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Phanerozoic Eon Cenozoic Era Quaternary (1.

8 Ma to today)
(543 Ma to present) (65 Ma to today) Holocene (10,000 a to today)
Pleistocene (1.8 Ma to 10,000 a)
Tertiary (65 to 1.8 Ma)
Pliocene (5.3 to 1.8 Ma)
Miocene (23.8 to 5.3 Ma)
Oligocene (33.7 to 23.8 Ma)
Eocene (54.8 to 33.7 Ma)
Paleocene (65 to 54.8 Ma)
Mesozoic Era Cretaceous (144 to 65 Ma)
(248 to 65 Ma) Jurassic (206 to 144 Ma)
Triassic (248 to 206 Ma)
Paleozoic Era Permian (290 to 248 Ma)
(543 to 248 Ma) Carboniferous (354 to 290 Ma)
Pennsylvanian (323 to 290 Ma)
Mississippian (354 to 323 Ma)
Devonian (417 to 354 Ma)
Silurian (443 to 417 Ma)
Ordovician (490 to 443 Ma)
Cambrian (543 to 490 Ma)
Tommotian (530 to 527 Ma)
Precambrian Time Proterozoic Era Neoproterozoic (900 to 543 Ma)
(4,500 to 543 Ma) (2500 to 543 Ma) Vendian (650 to 543 Ma)
Mesoproterozoic (1600 to 900 Ma)
Paleoproterozoic (2500 to 1600 Ma)
(3800 to 2500 Ma)
(4500 to 3800 Ma)

Physiographic divisions of India

Generalised classification and correlation of Archaean and Lower

Proterozoic Formations of India (Sarkar, 1980, 81; Sarkar & Saha 1982)
Dharwar Eastern Ghats Central India Singhbhum Aravalli
(South India) Orissa Bundelkhand
Closepet Dongargarh Mayurbhanj
Granite (2000 Granite (2200) Granite (2000
– 2380) – 2100)
Nandgaon Dhanjori
Group (2200) Group (2100 –
Sakoli Sausar Singhbhum Aravalli
Groups Gangpur Group
Dharwar Amgaon Bundelkhand
Supergroup Group (2500) Gneiss (2500)
Charnockite Banded
“Series” Gneissic
(2600) Complex
Peninsular Singbhum
Gneissic Granite (2950)
(2600 – 2950)
Sargur Khondalite Iron Ore
“Series” Group
Group (3200)

Distribution of Archaean rocks in India

Proterozoic Formations of Indian Peninsula

Proterozoic Era has been divided into three units

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unconformity ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Vendian (680-700)
Upper (Neo-) Riphean (700-1600)
Proterozoic Middle (Meso-)
Lower (Paleo-)
~~~~~~~~~Eparchaean (Main) Unconformity~~~~~~~~~~

Proterozoic Formations of Indian Peninsula

Main Southern Peninsula Northern Peninsula

Upper Karnool group, Bhima Upper Vindhyan Group
Purana Group, Sullavai Group, Malani Volcanics
Indravati Group,
Chattisgarh Group
Lower Cuddapah SuperGroup Lower Vindhyan Group
Purana Gwalior Group
Bijawar Group
Kolhan Group
Delhi SuperGroup

Distribution of Cuddapah rocks in India

Distribution of Vindhyan rocks in India

Classification of Vindhyan Supergroup

Group Formations
Up. Bhander Sst.
Bhander Group (fine grained)
(1000 m) Sirbu Shales
Most widely Lr. Bhander Sst.
distributed Group Bhander Lst.
Ganurgarh Shales
Upper Vindhyans ~~~~~ Diamond bearing Conglomerate ~~~~~
Upper Rewah Sst.
Rewah Group Jhiri Shales
(2000 m) Lr. Rewah Sst.
Panna Shales
~~~~~ Diamond bearing Conglomerate ~~~~~
Up. Kaimur Sst.
Kaimur Group Bijagarh Shales
(400 m) Lr. Kaimur Sst.
~~~ Thin conglomerate horizon containing pebbles of red jaspar~~~
Rohtas Fm.
Lower Vindhyans Semri Group Kheinjua Fm.
(1300 m) Porcellinite Fm.
Basal Fm.

Geographic distribution of the continents at ~the end of
the Cryogenian Period (650 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the

Cambrian Period (514 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the
Ordovician Period (485 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the

Silurian Period (425 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the
Devonian Period (390 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the

Carboniferous Period (306 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the
Permian Period (255 Ma)

Distribution of Paleozoic rocks in India

Geographic distribution of the continents during the
Triassic Period (237 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the

Jurassic Period (152 Ma)

Distribution of Mesozoic rocks in India

Jurassic succession of Kutch Region

Deccan Trap
Bhuj Formation Umia Plant Beds

Ukra Beds (calc. shales) Mixed rocks of marine &

continental origine
Umia Formation Sandstone & shales Unfossiliferous
(525 m) Trigonia Beds
Umia Ammonite beds

Upper Katrol shale Shallow marine

Katrol Upper Katrol Sst. succession of shales,
lst., sst., & grits with
Formation Mid Katrol Sst.
lenticular beds of
(750 m) Lr. Katrol shale gypseous sandy shales
Belem. marls of Jurum
Kantkote Sst. Pebbly beds at the base

Dhosa oolite Sandy lst., marls, calc. &

Chari Formation Athleta beds sandy shale & oolitic lst.
(400 m) Anceps beds
Rehmani beds
Macrocephalus beds

Patcham Coral beds

Formation (300m) Shelly limestone
Kuar Bet beds
Precambrian basement (not exposed)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the
Cretaceous Period (94 Ma)

Distribution of the Deccan Traps in India

Cretaceous succession of Trichinopolly

Niniyur Fm. Unfossiliferous

Ariyalur Sst., marly clays, calc. shales & lst. (shallow &
Fm.(1200 m) quite sea); at the close, northern part got uplifted
Trichinopoly Irregularly beded sands and clays, lst.
Fm.(300-600 m)
Uttatur Fine silts, calc. shales & sand clays (evaporitic
Fm.(700 m) condition)

Distribution of Gondwana rocks in India

L Cret Rajmahal Fm

U Jura
L-M Jura Dubrajpur Fm
U.Trias Mahadeva Fm
M Trias
Panchet Coarse feldspathic, micaceous and
L Trias Fm(~700 m) cross beded sst. Thin beds of
shales & clay beds
Raniganj Fm Damuda Group: cyclic
(~1000 m) succession of conglomerate,

U Permian Kulti Fm. grits, sst., black shales, shale


Barren beds; coal seams < 5m &

Measures) laterally discontinuous (in
(~500 m) some basins ~40 m; total coal
Barakar Fm. seam thickness ~5% of total
(~1700 m) thickness of rock succession
L Permian Karharbari Sst., grits, conglomerate, coal,
Fm. shale
Talchir Fm. Upliftment

Geographic distribution of the continents during the

Paleogene Period (50.2 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the
Neogene Period (14 Ma)

Geographic distribution of the continents during the

Quaternary Period (18 Ka)

Distribution of Tertiary rocks in India

Age Geosynclinal Facies Shelf facies

L. Assam U. Assam
Plio-PleistDihing (pebble Dihing Dihing Dhekiajuli
beds with sst. (400 m) (400 m) (1800 m)
& clays)
Mio-Plio Dupitila Dupitila Namsang Namsang
(sst. & clays) (3600 m) (800 m) (600 m)
Girujan Girujan Girujan
Clay Clay Clay
Tipam (1500 m) (1800 m) (600 m)
Tipam Sst. Tipam Sst. Tipam Sst.
Miocene (1600 m) (2300 m) (900 m)
Surma Bokabil
(Sst., shales, (1500 m) Surma Surma
conglomerate) Bhuban (900 m) (200 m)
(4000 m)
Renji Tilak Parbat
Barail (1000 m) (600 )
Oligocene (Sst., shales, Jenam Baragoloi Barail
Coal seams) (1200 m) (3300 m) (1200 m)
Laisang Naogaon
(2400 m) (2200 m)
Eocene Disang Disang Disang Jaintia
(Paleocene) (Unfosiliferous (1500 m) (3000 m) Series
shales & Sst.