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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

College of Arts

Department of Sociology

Sta. Mesa, Manila

A Community Study of Brgy. Gulod, Talim Island, Binangonan, Rizal.

April 28-May 24, 2008

Conducted by the PUP-BS Sociology 3-1 -CO 2008 Gulod and Kaytome Team On their summer course Community Organizing (CO/SO370) SY: 2008

Gulod Team

Abletis, John N. Adraque, Joann C. Aglipay, Kathleen Cara A. Alonzo, Carel Joyce E. Gitano, Meann C. Go, Kathlene Rea S.

Presented to the class of

Prof. Roseller Luciano

CO 2008 Adviser and Faculty Department of Sociology

This 4 th week of June, 1 st semester of SY 2008-2009

Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Arts Department of Sociology Sta. Mesa, Manila A Community

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Acknowledgement

Our deepest gratitude should be known to those people who helped us in conducting this one month research and immersion activity at Brgy. Gulod, Talim Island, Binangonan, Rizal.

To our parents who have financed our one month immersion activity and have offered their love, care and trust while we were in the field.

To the PUP Department of Sociology (Chair Emanuel De Guzman and the faculty) for allowing the BS Sociology 3-1 class to conduct their summer course immersion/organizing activity in the Province of Rizal.

To the Provincial Government of Rizal, especially to Gov. Casimiro Ynares and to the Municipality Government of Binangonan, especially to Mayor Cecilio Ynares, for allowing us to conduct our one month immersion and research activity within their jurisdiction. Such gratitude is being extended for their warm welcome to us, the PUP CO 2008 Gulod and Kaytome Team on a socialization event at the Brgy. Gulod’s Covered Court.

To the Barangay Government of Gulod and Kaytome, Talim Island, Binangonan, Rizal, especially to Brgy. Captain Jesus “Kapitan Jess” Añis and Brgy. Captain Florencio “Kapitan Tugs” Dominguez for giving us the warmest welcome that they could ever give, as well us for providing us the local documents we needed for the completion of this study.

To Kuya Alvin (Alvin Dominguez) who helped us in working out our legal documents to the local government officials. He was also the one who introduced us to KG6 and helped us during our ocular visits in the place.

To the elders (pamunuan) of the KG6 band (Kaytome-Gulod 2006 Youth Band Inc.), especially to Tito Emiliano “Kuya Emil” Dominguez who personally accepted us despite his tight schedule. Kuya Emil, Salamat po ng marami!

To Mr. Loreto “Pangs” Rivera, president of the KG6 band who accommodated our one month stay in his two houses at the two barangays. He acted as our father while in the conduct of this month long activity. Marami pong salamat sa pagtanggap amin.

To Kuya Froylan and Ate Liza who showed us the process of making charcoal. To Kuya Philemon sa mga kwento at turo tungkol sa paghahalaman. Kay Ate Elvie (Kapitana), Kuya Reymunto, Nanay Ave, at Tatay Ingo sa pagsama sa’min sa maisan. To KC and Jhed sa pakikisama at pakikipagkaibigan.

To the facilitators of our 3 day seminar-workshop within the two barangays. Fritz, Jr, (etong dalawang eto ang tour guide namin sa Mt. Tagapo) Rr, Melvin, SK Chair Jason, and Ricky. Salamat sa inyo! Salamat din sa pakikisama!

To the 1 st and 2 nd batches of KG6 youth band, Salamat kasi kinaibigan nyo kami at tinanggap nyo kami sa paraang kaming-kami.

And to whom should I give the greatest thanks of all? Syempre to God, he is the one who provided us all of what we now, and what we have accomplished during our stay in Talim. Karapat-dapat nga siyang purihin.

Sa inyong lahat, maraming-maraming

Acknowledgement Our deepest gratitude should be known to those people who helped us in conducting this

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Introduction

Sociology is the study of society, its processes, interactions, and dynamics, its development, characteristics, distinctions, problems, and possible solutions for the alleviation of some of the social problems that mankind are presently (and continuously) facing. Such complex undertaking and view about society is also being shared by other fields of Social Science (e.g. Political Science, Economics, Anthropology, History, etc.). However, such fields of inquiries view society in its respective specific scope of focus (ex. Pol. Sci for political aspect), what makes Sociology different from its brother sciences is that it views society both in its specific aspects and at its entirety. A holistic approach is what Sociology can promise to provide, analyzing the impact of modernity on the lives of people, considering it as crucial in the dynamics of the processes and interactions within society. Sociology was created, and is continuously being created, with that hope that it could provide us a better understanding of what is happening on us within a collectivity (family, friends, community, etc.) and how such understanding could help us face the future more confidently. As what a prominent Sociologist said “Ang agham na galing sa tao at para sa tao.” Certain educational institutions (universities) within the country offer baccalaureate degrees in Sociology. They offer students with the program AB Sociology (Bachelor of Arts in--), a program with a curriculum that is especially designed for the pursuance of a masteral degree in Sociology.

Introduction Sociology is the study of society, its processes, interactions, and dynamics, its development, characteristics, distinctions,

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These Sociology programs are adherent to the theoretical aspect of Sociology. BS Sociology programs (Bachelor of Science in--), on the other hand, focused on the Sociology’s applied nature (Applied Sociology), and is more close to the field of Social work. The Polytechnic University of the Philippines is the only educational institution in the country offering the BS Sociology program. Its intent is to focus more on the application of Sociological concepts in the lives of the people. The PUP Sociology curriculum is the only Sociology curriculum offering undergraduate courses Community Development (SO 360) and Community Organizing (SO370), both are intended to gather data from communities (i.e. data about its way of life, political, economic, demographic, and social characteristics) and to practice students to become effective community researchers and organizers. Also, those courses have been included in the PUP-Sociology curriculum because the faculty of the PUP-Department of Sociology noticed that after graduation, much of its graduates enter the field of community organizing. The two subjects (courses) made the PUP-Sociology Program distinct from other Sociology programs of other universities in the Philippines.

How do we get in Gulod?

It all started at the PUP Chapel last March (2008) when the junior

students SY 2007-2008 gave their best performance in a theatrical play in their subject World Literature. After the play, majority of the regular junior students formed a group, this group would be their group for their

These Sociology programs are adherent to the theoretical aspect of Sociology. BS Sociology programs (Bachelor of

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Community Organizing in the approaching summer season (this would be the group, our classmates, in Janosa), while the Animal kingdom (a clique composed of seven friends) disbanded on its own. The new group was composed of Carel, Kathlene, Cara, and Meann. With the fear of being left alone, another group merged with them, composed of John, Pec, Joann, Lloyd, and Michael, followed by another small group composed of Joyce, Spud, Kresta, and Larraine. These thirteen junior students would be the ones composing the PUP-CO 2008 Kaytome and Gulod Team. The original plan was to conduct that one month activity on a barrio at Batangas, but because of a declaration (a memorandum) coming from the university president prohibiting the conduct of CO outside Metro Manila, the plan changed. The students really wanted to conduct their CO in a province, so the department allowed the memorandum to be extended to Metro Rizal. Carel’s family has a family friend in Brgy. Kaytome, the Dominguez clan, according to her such family tie up originated since time immemorial (sabi niya kasi mga lola pa raw niya ang nakakaalam nun). In conducting CO, one requirement is for the students to look for NGOs within their chosen places. These NGOs will be held responsible in securing the students daily activities, especially in organizing. Kuya Alvin, our mediator and one of Carel’s family friends, offered KG6. KG6 is a band dedicated to the training of youth musicians imbued with the spirit of self-helped development, self-determination and self-discipline. KG6 has two based barangays, Brgy.s Kaytome and Gulod, so before going to

Community Organizing in the approaching summer season (this would be the group, our classmates, in Janosa),

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Talim, the team decided to divide their group into two, one for Kaytome and one for Gulod. With the supervision of KG6 as our host organization, John, Joan, Carel, Cara, Mean, Kathlene, and Spud were assigned to conduct our study at Brgy. Gulod, Talim Island, Municipality of Binangonan, of the Province of Rizal.

The Importance of a Community Study/Research

Aside from its academic importance for schools, colleges, and universities (considering the fact that universities have the primary function of providing and creating knowledge, not just only transmitters of it) a Community Study/Research when done by a professional or highly trusted research firm, has its practical purpose, specially needed and used by Government agencies when legislating laws and implementing policies for the people. In short, in its ideal state, laws and policies are based on researches. Researches are also used as sources of information stored in international or local data banks; such researches are for future references for other researchers. This Community Study/Research about Brgy. Gulod is not intended for such purpose, since this is only a requirement for a CO summer course, further more, the students who conducted this research were only trainees and not professionals, however, it is of great gratitude on the part of the researchers if there are any valuable information that could be generated from this research which could be used as bases for laws and policies for the improvement of the living conditions of the people at Brgy. Gulod.

Talim, the team decided to divide their group into two, one for Kaytome and one for

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The researchers hope that future researchers, or any of the common people who would turn the pages of this research paper on, could obtain any valuable information from this humble contribution.

Setting of the Study and Research Design

The study was conducted at Barangay Gulod, Talim Island, Municipality of Binangonan, Province of Rizal, Region IV-A, Luzon, Philippines, from April 28- May 24, 2008. The study was conducted by the PUP-BS Sociology junior students CO 2008 Kaytome and Gulod Team while in the conduct of their summer course Community Organizing (CO/SO 370). The entire research would be a mixture of descriptive survey research (focusing on the “what is” basis) and ethnographic research (done on an extended period of time, researchers lived in the community). These two types of research have two different types of research designs, the quantitative for the descriptive research which would be using the structured interviews as its data-gathering tool, and the qualitative for the ethnographic research which would be using the participant and overt observations, unstructured interviews, and local document gathering as its data gathering techniques. The study is a brief ethnographic research in nature since the researchers stay in the place for only a month. Being ethnographic in nature means the collection of data on a wide array of variables regarding

The researchers hope that future researchers, or any of the common people who would turn the

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life within the community. Thus, the researchers have used more than one data gathering technique (observation-participant and overt, structured and unstructured interviews, local document gathering) in order to maximize data gathering during their one month stay. The structured interview (as a primary tool in gathering data) itself was done only on the third week of the immersion activity, that is, from May 12-16, 2008. However, the other data gathering techniques (observation, unstructured interviews, and local document gathering) were done throughout the researchers’ one month immersion activity. Therefore, the whole community study was done on a one month basis, that is, from April 28 – May 24, 2008.

Scope, Delimitation and Sampling of the Study

The research and its content would be limited only to Barangay Gulod, Talim Island, Binangonan, Rizal, with a research time frame of one month (from April 28-May 24, 2008). Thus, because of the research’s limitation on the geographical aspect, the conditions and problems stated in this research may or may not be applicable to other barangays in Talim Island, or any other communities within the Philippines. The research has only 69 total number of respondents interviewed at the different places within Barangay Gulod. The sample population constituted about 4.55% out of the 1,515 total number of residents (as of 2006) of Barangay Gulod, however, if the number of households were

life within the community. Thus, the researchers have used more than one data gathering technique (

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under consideration, the sampling percentage will rise to 25.56% (69 total number of respondents / 270 number of households as of 2006 x 100). The respondents were chosen via quota sampling in the sense that each of the 7 researchers has had 10 maximum questionnaires to be answered by their first 10 immediately seen possible respondents. In a sense, some of the respondents were chosen via convenient sampling method since some of the researchers have interviewed respondents that were bystanders at that time-period (this was because some of the researchers perceived that it would be too shameful on their part to disturb someone who was doing something and then would just stop to entertain the interviewers). Financial, time, professional training and man power constraints were the primary reasons as to why the interviews were done on a limited basis. The researchers experienced financial constraints since they were only students who were dependent to limited allowances from their parents. They also experienced time constraint because there were other sets of planned activities in the community other than the research itself, making the researchers attention on the research nature of the immersion more focused on the third week rather than on the first two weeks of the immersion. Constraint on professional training was experienced because the students lack the skills, experiences, and knowledge in conducting high quality community studies as done by professional sociologists. Man Power constraint was also experienced in the sense that interviewing

under consideration, the sampling percentage will rise to 25.56% (69 total number of respondents / 270

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people was really exhausting, that researchers also have to work out their daily house chores thus consuming their energies, and by considering the fact that there were only seven researchers in Brgy. Gulod. Establishing rapport and developing good interpersonal skills also faced big challenges to the researchers. These were the reasons as to why the researchers were not able to bring their interviews on a large scale basis.

Sources of Information

This research made use of primary and secondary sources of data. In this research, primary data includes first hand information generated through the researchers’ use of interview guides (questionnaires). This interview guides were formulated with reference to previous questionnaires used by professional sociologists in conducting surveys in communities, previous questionnaires used by previous batches of PUP- CO students, and the previous questionnaires used by the researchers themselves in their CD. Primary data also includes experiences and reflections, bits of information that were thoroughly reported with the use of personal journals/diaries of the researchers. The interview part discussed earlier is a type of structured interview; however, through frequent interaction with the community folks, the researchers also made use of unstructured interviews, information generated on such type of data-gathering technique were included in the diary (in this research, unstructured interviews refer to “pakikipagkwentuhan”,

people was really exhausting, that researchers also have to work out their daily house chores thus

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pakikipagtsismisan”, and “pakikipagusap.” Also included in the diary were observations that were participatory and overt. Secondary sources of data include those that were already printed out and used elsewhere, but were found to be useful for the present study. In this research, the Brgy. Report of 2007 and some of the files from the Brgy. Computer fell into such category.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The research contains data that were expressed in numerical forms (quantitative in nature). These data were sourced out through tabulation of responses from questionnaires used in the structured interview. After tabulation, the researchers computed for the percentages of frequencies in each item (inquiry under consideration). The highest percentage, interpreted as the voice of the majority, is the answer to the inquiry. The researchers used the percentage formula stated below.

P

=

f

n

x

100

Wherein:

P- percentage f- frequency/number of responses n- total number of respondents

The study used descriptive statistics (as shown above, the percentage formula) to precisely describe attributes pertaining to the variables involved in each inquiry. Descriptive statistics is used to describe the present condition of a variable when numerical data are present.

“ pakikipagtsismisan ”, and “ pakikipagusap .” Also included in the diary were observations that were

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Description of the Respondents

The 69 respondents (4.55% of the total Brgy. Gulod population or 25.56% out of the 270 number of households as of 2006) were residents of Barangay Gulod. During the conduct of the interview, a representation of 1 respondent in each household was done. Majority of the respondents were mothers, however the research was not specifically limited for them since some respondents were fathers or any elderly member of each of the households. Majority of the respondents were natives of Brgy. Gulod. Their ages range from 22 to 77, majority of them have 2-4 number of siblings, were Roman Catholics (97.10%), were high school graduates (27.54%), were literate (i.e. able to read and write), have blue collar jobs ( %), and were minimum wage earners (P constituting % of the 69 total number of respondents).

Description of the Respondents The 69 respondents (4.55% of the total Brgy. Gulod population or 25.56%

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A Community Study of Barangay Gulod

(In a brief ethnographic sense)

A Community Study of Barangay Gulod ( In a brief ethnographic sense ) PART 1 Methodology:

PART 1

A Community Study of Barangay Gulod ( In a brief ethnographic sense ) PART 1 Methodology:

Methodology: Overt and Participatory Observations, Unstructured Interviews as recorded in diaries, and Local Document gathering

A Community Study of Barangay Gulod ( In a brief ethnographic sense ) PART 1 Methodology:

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I. Community Identification and Overview

A. Historical Background of the Place

Decades ago, Barangay Janosa (a neighboring barangay of the present day Brgy. Gulod) has a very spacious land area, thus, making it as the largest barangay in the island of Talim (Isla de Talim) at that time. On those beginning years, the large barangay has two sitios, Sitio Kaytome and Sitio Harimonas. Sitio Kaytome was abundant of plains majority of which served as rice paddies, while Sitio Harimonas have mountainous terrain. The flora of the place was mostly bamboo trees and fruit bearing trees. Houses were few, made of nipa (kubo), and had great distances apart from each other. Sitio Harimonas was truly rural at that time, with simple and quite life; people could enjoy its peaceful ambience. Because of its touristic scenes, rich natural resources, and natural beauty, some people immigrated to live there. Such immigration (increase in population) made Harimonas a fast growing sitio, making it to the point that the convention of teñente del barrios at that time had to agree to the declaration of its independence from Barrio Janosa, thus, making it as a separate barrio (Barrio Harimonas). The legality of such independence was stated in R.A. 3590 of _________. The youths, on the other hand, frequently conduct picnics on its hilly terrain, “Gulod” (meaning high place). Such naming became popular to the people as it adequately describes the place. Because of these youths, the name of the place was conventionally changed into Barrio

I. Community Identification and Overview A. Historical Background of the Place Decades ago, Barangay Janosa (a

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Gulod. Also, because of the name “Gulod”, the first basketball team of the barrio was named “D’ HILLTOPPERS.”

B. Geographical Features, Land Marks, and Land Area

Brgy. Gulod is a coastal barangay that is located at the center of Talim Island (Binangonan Side), Municipality of Binangonan, Province of Rizal, Region IV-A. It is ±12kms apart from Binangonan proper (mainland). The neighboring places which would help in the identification of Brgy. Gulod are the following:

North side – Brgy. Kaytome South side – Brgy. Sapang East side – Mt. Tagapo (Susong Dalaga) West side – Laguna de Bay.

Gulod. Also, because of the name “Gulod”, the first basketball team of the barrio was named

Brgy. Gulod has a total land area of 70, 853 hectares, of which 45% is residential, 20% is agricultural, 15% is commercial, and 20% is used for other purposes.

Gulod. Also, because of the name “Gulod”, the first basketball team of the barrio was named

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Brgy. Gulod

and Brgy. Kaytome

has

a

post land

mark near the

Kaytome-Gulod Elementary School which separates the two barangay.

Parang

Libis

Brgy. Gulod and Brgy. Kaytome has a post land mark near the Kaytome-Gulod Elementary School which
Brgy. Gulod and Brgy. Kaytome has a post land mark near the Kaytome-Gulod Elementary School which

Although Brgy. Gulod is mostly composed of hilly terrain; there is a long track of land which has the plain features (kapatagan), the parang and the libis. The Parang is a grassy land near the lake, while libis is a plain located on the boundary of Brgy. Gulod and Kaytome. Both of the two plains were former rice paddies that were converted, through time, into residential lands.

Land Marks (infrastructures and scenes within Brgy. Gulod)

A B E F K L M N Hilly part of Gulod Aerial view of Gulod
A
B
E
F
K
L
M
N
Hilly part of Gulod
Aerial view of Gulod shot from the peak of Mt. Tagapo
Old Barangay hall
Open court
GULOD WATERWORKS & SEWERAGE SYSTEM (GWSS)
SMART cell site
Q
(GWWSS)
Jehovah’s
Brgy. witnesses
Gulods new
kingdom
brgy. hall
hall
Ynares Multi-purpose
Brgy. Library
Covered
and daycare
Court
C
D
Old light
Municipality
house (Parola)
Annex
Pritil (port) of Gulod where fishes are
Kaytome-Gulod Elementary School
Pritil (port) of Gulod
G
H
Welcome to Gulod
brought down for selling and purchase
I
t
J
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Mt. Tagapo Gulod (Susong Dumpsite
D
l
P
)

The Parang shared by Gulod

&K

t

The Parang shared by Gulod &K t 18

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Map of Brgy. Gulod (with the land marks included) K N O Q P D F
Map of Brgy. Gulod (with the land marks included)
K
N
O
Q
P
D
F
G
H
E
A
B
C
I
J
L
M
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Because Brgy. Gulod is a coastal Barangay, it is only accessible through water transportation via passenger boats when coming from Binangonan mainland. When coming from nearby barangays, walking would be the most practical way of transportation but one could wish to ride a tricycle if he/she considers the distance as greater than what he/she could walk. The road system of Brgy. Gulod is poor. There are many road cracks and bumps along the way (on the national road). Transportation within Barangay Gulod is through walking, while there are tricycle services when going to nearby barangays. Most of the streets (on the inner part of the barangay) are well cemented however, are passable only by two to three persons side by side, and are poorly lighted at night. Brgy. Gulod has the service of MERALCO in its electric needs, however, when strong winds came (as it frequently visits the area at noon when rainy season comes, they call it “unos”) power disruption would be the most common scenario. Brgy. Gulod is the only barangay in Talim which has water lines. A water system operated by the barangay, GWSS (Gulod Waterworks and Sewerage System) is a deep-well water system that caters most of the water needs of the Gulod households, operated via electricity, this water service used water tanks for water storage and steel-water pipes for water delivery. This water service is necessary in a sense since installing a well or a “poso” in Gulod’s hilly terrain would be impractical and inconvenient to

Because Brgy. Gulod is a coastal Barangay, it is only accessible through water transportation via passenger

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use, however there are existing and functioning posos within Brgy. Gulod. These posos are convenient to use when one has no water line, or when power disruption happens. During the researchers’ stay in the place, there was a rumor that GWSS would be privatized, and that the management of it would be catered by a cooperative. The reason behind this was because the barangay found it difficult to collect water-service-fee from the households, hearing people saying “sa barangay naman ‘yan eh.” Brgy. Gulod has no land lines, however, people within it were accessible via personal cellular phones. There is a cell site of the SMART telecom. within the barangay. The other cell site is at Brgy. Kaytome (GLOBE telecom.) The barangay has a two way radio system for administrative and emergency purposes. During the researchers’ stay within the place, there was no internet shop within the area, the nearest internet shop is in Brgy. Janosa. Brgy. Gulod has no church on its own, neither a chapel. What the researchers found out was a track of land reserved for a chapel if it be constructed in the future. Financial constraint has been the primary reason as to why Gulod has no chapel on its own. The nearest parochial service and church is St. Dominic’s Parish, a Roman Catholic church in Brgy. Janosa. Also Brgy. Gulod has no Cemetery on its own, however, the largest cemetery in the Island is at Brgy. Kaytome, the nearest barangay to Gulod (in fact, as what Kapitan Florencio said [brgy captain of Kaytome], Gulod and Kaytome have been sister barangays since the

use, however there are existing and functioning posos within Brgy. Gulod. These posos are convenient to

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beginning). Brgy. Gulod also has no burial parlor/services on its own, the nearest would be that in Brgy. Buhangin. Brgy. Gulod has a multi-purpose covered court, just like the other barangays in the Island (Binangonan side) constructed under the administration of Gov. Casimiro Ynares. It also has a newly constructed Brgy Hall for administrative purposes and a Day care center/Library for children and students. Brgy. Gulod has three wharfs (ports), one was designed as “bagsakan” (market) for whole sale and retail fishes, another one was located near the Rehabilitation Center, and the last was designed for passengers and traders of bamboo crafts and other products. Although Brgy. Gulod has three wharfs on its own; many “Gulodians” go to Kaytome to have their boat trip to Binangonan mainland. Brgy. Gulod has an old light house (parola) near the Annex but it is nonoperational. It only serves as a land mark for Gulod and a watch tower when boat racing contests during fiestas are happening. Brgy. Gulod has the Municipal Annex of the Island. On its ideal state, it is aspired to be the extension of the Municipal Hall of Binangonan mainland; it should function parallel to the municipal hall of the mainland so that it could serve the people of Talim in the most convenient possible way (meaning, it would not be necessary for people to cross the lake just to work-out their papers and documents). However, in the present times, what it only cares are matters concerning land property and taxes.

beginning). Brgy. Gulod also has no burial parlor/services on its own, the nearest would be that

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Brgy. Gulod, just like other barangays in the Island of Talim, has no hospital on its own. There is, one structure however, which functions “rarely” as a health center, the Rehabilitation Center located near the Municipal Annex building. The original plan was to make it as a rehabilitation center for drug addicts coming from the mainland, however through collective action as initiated by the church people, the original plan was obstructed. Several reasons from the people made their view points stand against the will of the local government, in an unstructured interview with some of the residents of Gulod, they would say “pa’no pag makatakas yung mga ikukulong dyan, eh di kami rin ang kawawa”, and “pa’no yung security namin? Baka dumami pa yung mga addict dito.” As of now, the Rehabilitation center functions as a temporary health center venue for medical missions which “occasionally” visit the area. Such setting burdens the people since they have to cross the lake just to have better (professional) health-care services. Suggestions from the people would say that this idle rehabilitation center should be converted into a hospital with stay-in doctors and nurses, if that happens, such structure would be

the first and only hospital in the Island of Talim, unfortunately, the official “Hospital of Talim Island” is situated near the Pritil of Binangonan mainland.

Climate

The province of Rizal where Talim Island is situated has the Type III climate (Agote et. Al., 2007: pg.18) wherein the climate is not very

Brgy. Gulod, just like other barangays in the Island of Talim, has no hospital on its

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pronounced. It is dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year.

Hydrological Features

Brgy. Gulod has no rivers however; there are reported streams on the mountainous parts when rainy season comes. The only large body of water evidently near Brgy. Gulod is the Laguna de Bay. Parts of it near the shoreline are considered as shallow, as compared to the part that fishermen call as “laot.” During summer (one of which was the time when the researchers were in the place), the water level is low as it would subside to about 1-2 meters below (researchers’ approximation as evident on the rocks with different lining colors near the coasts). One indication that the water level is low is that the Pritil of Kaytome is long (most of its edges are untouched by water), and the “Parang” or field near the coast is visible (according to the people, the “parang” will be submerged beneath the lake waters when the water level is high, that is, during rainy season). The water of the Lake is color brown near the shore since it is basically a mixture of soil particles and fresh water. However, the water in the lake is somewhat brackish (has salt content) because Laguna de Bay is connected to Manila Bay via the Pasig River. Based on its color, especially on the region outward the shore, the lake is eutrophic (eutrophic lakes are characterized by high levels of nutrients, algae, planktons and high rates of photosynthesis (Agote et. Al., 2007: 57) which makes it ideal for aqua culture. However, due to human waste contamination and

pronounced. It is dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year.

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constant water pollution, the water in the lake is not advisable for human

consumption (not-potable).

C. Local Government, Administration, and Politics

Major Island location: Luzon Island

Region: Region IV-A (Tagalog Region) CALABARZON

Place

Administrator (as of yr. 2008)

Province:

Province of Rizal

Gov. Casimiro Ynares

District:

Provincial District 1

Municipality:

Municipality of Binangonan

Mayor Cecilio M. Ynares

Barangay:

Talim Island Brgy. Gulod

Brgy. Captain Jesus M. Añis

Kagawads:

Romulado A. Olorvida Guilbert P. Panguito Pepito R. Gondraneos Aldrin A. Añain Prudencio A.

SK Chairman

Gondraneos Romeo A. Domingues Eduardo C. Arambulo Karl Reinier V. Era

Secretary

Pablito B. Villaflores

Treasurer

Melody D. Añain

Type of Barangay: Rural Coastal Barangay No. of registered voters: 713 No. of precincts: 5 IRA (Internal Revenue Allotment) – Php. 518, 598.00 Internal income (RPT, businesses, etc.) Php. 45, 700.00

Annual brgy. earnings (as of 2006) – Php. 564, 298.00 (For complete Gulod’s Brgy report of 2006 viewing, see appendix) Barangay election in Gulod is generally peaceful, as what most of the

Source: Brgy. Report of 2006 pg. 6

people there would say (no gun shots, no salvages, no murderous crime

etc.) however, what has been noticeable during election is the presence of

constant water pollution, the water in the lake is not advisable for human consumption (not-potable). C.

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familial rivalry. “Kampi-kampi”, “kamag-anakan” and the “kumpadre”

system plays a major role in the election. A day before the election,

reported scenario would be “gapangan” and “bayaran.” Familial rivalry

lasts for years after the election, noticeable pattern would be “walang

pansinan” and the “live and the let live policy” (toleration).

D. Demographic Profile

Population- 1, 515

No. of Males (m) – 731

No. of Females (f) – 784

Age-sex ratio – 1m: 1.07f (731/784)

No. of Families – 284

No. of Household – 270

No. of minors – statistics not available

Age-sex pyramid – statistics not available

Fertility rate – statistics not available

Mortality rate – statistics not available

Source: Brgy. Report of 2006 pg. 6

familial rivalry. “Kampi-kampi”, “kamag-anakan” and the “kumpadre” system plays a major role in the election. A

18

E. Religions, Fiestas and Celebrations

Distribution of people based on religion

Religion

Percentage

Roman Catholic

80%

 

5%

Iglesia ni Cristo Protestant

10%

Jehovah’s Witnesses

5%

Islam

0%

Others

0%

Source: Brgy. Report of 2006 pg. 6

Majority of the people in Gulod are Roman Catholics, however,

Gulod has no Catholic Church on its own, neither a chapel, so people

there have to walk to Brgy. Janosa just to attend their Sunday masses.

Same is the faith of the 5% Iglesia ni Cristo members, the nearest

“sambahan” of Iglesia ni Cristo is at

Brgy.

________

,

Binangonan

mainland. Protestant members (10%), on the other hand, just go to Door

of Faith at Brgy. Kaytome near the GLOBE cell site. The only religious

structure at Brgy. Gulod is the Jehovah’s Witnesses (5%) kingdom hall

located beside the old open court of the said barangay.

Aside from the traditional Catholic celebrations held every year

(Christmas, New Year, Flores de Mayo and Sta. Cruzan, Lenten Season,

and All Saints Day), the local fiesta in honor of Sto. Domingo (St. Dominic)

is yearly celebrated on August 4. This fiesta is celebrated by four

barangays, namely Brgy.s Buhangin, Janosa, Kaytome, and Gulod. It is a

fiesta known to all the barrios (barangays) of the Island. Known for its

splendid celebration, people from neighboring barangays and local tourists

from the mainland visit the place, the act is known as “nakikifiesta.”

E. Religions, Fiestas and Celebrations Distribution of people based on religion Religion Percentage Roman Catholic 80%

18

Months before August, people usually raise flocks of chicken and piglets in

preparation for the fiesta, these animals would be their main ingredients in

their dishes on August 4. They usually provide a “kurral” and “hawla” for

these animals in their backyards. A day before the fiesta (August 3), there

would be a parade of the saint in the lake, locally known as the “Pagoda”,

were many boats both passenger boats and fishermen’s boats follow the

trail, this happens early in the morning followed by a series of communal

games and dance parties. The actual fiesta is characterized by fabulous

volume of delicious food prepared for visitors known, or unknown, to the

Months before August, people usually raise flocks of chicken and piglets in preparation for the fiesta,

owner of the houses. Dishes served are of different

kinds, fishes, pork, salads etc. When a researcher

asked what a housewife would do to the many left

over, if any (the researcher was worried about the

foods that would be spoiled), she said “walang

natitira dito kasi uso ang pabalot ng ulam,” a cultural

Months before August, people usually raise flocks of chicken and piglets in preparation for the fiesta,

trait when fiesta only in Talim. On the streets are

parading brass bands playing lively music, and the

many “tyangge” stalls selling different array of items.

Usually a mass would be conducted in the morning,

or at night, or both, as a sign of their thanks giving to

St. Dominic. Loud and playful music dominates the

air, and the streets are full of people visiting house to

house, are watching the parade of musicians, or are playing carnival

Months before August, people usually raise flocks of chicken and piglets in preparation for the fiesta,

18

games along the way. At night a noticeable scenario would be drinking

men. This is the time when the fiesta here would be slightly dangerous as

there are many drunken men loitering around, however, the Barangay

tanods are always alert and are ready to handle situations that would

threaten the peaceful festive celebration.

E. Economic Profile

Labor force – statistics not available

Distribution of people based on their economic activity

Agriculture

5%

Fishing

60%

Business

10%

 

20%

Being employed Others

5%

Source: Brgy. Report of 2006 pg. 6

Brgy. Gulod is a fishermen’s community since 60% of its working

class are dependent on fishing. This fishing activity includes people who

have fish pens, people who are hired to cater fishes in a fish pen, and

people who freely fish on the open-waters of the lake. Fishes include the

most common Big head (Taiwan fish), Bangus, Dalag, Kanduli, Hito

(catfish), Tilapia, and Ayungin, and there are also the presence of fresh-

water shrimps and snails. According to the people, the legal size of a fish

pen should not exceed 1 hectare per owner, such policy has been

mandated by the LLDA as their method of regulating the number of fish

pens in the lake (since too much fish pens could aggravate water

pollution); that would be the case for small time fishermen whose fish pens

games along the way. At night a noticeable scenario would be drinking men. This is the

18

are meters away from the coasts. The scenario would be different to multi-

millionaires who have fish pens as large as 50 hectares or more, these

fish

pens are

commonly found

in

the

“laot”

or

deep

waters (such

statement about these huge sizes of fish pens could be viewed when you

are at the summit of Mt. Tagapo. While viewing the entirety of the island,

one could notice the huge sizes of fish pens near Talim’s Cardona side).

Aside from the size of the fish pens being regulated, fish pens have their

own registration process from the LLDA (Laguna Lake Development

Authority) whose agents visit the area

regularly for inspection of

documents, those who are not registered suffered from the demolition of

their fish pens. Fish pens have their own “guards” which usually visits the

area every day. These guards (hired, or the owner of the fish pen himself)

stay in a “kubo”, uplifted

from the lake waters,

its walls and

floors are

made up of bamboo, with a roof made up of nipa. The primary task of a

are meters away from the coasts. The scenario would be different to multi- millionaires who have

guard is to protect the fish pen from robbers who

would

try

to

destroy the nets and

rob the fishes

coming

out from

the

hole, other tasks would

be

securing

the

net

and

the “baklads” from being

damage

due

to

strong

winds

as

well

as the

maintenance of the fish pen

as a whole.

Fishermen use the

customary

fish nets to catch fishes,

Bubo

are meters away from the coasts. The scenario would be different to multi- millionaires who have

18

which comes in different sizes (its holes) depending on the type of fish to

be catched, thus, average holes for big heads as compared to the small

holes of nets for Ayungin. For fresh water shrimps, bubo would be the best

catcher. It is a hard net in cylindrical shape wherein a bait (“pa-in”) is

placed inside. The bubo would be submerged into the basin, then after

some period of time (a day), the fishermen would get the bubo and collect

the shrimps trapped inside. The boats of the fishermen are no longer

made up of wooden materials, but rather of fiber glass. This material,

available in Binangonan mainland, is lighter in weight than the traditional

wooden boats, hence, made the travelling faster than the usual. Fishing

boats and passenger boats are usually motor boats but there are still

fisher folks who use the traditional paddle system (de sagwan).

which comes in different sizes (its holes) depending on the type of fish to be catched,

Fishes and other aqua products are brought

down to a barangay wharf near the Municipal

Annex. Here, small-time fish traders and fish

vendors (naglalako ng isda) wait for the

fishermen’s catch. The usual fish transaction

happens early morning, around six am. Fishes are

fresh, often alive and are still moving. The prices of the fishes are about

60% or more less than the usual prices of markets in Manila. Big head, a

variety of fish, sells P 70.00 per kilo in Manila, but there, about P 12-15.00

(whole fish) per kilo.

which comes in different sizes (its holes) depending on the type of fish to be catched,

18

Another economic activity in Gulod is the “ pag-aayungin ” or the air-drying of Ayungin. The

Another economic activity in Gulod is the

pag-aayungin” or the air-drying of Ayungin. The

products most likely resemble the “daing” of the

Visayas. The Ayungins, after washing, are made

into partial half by slicing their backs, then

removing their intestines. A tray of “metal screen” is being prepared in the

process. After the cleaning process, the Ayungins are put into the metal

screens side by side, forming rows and columns of Ayungins. They will be

“cooked” under the sun (binibilad sa araw), letting it to be air-dried until it

turns golden brown (as shown in the picture above). Air drying consumes

about a day or two depending on the weather. After the drying process, it

will be collected by the “mag-aayungin”, putting it into a storage container

(a drum etc.) which is now ready for consumption or for selling. A kilo of

dried Ayungins here will cost you P 100.00 as compared to the P 10.00

per pack (50 grams) of Ayungins in Manila.

Another economic activity in Gulod is the “ pag-aayungin ” or the air-drying of Ayungin. The

There are no big business ventures at Gulod,

what is common is the presence of Sari-sari stores

at different location. Common to many sari-sari

stores at Brgy. Gulod and nearby barangays is the

presence of video-okes or sing-along booths. Sing

along booths have TV screen, a “kubo”, and a coin-

operated-video-oke machine (with microphones provided). One song

would costs you P 1.00 as compared to the P 5.00 value in Manila. Hence,

Another economic activity in Gulod is the “ pag-aayungin ” or the air-drying of Ayungin. The

18

singing within a “video-okehan” is a common past time for people all day

long.

singing within a “video-okehan” is a common past time for people all day long. 18

18

Other businesses include charcoal-making ( pag-uuling ) and bamboo craft making ( paggawa ng hawla, barbeque

Other businesses include charcoal-making

(pag-uuling) and bamboo craft making (paggawa ng

hawla, barbeque sticks, sala sets, at hawla).

Charcoal-making is a business that has the least

capital of all (a money for a bottle of kerosene to be

used in the process), what a person has to do is to

collect woods from the hilly and mountainous regions

(pangangahoy), rocks and soil to be formed as a

pugon, and “pampaningas” which is usually

composed of dried (bamboo) leaves. All types of woods could be use in

the process; however, the customary procedure would use Kakawati and

Sampaloc. In the process of pangangahoy, or collecting woods, people

use dead branches of large trees (they cut it into small pieces), “tuod” or

died trees, fresh young kakawati trunks, or any available hard woods in

the mountain except bamboos. Pangangahoy would spend from a day to

about a week depending on how large the volume of charcoal a “mag-

uuling” would want to produce. After the collection process, the mag-

uuling will arrange the woods in a circular manner up to the desired height.

He will fence the woods by using galvanized iron sheets (yero), or by

using large rocks abundant in the mountain. He will first put raw grasses

and shrubs near the base of the mound of woods then will start to fill the

spaces with soil and dried bamboo leaves alternately until it reaches the

top. The top will be filled with soil. A ball of cloth soaked into the kerosene

Other businesses include charcoal-making ( pag-uuling ) and bamboo craft making ( paggawa ng hawla, barbeque

18

which would be inserted at the basin of the mound will later be lighted up

by a fire. The soil, rocks, and the galvanized iron sheets complement each

other in trapping the heat inside the “pugon.” Such heat will be the one

who will “cook” the woods inside the pugon. The pugon will be guarded

against heavy rains, or when the soil above the mound sinks

unexpectedly, by the mag-uuling for about three days, with a “tolda” or

“lona” above it, the charcoals forming inside the pugon will be safe from

heavy rainfalls during rainy season. The ember (baga) will continue to Using yero glow for about
heavy rainfalls during rainy season. The ember (baga) will continue to
Using yero
glow for about three days until the soil totally collapse and the height of
the mound becomes half (from its original height) on
its own. The mag-uuling will pack the charcoals
created and will sell it with a price of P 100.00 per
sack as compared to P 400.00 in Manila.
Another livelihood activity in Gulod is the
Using stones
making of Bamboo crafts. Bamboo crafts include

barbeque sticks which comes in large, medium, and small sizes, often

baked under the sun (on the side walks) so that it will be dried, thus

making it strong and suitable for usage. Bundles of it would cost you P

5.00 here as compared to P 10.00 in Manila.

Another major bamboo craft popular to Talim is its craftsmanship

on making hawla (chicken’s cage), sala sets, and papag (beds). People

with this type of job usually canvass on the different barangays nearby to

get the cheapest price of bamboo that they could afford, or they climb the

which would be inserted at the basin of the mound will later be lighted up by

18

mountain just to look for possible bamboo traders (remember that most of

the flora in the mountain are composed of bamboo trees). Common

carpentry tools are used in making the three crafts, usually composed of

hammer, saw, nails, bolo (itak or gulok), chisel (pait), and lukob (a chisel

with a rounded end used for making holes). First, the bamboo trunks are

cut into the desired lengths (depending on the type of craft to be done),

then the green part (bark) will be removed using the bolo – the process is

known to be “nagkakayas.” Then these cleansed bamboo parts will be

used for the different parts of the craft. There are two varieties of bamboo

grasses planted in Talim, the Kawayang Tinik and the Bokayon. The

Kawayang tinik has trunks that has large circumference as compared to

the Bokayon. The kawayang tinik is used for the craft’s large parts while

the bokayon for small and thin parts (usually for decorative elements only).

Depending on the nature of the product, a craftsman would seek the help

of another craftsman. The “Sala” set, a more elaborate type of product,

usually consumes a week before it’s done. As obvious on the prices here,

the bamboo products are cheaper as compared to the prices in Manila,

such as the Sala set which would cost you P 700.00 as compared to the

±P 1,000.00 in Manila.

The charcoal making, dried Ayungin and the bamboo products are

usually done when there are customer orders for them. Buyers usually

give advance payment to the workers. The workers will then use the

money for familial needs and production costs. Usually the money will be

mountain just to look for possible bamboo traders ( remember that most of the flora in

18

used up after the products are finished, leaving the workers penniless.

Contracts between two parties (that is, the between the buyer and the

producer) are through words of mouth and not the usual papers in the

corporate world.

In Gulod, as well as in Kaytome, there are several tailor shops with

workers inside using electronic or manual tailoring machines, there are

tailor shops, however, in some individual houses. What they are producing

are of different stuffs, such as uniforms and curtains. The volume of the

product is usually in bulk (maramihan) but there are special cases for

individual customers (pasadya).

used up after the products are finished, leaving the workers penniless. Contracts between two parties (that

Piggery in Gulod is not common, as there are

only few “magbababoy” in the area. The pig pens

are usually near their houses, (commonly within

their backyards). Commercial feeds, vitamins, and

supplements are used in growing pigs, however, are

not limited to such since some pig owners use the traditional “kaning

baboy.” Such feeds and vitamins are available in some local stores in

nearby barangays. When slaughtered, its meat mostly goes to the market

near the pritil of Binangonan (but may be sold to anyone interested within

the, or in other, barangay).

used up after the products are finished, leaving the workers penniless. Contracts between two parties (that

18

Agriculture in Gulod is not extensive as in other rural areas in Rizal.

Rice farming in Gulod has been lost decades ago. On a series of

unstructured interviews with some of the old people in Gulod, they were

Part of the Libis with a former rice field
Part of the Libis with a former rice field

saying that the Libis and the Parang were once rice

paddies that were now transformed into residential

lands and agricultural waste lands (lupang

nakatiwang-wang). One reason they saw was the

generation gap between the old and the young

generations in their time. An old woman said “simula ng makapag-aral

ang mga kabataan, wala nang sumunod sa mga matatanda”, another one

said “nangandamatay na kasi ang mga matatanda tapos hindi interesado

sa pagsasaka yung mga kabataan, hindi na tuloy naisalin yung kaalaman

sa pagsasaka”, Mang Philemon, an old resident of the place, could still

reminisce his experiences in planting rice and in farming, saying “noong

mga bata pa kami, nagsasaka kami sa may bundok tapos may ginagamit

kaming kawayang pambutas ng lupa (sa mga butas pinupunla yung

palay) na kung tumunog ay parang palakpak habang nagbabakal…” The

remains of the old farming technique in the mountains are still evident

Notice the terraces in the picture as shot from Mt. Tagapo

Agriculture in Gulod is not extensive as in other rural areas in Rizal. Rice farming in

when someone would

reach the peak of Mt.

Tagapo (it is somewhat like

the rice terraces of the

Ifugaos in Nothern Luzon).

Agriculture in Gulod is not extensive as in other rural areas in Rizal. Rice farming in

18

Assessing these stories would generate topics for possible researches,

such as 1. The contribution of education in the disappearance of rice

farming, and 2. The contribution of the differences between the young and

the old subcultures (attitudes and practices) in the disappearance of rice

farming in Brgy.s Kaytome and Gulod.

During the researchers’ stay in Brgy. Gulod, only small-scale non-

rice farming activities survived the modern times, as observed by the

researchers through farms of sitaw, kamote tops, and peanuts near

Harimonas, banana trees in the mountain side, some trees of Kamoteng

Kahoy (Balinghoy) near their house, and the planting of Corn when May

comes (start of the rainy season). People at Gulod plant vegetables for

personal (or sometimes, for communal- [the pahingi-hingi system])

consumption, meaning they just plant within their backyards. The only

considerable farming activity in Gulod is the planting of corns in the

kaingin” or places in the mountain side wherein grasses are cleared by

burning, followed by the removing/or arranging of rocks into dividers of

each “plant box”. The corn seedlings will be soaked into a pail of water

mixed with “urea” (a nitrogen rich fertilizer in small white balls) overnight,

starting the day before the actual planting. These corn seedlings are

prepared and produced by the farmers. Those are corn kernels that were

the left over of the previous harvest. In the preparation of corn seedlings,

the farmer will, during harvest, set aside the corn plants that will be left to

grow old, when matured already, the seeds will be air dried, then be

Assessing these stories would generate topics for possible researches, such as 1. The contribution of education

18

collected and stored into a container. During the planting activity, the

custom of the people in Gulod is to prepare a cross that would serve as a

The cross as a scarecrow

collected and stored into a container. During the planting activity, the custom of the people in

“scare crow” against the mountain birds watching for

corn seeds. In the process of planting, two persons

will be working side by side. The first is the

magbabakal” which will be creating holes (bakal) on

the ground by pounding a piece of hard wood

sharpened at its end (the one which will be hitting

the ground). The distance of every hole should be

about a meter apart from each other. The

pagbabakal

nagbibinhi

pagbabakod

collected and stored into a container. During the planting activity, the custom of the people in

magbabakal will be followed by the “nagbibinhi” with

the primary task of dropping three pieces of corn

kernels into each hole, then covering it with soil

using his/her foot. The process will be repeated until

the whole land is planted with the seedlings. When

collected and stored into a container. During the planting activity, the custom of the people in

planting, the farmers try to avoid two holes that are

very near from each other, as it would cause

premature growths among corns, as what an elder

said when the three researchers helped in planting

collected and stored into a container. During the planting activity, the custom of the people in

corns “baka maging palay ‘yan.” After the planting,

the land will be fenced with bamboos found

abundant in the place. The farmer will wait for about

three months before he could harvest the corn. The

collected and stored into a container. During the planting activity, the custom of the people in

18

variety of corn used in planting in Gulod is the “lagkitan” type. After the

planting process and the fencing, the farmer will regularly visit the place

for maintenance purposes. The planting of corn happens annually in May

when rainy season seems to be approaching.

As said earlier, kubos (nipa huts) in the mountain serves as a

house for farmers guarding their crops, mag-uulings as they watch their

pugons (ovens), magkakambings (shepherds of goats) watching for their

goats, and the land owners who are guarding their bamboo trees. The

Notice the bamboo huts surrounded by cleared lands for

farming, and the land owners’ bamboo trees.
farming, and the land owners’ bamboo trees.

latter seems to be the primary function of

a kubo in the mountain. Note that most

of the mountain’s flora is bamboos of two

kinds, kawayang tinik and bokayon,

these bamboos are used for bamboo

crafts which are basically processed in

the low lands (the brgy proper). Land

owners that were left after the land buying of Lucio Tan, guard their

bamboo trees from thieves of bamboos. These land owners, visit their

lands everyday, inspecting every bamboos in their jurisdiction. Caught

thieves are given penalties and are reported to the barangay for

punishment (pinapabarangay).

variety of corn used in planting in Gulod is the “lagkitan” type. After the planting process

18

A Community Study Of Barangay Gulod

(A descriptive research)

A Community Study Of Barangay Gulod ( A descriptive research ) PART 2 Methodology: Structured Interviews

PART 2

A Community Study Of Barangay Gulod ( A descriptive research ) PART 2 Methodology: Structured Interviews

Methodology: Structured Interviews Date of the conduct of survey: May 14-16, 2008 Venue: different places in Gulod, mostly in the respondents’ houses and tambayans.

A Community Study Of Barangay Gulod ( A descriptive research ) PART 2 Methodology: Structured Interviews

18

Statistical treatment of data on page 11

Description of the respondents on page 12

Total number of respondents: 69 respondents (4.55% of the total

Brgy. Gulod population or 25.56% out of the 270 number of households as of 2006 since the researchers adapt the policy of 1 respondent as representative of one household). These 69 respondents will be the entire population’s representative for the study.

Operating conditions: the word respondent refers to a representation of a family that has been interviewed. On the following statements, the words respondent, family, and household have been used alternately.

II. Presentation and Analysis of Quantitative Data

One

of

the main

tasks of sociologists

is

to

find

patterns of

relationships and its characteristics within a collectivity. Individual cases

would be subjected to individualism, however, when such “individual

cases” become repetitive and similar to a large number of people, it tells

us something, and real sociologists commit the tasks of finding the

meaning and the cause of that “something.” The following data presented

through numbers (quantitative) are indications of some perpetuated

characteristics of the people which, as a result, will be the description of

an aspect, based on a certain inquiry, of Brgy. Gulod.

Table 1. An inquiry if the families in Brgy. Gulod were nuclear or extended families.

A nuclear type of family is composed of the couple and their

siblings living in their house. Extended families are those composed of

two or more nuclear families, or nuclear families with their relatives living

with them. There is a usual conception that in rural areas, extended

families are more common than the nuclear ones since Filipinos have

 Statistical treatment of data on page 11  Description of the respondents on page 12

18

strong family ties. Such strong social cohesion (provided that the

community is not anomic—disintegrated) has been carried out even

though the siblings of the Family of Orientation (original family where the

siblings came from) becomes married and have created their own Family

of Procreation. Brgy. Gulod has been situated in a rural setting so the

researchers hypothesized that extended families would be the most

common type of family in the area.

Type

f

%

Extended

21

30.43

Nuclear

48

69.57

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 1 shows the percentage of respondents with extended and

nuclear types of families. As shown in the table, 21 respondents (30.43%)

have the extended type of families, while 48 respondents (69.57%) have

the nuclear type of families. Reflecting on the scales has debunked the

hypothesis stated earlier. Taking the rule stated earlier that these 69

respondents would be the representative of the barangay in describing its

way of life and features, collective answers as generated through

tabulation of data would yield to the following format of generalization,

that--

Table 1 only shows that majority of the families in Gulod (69.57%)

were families of nuclear type.

strong family ties. Such strong social cohesion ( provided that the community is not anomic—disintegrated )

18

Table 2. An inquiry about the type of family Brgy. Gulod has when it comes to the holder of the authority within the house.

A patriarchal type means that the father is the sole holder of the

authority within the house, thus all familial decisions come solely on him. A

matriarchal type refers to families whose head of the family (decision-

maker) is the mother. Egalitarian families are those types whose decision

making is being shared by the couple, in some cases, the sides of their

siblings are being consulted before a final decision is made. Matricentric

types, on the other hand, are those families whose fathers are far away

and the mothers are left alone to cater their siblings. Since the mother is

left alone, she acts as the father and the mother simultaneously and her

decisions are as heavy as that of her husband. The researchers

hypothesized that, since Filipino culture has been patriarchal (prioritizing

the male side) and that many Filipinos adhere to the concept of

machoismo” since many “Mr” doesn’t want to be called “under the saya”,

Brgy. Gulod has patriarchal type of families.

Type

f

%

Patriarchal

20

28.99

Matriarchal

5

7.25

Egalitarian

40

57.97

Matricentric

4

5.80

 

Total (n)

69

100.01

Table 2. An inquiry about the type of family Brgy. Gulod has when it comes to

18

Table 2 shows that 20 respondents (28.99%) answered that their

families fall in the patriarchal type, 5 respondents (7.25%) replied for the

matriarchal type, and 4 respondents (5.80%) answered for the matricentric

type. The majority of the respondents (40 respondents or 57.97%)

however, answered the Egalitarian type, a type of arrangement wherein

power and authority over family matters are being shared by the couple.

The results have debunked the earlier hypothesis that Gulod has

patriarchal type of families.

Table 2 only shows that majority of the families in Gulod (57.97%)

have the egalitarian type of family.

Table 3. An inquiry if the families in Brgy. Gulod were conjugal or consanguineal types.

Conjugal type of family refers to an arrangement wherein the

spouse and their children are being prioritized in decision making,

according to Panopio (2004; 241) “the marriage bond is emphasized.” On

the contrary, consanguineal family (sanguine meaning “blood”) refers to

an arrangement wherein the blood relations (relatives) are given more

emphasis in decision making and familial activities than the spouses and

their children. As stated earlier, the researchers assumed that rural people

give more emphasis on the relatives since Filipinos have strong family

bonds. On the researchers observation in the place the “kamag-anakan

system still operates in Brgy. Gulod, thus, the researchers hypothesized

Table 2 shows that 20 respondents (28.99%) answered that their families fall in the patriarchal type,

18

those families in Brgy. Gulod as falling into the consanguineal type.

However, based on the interviews conducted by the researchers’ team,

such hypothesis has been debunked by the majority of answers coming

from the people.

Type

f

%

Conjugal

57

82.61

Consanguineal

12

17.39

 

Total (n)

69

100

As shown in the table, consanguineal families were only 17.39 %

(12 respondents) as compared to the 82.61% (57 respondents) of

respondents who answered the conjugal type.

Table 3 only shows that majority of the families in Gulod (82.61%)

belong to the conjugal type.

Table 4. An inquiry about the families in Brgy. Gulod regarding as to which sides the family members were more affiliated.

Families with matrilineal kind of relationship with their relatives are

composed of members who are most affiliated (mas makiling, mas

malapit) to the side of the mother, while patrilineal families posses a

special affiliation to the side of the father. There is, however, a third type,

the bilateral, which makes into account the affiliation of the family in both

sides of the father and the mother. Since the researchers first assumed

that Brgy Gulod was patriarchal, they also hypothesized that the family

members were more affiliated to the side of the father, thus, patrilineal.

those families in Brgy. Gulod as falling into the consanguineal type. However, based on the interviews

18

Type

f

%

Matrilineal

15

21.74

Patrilineal

16

23.19

Bilateral

38

55.07

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 4 shows that 15 of the respondents (21.74%) have the

matrilineal type of family, 16 respondents (23.19%) have patrilineal types,

and 38 respondents (55.07%) have the bilateral type. The data above

caused in the rejection of the earlier hypothesis.

Table 4 only shows that majority of the families in Brgy. Gulod

(55.07%) have the bilateral type of family.

Table 5. An inquiry about the families’ residences in Brgy. Gulod.

Families with patrilocal type of residence reside in, or near, the

residence of the parents of the groom (compound type). Those with the

matrilocal type of residence live in, or near the residence of the parents of

the bride (compound type). The neolocal type of family however

establishes their own residence independently of the parents of either the

groom or bride, in this research, the researchers have also considered a

couple as neolocal if they were the ones who have primarily planned,

funded, helped, and supervised in the construction of their new house

near, or afar, from the residence of the

parents of either side (not

Type f % Matrilineal 15 21.74 Patrilineal 16 23.19 Bilateral 38 55.07 Total (n) 69 100

18

compound). There are cases of avuncolocal residences wherein the

(newly wedded) couple resides within, or near the maternal uncle of the

groom, however, in this study, avuncolocal would mean the residence of

the couple in, or near, the uncle or auntie of either side. Again, operating

on a very paternalistic manner, the researchers have hypothesized that

families in Brgy. Gulod would fall into the patrilocal type.

Type

f

%

Patrilocal

20

28.99

Matrilocal

6

8.70

Neolocal

40

57.77

Avuncolocal

3

4.35

 

Total (n)

69

100.01

Table 5 has shown the different distributions of the respondents

when it comes to the type of residence their families have. On the table

above, 28.99% or 20 of the respondents fall into the patrilocal type of

family while only 8.7% or 6 of the respondents replied for the matrilocal

type. There are 4.35% or 3 cases of avuncolocal residences while majority

of the respondents (57.77%) have the neolocal type of residences. The

earlier hypothesis that families at Brgy. Gulod were patrilocal has been

debunked by the data above.

Tale 5 only shows that majority of the families in Brgy. Gulod

(57.77%) have the neolocal type of residence.

Table 6 (Q1) An inquiry as to what construction materials the houses in Brgy. Gulod were composed of.

compound). There are cases of avuncolocal residences wherein the (newly wedded) couple resides within, or near

18

Brgy. Gulod is situated in a province, specifically in an island. There

is a common misconception that people in the province have houses that

are mostly made up of nipa huts, woods and bamboos. This

misconception has been carried into the minds of the researchers while

hypothesizing (such hypothesizing was done before they were able to set

their feet off the pritil of Kaytome from the bangka), thus, resulting into the

hypothesis that houses at Gulod were made up of nipa, bamboos, and

woods. Such misconception has been corrected by the data below.

Type

f

%

Wood and bamboo

7

10.14

Wood only

2

2.90

Nipa and bamboo

1

1.45

 

0

0

Barong-barong Semi-concrete

36

52.17

Concrete

23

33.33

 

Total (n)

69

100.01

As shown in Table 6, there is only one respondent who answered

the “nipa and bamboo” category, 2 respondents (2.90%) replied for the

“wood only” category, while 7 respondents (10.14%) have houses that

were made up of woods and bamboos. A significant minority, 23

respondents (33.33%) answered that their houses were wholly made of

Brgy. Gulod is situated in a province, specifically in an island. There is a common misconception

18

concrete, while the majority (36 respondents or 52.17%) of the

respondents have the semi-concrete type of houses (that is, made up of

concrete, plus bamboo or wood or nipa etc.). The data above caused into

the rejection of the previous hypothesis and misconception.

Table 6 only shows that majority

of the

houses at Brgy. Gulod

(52.17%) were made up of semi-concrete construction materials.

Table 7 (Q2.1) An inquiry about the respondents’ ownership of their houses.

Options

f

%

Yes

61

88.41

No

8

11.59

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 7 shows that 61 of the respondents (88.41%) owned their

houses compared to the 8 respondents (11.59%) who don’t own their

houses. These non-owners were usually the “nakikitira”, “care takers”, and

“nangungupahan” from the owners of their houses.

Table 7 only shows that majority of the families in Gulod (88.41%)

were the owners of their houses.

concrete, while the majority (36 respondents or 52.17%) of the respondents have the semi-concrete type of

18

Table 8 (Q2.2) An inquiry if the respondents own their residential lots.

Options

f

%

Yes

59

85.51

No

10

14.49

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 8 shows if the respondents own the lot on which they have

constructed their houses. This question has been included to know if there

were major housing and slum problems within the area. As shown in the

table above, majority of the respondents (59 respondents or 85.51%)

owned their residential lots, while a percentage of 14.49% or 10

respondents reported that they don’t own their residential lots. A small

percentage of non-owners would suggests that Brgy. Gulod has no major

problem when it comes to housing and residential land ownership.

Table 8 only shows that majority of the families in Brgy. Gulod

(85.51%) were the owners of their residential lots.

Table 9 (Q3) Type of toilet facility used by the households.

Table 8 (Q2.2) An inquiry if the respondents own their residential lots. Options f % Yes

18

Type

f

%

Water-sealed exclusively

54

78.26

used by one household

Water-sealed shared with

13

18.84

other households

Closed pit

0

0

Open pit

2

2.9

Others

0

0

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 9 shows an inquiry of the researchers regarding the type of

toilet facilities the residents of Brgy. Gulod were using. As shown in the

table, majority of the households interviewed (78.26%) have the “water-

sealed used exclusively by one household” type of toilet facility. Such

practice would be more sanitary, healthy and securing from infectious

diseases unlike the “water-sealed shared by other households” type

(18.84%), and the open pit (2.9%) type of toilet facilities.

Table 9 only shows that majority of the households in Brgy. Gulod

(78.26%) have the “water-sealed, used exclusively by one household”

type of toilet facilities.

Type f % Water-sealed exclusively 54 78.26 used by one household Water-sealed shared with 13 18.84

18

Table 10 (Q4.1) An inquiry if the respondents at Brgy. Gulod have water lines (GWSS).

 

Options

f

%

 

Yes

55

79.71

No

14

20.28

 

Total (n)

69

99.99

As shown in Table 10, majority of the respondents (55 respondents

out of 69) at Brgy. Gulod have water line connections. The water line

service has been provided for years by the GWSS (Gulod Waterworks and

Sewerage System), the only water system in Talim which Gulod, luckily,

has. Fourteen respondents (20.28%) in contrast, do not have water

connection services from GWSS, however; there were available public

artesian wells (poso) which could provide their needs for water.

 

Table 10 only shows that majority of the respondents in Gulod

(79.71%) have water line connection services.

 

Table 11 (Q4.2) An inquiry if the respondents at Brgy. Gulod have electricity lines.

 

Options

f

%

 

Yes

62

89.86

No

7

10.14

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 10 (Q4.1) An inquiry if the respondents at Brgy. Gulod have water lines (GWSS). Options

18

The table above shows the results of an inquiry conducted by the

researchers about the percentage of the acquisition of electricity lines in

Brgy. Gulod. As shown in table 11, majority of the respondents (89.86%)

have electricity lines as compared to the seven respondents (10.14%) who

don’t have.

Table 11 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (89.86%) have electric connections.

Table 12 (Q5) An inquiry if the respondents were native to Bgry. Gulod

Options

f

%

Yes

50

72.46

No

19

27.54

 

Total (n)

69

100

As shown in table 12, majority of the respondents were native to

Gulod (72.46%). Such percentage is high, which would give us a

conception that since the majority of the respondents was native to

Gulod, the data generated about its way of life and its characteristics

were reliable. There were only 19 respondents who were not native to

Gulod and have just immigrated to the place because their spouses were

natives of Gulod and have lands there. These nineteen respondents came

The table above shows the results of an inquiry conducted by the researchers about the percentage

18

from the different (commonly nearby) provinces in the Philippines, such as

Laguna, Masbate, Taytay, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Negros, Ilo-ilo, and

Binangonan mainland, others were natives of Brgy.s Buhangin, Janosa,

and Kaytome.

Table 12 only shows that majority of the respondents (72.46%)

were natives of Gulod.

Table 13 (Q6) An inquiry as to what were the respondents’ main plan for their children.

Responses

f

%

To have a good education

45

65.22

and to finish their studies

Comfortable lives

2

2.90

To be married

1

1.45

To have work

1

1.45

No answer

20

28.99

 

Total (n)

69

100.01

Table 13 shows the responses the respondents gave when they

were asked about their plans for their children. Majority of the

respondents’ (65.22%) answers were connected to education such as

“makapag-aral” and “makapag-tapos lahat sa pag-aaral” such answers

from the different (commonly nearby) provinces in the Philippines, such as Laguna, Masbate, Taytay, Pangasinan, Bulacan,

18

portray how people value education. The “makapagtapos” is a word

connected to the finishing of a college degree. In Gulod, to study is very

costly especially in collegiate level since there is no tertiary educational

institution in the island; one has to cross the lake, travel, and then rent for

nearby apartments or bed spacers near college schools such as the URS-

Binangonan and other colleges and universities in Morong, Angono, and

nearby municipalities. Another meaning attached to the word

“makapagtapos” is the hope of the parents (the respondents) to see their

children graduating with a college degree since majority of them (the

respondents, see pg. 12) where only high school and elementary

graduates, and high school and elementary undergraduates.

Two respondents (2.90%) answered for “comfortable lives” both

one respondent (1.45%) answered for “to be married” and “to have work.”

The no answer shared a large percentage in the table with 28.99%,

reasons for this were the following: (1) some respondents were too old

and their children have already their own lives (separated from them), (2)

some respondents let their children choose what they wanted their lives to

be, (3) some respondent have no siblings yet, (4) some respondents have

not answered the question, and to some extent and instance, (5) some of

the researchers forgot to ask the question.

Table 13 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (65.22%) wanted their children to have a good education and to

finish their studies.

portray how people value education. The “makapagtapos” is a word connected to the finishing of a

18

Table 14 (Q7) An inquiry as to what was the most frequent problem the respondents met at home.

Options

f

%

Financial problem

47

68.12

No assurance about the

1

1.45

ownership of the house/tenant

Sickly children/member(s) of

14

20.29

the family

Drunkard husband

3

4.35

Gambling

2

2.90

Other vices (smoking,

5

7.25

adultery etc.)

Problems with neighbors

2

2.90

No permanent job

13

18.84

others

0

0

 

N is 69

(to get %, f/nx100)

Table 14 shows the most common problems encountered by the

respondents’ families at home. Problems when met at home could lead

into two ways, first is the disintegration of the close familial relationship

(weakening of the relationship) which could further lead into marital

discord and separation, and second, it could promote to a more strong

familial relationship when the problem is surpassed by the whole family.

The inquiry above could also be used as a reflection to the kind of

Table 14 (Q7) An inquiry as to what was the most frequent problem the respondents met

18

environment a family is residing at. Usually, the “stressors” promoting

tensions in familial relationships come from the social environment. The

aim of the inquiry above is to know the most common problem those

families at Brgy. Gulod were suffering from.

As shown in the table, majority of the respondents (68.12%) were

suffering from financial problems, based on what they say “dito sa Isla,

mahirap ang pera.” Financial problems go worst when schooling season

comes, since the students’ notebooks, books, uniforms, baon, fare, and

tuition fees will be shouldered by most of the parents earning only (below

the) minimal wage per month. Second to the most minded problems is the

“sickly children/members of the family” category wherein 14 respondents

(20.29%) have identified this as one of their common problems at home.

Health services at the barangay is not sufficient for the health needs of the

people, even medical missions which occasionally visits the area would

not be sufficient, the problem about health care has been aggravated by

the absence of stay in doctors and nurses in the area, as well as the

absence of a fully functional hospital within the Island of Talim (since you

have to cross the lake just to have Talim’s hospital services). Third most

minded problem is that the bread winners of the respondents (or the

respondents themselves) have no permanent jobs (18.84%) which

contribute to the financial problem discussed above.

environment a family is residing at. Usually, the “stressors” promoting tensions in familial relationships come from

18

Table 14

only shows that majority

of

the

respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (68.12%) have “financial problems” as their most common

encountered problem at home.

Table 15 (Q8) An inquiry if the respondents were satisfied with their living conditions in Brgy. Gulod.

Responses

f

%

Yes

65

94.20

No

4

5.80

 

Total (n)

69

100

In this inquiry, the word satisfied has been equated with the word

“happy” both by the researchers and the respondents. Although problems

exist as what the previous inquiry tackled, there are many factors other

than the economic aspect of living which makes the respondent to say that

they were contented with their living in Gulod. As what the table shows,

94.20% of the respondents said that they were happy and contented with

their stay in Gulod as attested by some of the reasons given by the

respondents themselves… “simple ang buhay, mura ang bilihin”, “matipid”,

mababa ang cost of living”, “masaya dito”, “free from (air-) pollution”,

kinagisnan na kasi”, “mababait ang mga tao”, “masagana, payak, sariwa

ang hangin”, “dito yung lupa namin”, “peaceful”, “maganda”, and “safe.”

Despite the large percentage of respondents happily living in Gulod, there

were 4 respondents (5.8%) who were not contented with their stay in

Table 14 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy. Gulod (68.12%) have “financial problems”

18

Gulod. These were the people who have focused their attention on their

economic situations, as depicted by some of their reasons… “mahirap”,

“… walang pera, hindi permanente ang trabaho”, “mahirap ang trabaho

dito.”

Table 15

only shows that majority

of

the

respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (94.20%) were happy and contented with their living conditions

there.

Table 16 (Q9) An inquiry as to what do the respondents feel about the present performance of the government.

Nature of Response

f

%

Happy/ contented/ satisfied

20

28.99

With sentiments/ not

30

43.48

contented/ dissatisfied

No answer

19

27.54

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 16 shows the nature of the respondents’ response when

asked what they feel about the present performance of the government.

While interviewing, the researchers noticed that the people were referring

both to the national government officials and the government as a whole.

As shown in the table, majority of the respondents (46.48%) have

sentiments with the government, hence, were not contented (dissatisfied)

with its present performance. Some of their reasons were as follows…

“mainit hanggang katapusan”, “sobrang mahal ng bilihin”, “walang awa sa

Gulod. These were the people who have focused their attention on their economic situations, as depicted

18

mahirap”, “pahirap ng pahiram ang buhay”, “hindi maganda ang patakbo

ni Arroyo”, “lahat nagsitaasan (ang presyo)”, “mainit, siraan”, “dibdiban

ang laban”, “korupsyon”, “hindi napagtutuunan ng pansin ang isla”,

“kawawa ang tao sa mga proyekto”, “magulo” etc. On the other hand,

twenty respondents (28.99%) answered for happy/contented/and satisfied

with the present performance of the government, the most common

positive responses in the interview were the following… “maganda”, “okey

lang”, and “walang problema.”

There was a large proportion of respondents (27.54%) who do not

gave answers to the question. These people might not be sure about their

possible answers, or were suspecting about their “safety” if ever that they

give negative reactions. Another possible reason would be that some of

the researchers forgot to ask the question while interviewing some of the

respondents.

Table 16 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (43.48%) were discontented/dissatisfied with the present

performance of the government.

mahirap”, “pahirap ng pahiram ang buhay”, “hindi maganda ang patakbo ni Arroyo”, “lahat nagsitaasan (ang presyo)”,

18

Table 17 (Q10) An inquiry as to what the respondents would want the government to be its project for the people.

Responses

f

%

Livelihood related projects

9

13.04

 

12

17.39

Infrastructure projects Health Services

 
  • 8 11.59

Price control of primary commodities

  • 2 2.90

 

Establishment of Tertiary educational institutions (college/universities)

  • 3 4.35

 

Moral related reforms

  • 4 5.80

 

Environmental projects (clean and

  • 4 5.80

 

green, waste management etc.)

No answer

30

43.48

 

N is 69

(to get %, f/nx100)

In connection to the previous question about what the people feel

about the performance of the present government, the researchers have

made question number 10 in the questionnaire as a follow-up question so

that this research could have the “problem identification-solution

approach. Aside from this, the question has been included in order not to

Table 17 (Q10) An inquiry as to what the respondents would want the government to be

18

by pass the opinions of the people about what they think the government

should do for their own-identified problems.

As shown in the table, although majority of the respondents

(43.48%) gave no answers, or have no answers to the question, there

were minor percentages of respondents who gave varied answers which,

if summed up, would defeat the 30 no-answer respondents (summing up

the minor percentages would yield to 60.97%).

As shown in the table, 12 respondents (17.39%) answered for

infrastructures such as construction of a bridge connecting the island to

the mainland, canals, road, installment of streetlights and port. Nine

respondents (13.04%) answered for livelihood related responses such as

establishing a market, commercial establishments, “babuyan”,

“palaisdaan”, “pagtuunan ng pansin ang mga mahihirap”, “farming

techniques” etc. Eight respondents (11.59%) answered for the

establishment of a Hospital within Talim and the improvement of health

services, four respondents (5.80%) answered for moral related reforms

within the government system, such as… “maawa sa mga taong walang-

wala”, “sa eleksyon, wala nang pakialam yung mga natatalo”, and

“pagnakaraos (sa problema) dapat tapos na (hindi na binabalikan pa).”

Another four respondents (5.80%) suggested for the development of an

effective waste management system and clean and green projects, some

of the responses were the following… “kalinisan”, “paturo sa tamang

pagtapon ng basura at pagtatanim ng puno at gulay”, and “magprovide ng

by pass the opinions of the people about what they think the government should do for

18

basurahan.” Three respondents (4.35%) answered for the establishment

of a tertiary educational institution in the place (universities and colleges),

while two respondents (2.90%) insisted for the price control of basic

commodities.

Since majority of the respondents in Brgy. Gulod (43.48%) gave no

answer to the question, and the percentages of the respondents left had

been distributed to an array of different answers, no conclusion relevant to

the question posed should be given.

Table 18 (Q11) An inquiry if the respondents were interested in sending their children to school.

Responses

f

%

Yes

59

85.51

No

1

1.45

No answer

9

13.04

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 18 shows the responses made by the respondents when

asked “interesado ka bang papag-aralin ang iyong mga anak?” As

evident, 85.51% of the respondents (59) had a positive response of “yes”

while only one respondent (1.45%) gave a negative response. A minority

of 9 respondents however gave no answers to the question, possible

reason would be that the respondents were not sure if they would send

basurahan.” Three respondents (4.35%) answered for the establishment of a tertiary educational institution in the place

18

their children to school, or, as stated on some interpretations on this study,

the failure of getting the answers was on the side of the researchers.

Table 18 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (85.51%) were interested in sending their children to school.

their children to school, or, as stated on some interpretations on this study, the failure of

18

Table 19 (Q12) An inquiry if the respondents want to have the following educational institutions to be raised in Brgy. Gulod.

Options

f

%

Elementary school

32

46.38

High School

28

40.58

 

58

84.06

College/ University No answer

5

7.25

 

N is 69

(to get %, f/nx100)

Table 19 shows the different percentage of respondents in

connection to the wanting of the three basic educational institutions if ever

to be constructed in Brgy. Gulod. As revealed in the table, majority of the

respondents in Brgy. Gulod (84.06%) wanted to have a tertiary

educational institution within their barangay, only 28 respondents

(40.58%) answered for a secondary school in the place, while 32

respondents (46.38%) replied for an elementary school within the place.

The low percentages of respondents in favor for the installation of

elementary and secondary educational institutions were attributed to the

presence of an elementary public school at the boundary of Brgy. Gulod

and Brgy. Kaytome (Kaytome-Gulod Elementary School) and the

presence of a public national high school in Brgy. Janosa. On the contrary,

a high percentage of respondents wanting to have tertiary educational

institutions in the place came from the fact that no tertiary educational

Table 19 (Q12) An inquiry if the respondents want to have the following educational institutions to

18

institutions, neither vocational schools, are present in Talim Island. Such

condition is one of the primary reasons as to why many respondents

(citizens of-) at Brgy. Gulod (and in any of the barangays in Talim) are

high school undergraduates and graduates, since sending a student for a

college education in the mainland would cost a big amount of money for

parents earning below the legal minimal wage fee per month.

Table 19 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (84.06%) wanted to have a tertiary educational institution (collegiate

or university level) to be established within Brgy. Gulod (or in Talim

Island).

Table 20(Q13) An inquiry if the respondents want to have a hospital within their community.

Options

f

%

Yes

67

97.10

No

1

1.45

No answer

1

1.45

 

Total (n)

69

100

Talim Island has no hospital on its own (on the “within the island”

basis). The nearest hospital available would be Talim Island Hospital

constructed near the pritil of Binangonan mainland, thus, people have to

look for an available motor boat, then cross the lake (for about 30-45

mins.) before a person would be able to get professional health care

institutions, neither vocational schools, are present in Talim Island. Such condition is one of the primary

18

services in a hospital named after the name of the island. On some of the

unstructured interviews conducted with the people, they say that there

were many cases wherein serious patients died in the bangka before

reaching the coastal hospital.

As shown in Table 20, almost all of the respondents (97.10%) in

Brgy. Gulod wanted to have a local hospital within their barangay (or

within the Island of Talim). Only one respondent (1.45%) gave a no

answer, while another 1 respondent gave no answer at all.

Table 20 only shows that majority of the respondents (97.10%) in

Brgy. Gulod wanted to have a local hospital be established within their

community (within the Talim Island).

Table 21 (Q14) An inquiry if respondents have problems with their neighbors.

Responses

f

%

Yes, I have problems…

8

11.59

No, I don’t have problems ...

62

88.41

 

Total (n)

69

100

Inquiry number 14 in the questionnaire has been designed to know

the relationship of the respondents with their neighbors. When the

respondents were asked “may problema ka ba sa iyong mga kapitbahay?

majority of the respondents (88.41%) answered “wala” (no), while a

minority of 11.59% (8 respondents) gave varied answers, (some were not

services in a hospital named after the name of the island . On some of the

18

mentioned) these were some of the following… “minsan may tampuhan”,

“hindi naman iyan nawawala pero naaayos din”, and “maingay (because

her house was in the middle of two competing video-okehan).” As a

summary, the respondents have an “okey” relationship with their

neighbors.

Table 21 only shows that majority of the respondents (88.41%) in

Brgy. Gulod don’t have problems with their neighbors.

Table 22 (Q15) An inquiry as to where do the respondents dump their garbage and how do they dispose it off.

Responses

f

%

Dumpsite

25

36.23

Burning

36

52.17

In places where no one will see

1

1.45

Throwing into the lake

1

1.45

At the backyard

1

1.45

 

1

1.45

Burrowing beneath the soil No answer

4

5.80

 

Total (n)

69

100

One of the social problems facing the humanity of today is about

the effective management of domestic wastes. Domestic waste (wastes

coming from each household) is a primary contributor to land, water, and

air pollution, which, on its bad effect on the environment, will give serious

mentioned) these were some of the following… “ minsan may tampuhan”, “hindi naman iyan nawawala pero

18

health threats to humans (food, potable water, livelihood, oxygen

consumed etc.). Thus, the researchers have included the inquiry on

individual household waste management systems.

As shown in the table, majority of the respondents (52.17%)

dispose-off their garbage by burning. Indeed, this is one of the fastest

ways of disposing off your garbage. Reason for such behavior might be

seen on the absence of garbage collectors within the barangay, another

one more weighing would be the customary ways of many rural Filipino

communities regarding the burning of domestic wastes in their backyards.

Looking at the table, 25 respondents (36.23%) dispose their domestic

wastes through dumping their garbage in dumpsites in Gulod. Gulod has

two dumpsites; the primary is near the national road leading to Brgy.

Sapang, and a minor on a vacant lot in Libis. Answers such as “in places

were no one will see”, “throwing into the lake”, “at the backyard”, and

“burrowing beneath the soil” have only one respondent each (1.45%).

Four respondents (5.80%), on the other hand, gave no answers to the

question.

Table 22 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (52.17%) dispose-off their domestic wastes by burning.

Table 23(Q16.1) An inquiry if respondents know/ have the knowledge of segregating waste materials into biodegradable (nabubulok), non-biodegradable (hindi-nabubulok), and recyclable (magagamit pa).

health threats to humans (food, potable water, livelihood, oxygen consumed etc.). Thus, the researchers have included

18

Options

f

%

Yes

28

40.58

No

38

55.07

No answer

3

4.35

 

Total (n)

69

100

Segregation of domestic wastes into biodegradable, non-

biodegradable, and recyclable is important for an effective solid-waste

management system. Biodegradable wastes should be dump beneath the

earth so its decomposing organic materials could be used by plants as

their organic fertilizers, while non-biodegradable and recyclable domestic

wastes should be sent to special solid waste management treatment

facilities for recycling of recyclable units and safe disposal for non-

recyclables. As shown in the table, majority of the respondents (55.07%)

do not know/ have no knowledge of segregating waste materials. Only 28

respondents (40.58%) knew the process, while the 3 respondents left

(4.35%) abstained.

Table 23 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (55.07%) do not know/ have no knowledge of waste segregation.

Table 24 (Q16.2) An inquiry if respondents practice the method of waste segregation.

Options f % Yes 28 40.58 No 38 55.07 No answer 3 4.35 Total (n) 69

18

 

Options

f

%

 

Yes

19

27.54

No

47

68.12

No answer

3

4.35

 

Total (n)

  • 69 100

 

Knowledge about something without practice is nothing as what

some would say. As shown on table 24, majority of the respondents

(68.12%) do not practice waste segregation. This would be

understandable since 38 respondents in the previous inquiry do not know

how to segregate. The frequency of the previous 38 (table 23) gone up to

47 respondents who do not practice waste segregation because there

were 9 respondents who knew how to segregate but were not practicing it.

On the table we will notice that only 19 respondents (27.54%) practice

waste segregation. Three (4.35%) respondents, on this time, did not give

their answers.

Table 24 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (68.12%) do not practice waste segregation.

 

Table 25 (Q17) An inquiry if respondents were members of any organizations

 

Options

f

%

 

Yes

  • 29 42.03

 

No

  • 40 57.97

 
 

Total (n)

  • 69 100

 
Options f % Yes 19 27.54 No 47 68.12 No answer 3 4.35 Total (n) 69

18

Organizations are often built with a background of a common

problem or concern that has been identified by a group of people and has

come to realize that something could be done about it. Organizations,

depending on its nature and functioning, help the people in realizing their

common aims. Organizations and groups also help bring meaning to a

person’s existence, thus a tool for his personal development.

Table 25 shows the results of an inquiry done by the researchers

regarding the membership of respondents in any organization within the

community. As shown in the table, majority of the respondents (57.97%)

were not affiliated to any organization in the community, while 42.23% of

the respondents reported their memberships to some organizations, these

were some of the following… MPPC (Mini-Parish Pastoral Council), SKGK

(Samahan ng Kabataang Gabay sa Kinabukasan), Gulod water works

Coop., OMD, BMS (Bayan Muna Small Enterprises Coop), Youth DRS,

Women’s club, Bantay Lawa, TIPMOPA (samahan ng mga magbabaka sa

isla ng Talim), Binangonan School Teachers’ Association, Senior citizen,

SK tutorial, DHW, and SKBL.

Table 25 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (57.97%) were not affiliated to any organizations in the community.

Table 26 (Q18) An inquiry if respondents have problems with their environment.

Organizations are often built with a background of a common problem or concern that has been

18

Responses

f

%

Livelihood related problems

6

8.70

Sanitary problems

10

14.49

Flood from the mountain when raining heavily.

1

1.45

 

2

2.90

Health and Safety concerns Electricity related answers

1

1.45

Infrastructure related answers

2

2.90

No problem in our environment

46

66.67

 

Total (n)

69

100

Table 26 shows the respondents’ concerns regarding some of the

problems observed in their community. The word environment here refers

to the living environment of the residents which includes the social,

cultural, and physical environments within Brgy. Gulod. The table above

shows the responses of the respondents in the inquiry “mga problemang

bumagagabag patungkol sa kapaligiran” (problems within the [living]

environment of the respondents) wherein majority of the respondents (46

respondents) said that they have no problems regarding their living

environment as a whole. Sanitary problems (14.49%) refers to solid waste

management inadequacy, while livelihood related problems (8.70%) have

responses such as “kahirapan”, “humina ang fishing business”, “pag may

bagyo nasisira ang pamumuhay”, and “hindi maani ang tinatanim na gulay

Responses f % Livelihood related problems 6 8.70 Sanitary problems 10 14.49 Flood from the mountain

18

(dinadaga/sinususo).” Health and safety concerns (2.90%) has responses

related to mosquitoes and dengue prevention, another 2.90% of the

respondents reported for the improvement of roads and the installation of

street lights. One respondent (1.15%) has problems regarding floods

coming from the mountain, and another one respondent was despised

with the frequent electricity loss in the area when strong winds came.

Table 26 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (66.67%) have no problems with their living environment.

Table 27 (Q19) An inquiry if respondents have observed any problems regarding the attitudes (behavior) of the people.

Responses

f

%

Quarrelling caused by too much drinking of alcohol/ too much drinking of alcohol

8

11.59

People have no care with the lives of others

1

1.45

Problems regarding the

2

2.90

behavior of the youth Noise because of the video-oke

1

1.45

Some misunderstanding with the neighbor

1

1.45

No problems

56

81.16

 

Total (n)

69

100

(dinadaga/sinususo ).” Health and safety concerns (2.90%) has responses related to mosquitoes and dengue prevention, another

18

Table 27 shows some of the responses the respondents gave when

asked regarding “mga problemang bumabagabag patungkol sa kaasalan

ng mga tao” (problems regarding peoples’ attitudes/behavior). As shown

in the table, majority of the respondents (81.16%) found no problems

regarding the attitudes of the people within Brgy. Gulod. Eight

respondents (11.59%), however, reported that they had problems about

peoples’ behavior when drunk as some of them (the drunken) would

initiate quarrelling. Two respondents (2.90%) gave answers related to the

“promiscuous” behavior of the present youth saying “iba kasi ang tubo ng

mga kabataan ngayon.” One respondent (1.45%) answered for the

insensitivity of some people on the lives of others; another respondent

reported the noise coming from the video-okehan (sing-along booths); and

another respondent gave an answer regarding misunderstanding with their

neighbor.

Table 27 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (11.59%) found no problems regarding the attitudes of the people

within Brgy. Gulod.

Table 28 (Q20) An inquiry if there were other problems within the community which needs immediate attention.

Table 27 shows some of the responses the respondents gave when asked regarding “ mga problemang

18

Responses

 

f

%

Early marriages

 

1

1.45

The need for the construction of a church

 

1

1.45

The need for the establishment of a market

1

1.45

The need for the establishment of a Hospital/ improvement in health-care services

11

15.94

Lack of jobs

 

3

4.35

Demolition of fish pens

 

1

1.45

Pollution, waste management, sanitation

 

5

7.25

Poor/ not secured electricity service

9

13.04

Excessive alcohol drinking

 

3

4.35

Non-obedient to the Barangay

 

1

1.45

Gambling

 

1

1.45

absence of streetlights

 

1

1.45

Tore water pump of GWSS

 

3

4.35

No problem

 

33

47.83

 

N is 69

(to get %, f/nx100)

As with the other inquiries regarding

problems in

Gulod, the no

problem answer dominated the tally in Table 28 having 33 respondents

Responses f % Early marriages 1 1.45 The need for the construction of a church 1

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(47.83%) out of the 69 total numbers of respondents. Eleven respondents

(15.94%), on the other hand, identified the absence of a local hospital as a

problem needing an immediate action. Nine respondents (13.04%)

answered for the frequent power disruptions experienced in the area

especially in rainy seasons. Five respondents (7.25%) were worried about

environmental problems of pollution, solid-waste management, and local

sanitation. Three respondents (4.35%) expressed their concerns on the

gradual tearing of GWSS water-pump motor, while another three

respondents were concerned with the lack of job opportunities in their

community. One respondent each (1.45%) raised the issues of the

absence of street lights, gambling, none-obedient to the barangay, and the

demolition of illegal fish pens, saying “kung aalisin nila (ang mga baklad)

bigyan nila ng hanapbuhay ang mga tao.”

Table 28 only shows that majority of the respondents in Brgy.

Gulod (47.83%) have not seen problems in their community that needs

immediate attention and action.

(47.83%) out of the 69 total numbers of respondents. Eleven respondents (15.94%), on the other hand,

18

Table 29 (Q21) An inquiry as to what solutions the respondents think would solve their problems.

Responses

f

%

The establishment of a local

1

1.45

hospital They were the ones (the

1

1.45

officials) who knew the solution To listen and obey the parents

1

1.45

Improve electric services and arrange the water pump

4

5.80

No choice about the situation

1

1.45

Unity of the people (collective

1

1.45

action) Individual industry

1

1.45

Repairing roads

1

1.45

Alternative livelihood activities

1

1.45

Send to jail

1

1.45

Collective efforts in cleaning

1

1.45

No answer

55

79.71

 

N is 69

(to get %, f/nx100)

Table 29 shows the summary of a variety of answers gave by the

respondents. As shown in the table, majority of the respondents (79.71%)

Table 29 (Q21) An inquiry as to what solutions the respondents think would solve their problems.

18

have no answer regarding the question since majority of the respondents

in the three previous inquiries have no problems identified in each

respective inquiry. Four respondents (5.80%), however, posed the

“improve electric services (by arranging its lines) and arrange the water

pump” as their solution to the electricity and water problems in Gulod. one

respondents (1.45%) each suggested the following solutions to the

following problems: the establishment of a local hospital as a solution to its