
parallel)

• There six principal/standard views


– Top
– Bottom
– Rear
– Left
– Right
– Front
3 views are essential to demonstrate an object
Alignment

• Always draw in standard alignment

• To be sure it is not misinterpreted

• Never draw the views in reversed position

• The front view should show


– the shape of the object clearly
– show the most information about object
Alignment
3 Views in correct alignment but poor
choice of front view
Opposite views which are identical is not important, however if it
has different types of line/structure it should be drawn.
Choice of view to fit paper
Example 1:
Answer
Exercise 1:

• The hole is drilled


through

FRONT
Answer 1
Exercise 2:

• Draw the most necessary and representative


orthographic view of this object

• All readings are in cm

• Use drafting A4 format

• The holes from the front view is drilled


through. However it is NOT hollow at the
back