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HEAT LOAD

CALCULATION 2

HEAT LOAD 2

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TOPICS COVERED

 LOAD CALCULATIONS
– FORMS
– FORMULAS
– TABLES
– FACTORS
– AIR SIDE
– PSYCHROMETRY
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HEAT LOAD FORM

 SEE TRANSPARENCY

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HEAT LOAD ESTIMATE
PROBLEM
 General office
 Ceiling 10’
 Wall 4 ½” brick, plastered both side
 Window- ordinary ¼” single glass
internal shade
 Door- plywood sandwich air space
 Occupants - 35 person
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 Lighting - Fluorescent
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DESIGN CONDITIONS

 Outdoor design conditions


– 92°F db / 80°F wb or 95db/83wb
– Overestimating effect
– Night time temp. & rh different
– 76°F db/ 75°F wb / 95% rh

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DESIGN CONDITIONS

 Indoor design conditions


– Base on requirement and standards
– 75°F db / 55% rh
– 72°F db / 55% rh
– 71°F db / 50% rh
 Peak time at
– 4.00 pm

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CURRENT AIR-CONDITIONING DESIGN DATA
COMPARISON
JKR ASHRAE 95 CIBSE
INDOOR
24 23-26 22+/-2
TEMP.(o C)
LIGHTING LOAD
4-6 (2) 1.85-4.65 1.4
(w/ft2)
OFFICE EQUIP.
- 0.8-2 1.4
(w/ft2)
OUTLET
VELOCITY 25-50* 40-150 -
(ft/min.)
FRESH AIR
20 20 20
(cfm/person)
*-Carrier Handbook

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QUESTION

 Fill in the table other information


for the following conditions
– Outdoor air 92db/80wb
– Indoor 75db/55%rh

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SOLAR GAIN THROUGH
GLASS

 Cooling Load = Window Area x


Peak solar heat gain (Table 4) x
Storage Factor (Table 5) x Shade
Factor (Table 6)
 Refer to Table 4, Table 5 and
Table 6
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SOLAR AND TRANSMISSION
GAIN

 Heat Gain Through Walls &


Roofs = Area x Equivalent
Temp. Difference (Table 7 for wall &
Table 8 for roof) x Transmission
Coefficient (U) (Table 9)

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TRANSMISSION GAIN (EXCEPT
WALLS AND ROOFS)
 Heat gain through all glass = Area x
Temp. Difference (OA - RA) x
Transmission coefficient (U) (Table 9)
 Heat gain through shade wall,
partition = Area x Temp. Difference
(OA - RA - 5°F) x Transmission
coefficient (U) (Table 9)

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TRANSMISSION GAIN (EXCEPT
WALLS AND ROOFS) (2)
 Heat gain through wall, partition
(adjacent to Kitchen,Boiler Room) =
Area x Temp. Difference (OA - RA +
15°F to 25°F) x Transmission
coefficient (U) (Table 9)

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INFILTRATION

 When ventilation exceeds


infiltration (+ve pressure), then
 infiltration = 0
 When rooms are design at -ve
pressure, have to consider

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INTERNAL LOADS

 People
– No. of people from no. of chairs or
base on per floor area
– Table 10 - Heat gain from people
 No. of people x Table 10
 Activity, Sensible & Latent

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INTERNAL LOADS

 Power
– Table 53 - Heat gain from electric
motors
– Electric motors contribute only
sensible heat to space

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INTERNAL LOADS

 Lights - Estimate (w/ft2)


 Lights - Type
– Incandescent
 rated lamp watt x 3.413
– Fluorescent lamp
 rated lamp watt x 1.25 x 3.413

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INTERNAL LOADS

 Appliances
– most appliances contributes both
sensible and latent heat load.
– They contribute latent heat by virtue of
their function ex. drying, cooking
– Hood to remove this is most effective
– Table 50 & 51- Heat Gain from
Restaurant
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SAFETY FACTOR

 Safety factor added for possible


error in the survey
 Over estimating safety factor will
cause oversized air conditioning
equipment - difficult to maintain
space conditions
 < 5%
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ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT (RSH)

 Now all the load components


contributing to sensible load can be
added

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SUPPLY AIR DUCT LOSSES

 In transferring air from system


cooling coil to space, four losses
must be considered;
– Supply duct heat gain
– supply duct leakage loss
– fan heat
– bypassed outdoor air
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SUPPLY DUCT HEAT GAIN

 Supply air in the duct at 50°F to


60°F passes through surrounding
environment above 90°F - potential
heat gain to supply air
 Insulation reduces this gain
 Typical figure < 2% of RSH

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SUPPLY DUCT LEAKGE LOSS

 Lost capacity in the supply air duct


depends on duct shape, duct
pressure and workmanship.
 Low pressure (0 - 2”s.p) : <5%
 Medium pressure (2” - 6”s.p) : 2% -
3%
 High pressure (6” & above) : <1%
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FAN HEAT

 Draw through (draw through the


cooling coil) fan add heat to air
supply. Electrical losses for motor
which lies in the air stream also add
heat
 < 5%

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BYPASS OUTDOOR AIR

 Some of the air passing through the


coil remain untreated.
 Load equivalent to infiltration load
 Depends on bypass factors use
 Load = cfm x (toa-trm) x bf x 1.09

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EFFECTIVE ROOM SENSIBLE
HEAT (ERSH)
 This load determine the cfm
required across the cooling coil
 ERSH = RSH + (SUPPLY DUCT
GAIN + SUPPLY DUCT LEAK
LOSS + FAN) + BYPASS
OUTDOOR AIR

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LATENT LOAD

 The latent counterpart of infiltration,


internal loads, and supply duct load
are also calculated to determine the
Room Latent Heat and Effective
Room Latent Heat
 Vapor Transmission - only for low
or high dew point application.
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ROOM LATENT HEAT (RLH)

 SUM OF ALL ROOM LATENT


LOAD
– INFILTRATION
– PEOPLE
– STEAM
– APPLIANCES
– ADDITIONAL HEAT GAINS
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– VAPOUR TRANSMISSION
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EFFECTIVE ROOM LATENT
LOAD (ERLH)
 ROOM LATENT HEAT (RLH) +
SUPPLY DUCT LEAKAGE LOSS +
BYPASS OUTDOOR AIR

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OUTDOOR AIR / VENTILATION
RATES
 Outdoor air/ventilation rates from
Table 11-Ventilation Std.
 Outdoor air quantity can be
determined either by cfm/person or
cfm/ft2 or airchange rate (ach)
 Air change is defined as the quantity
of changed air every hour
 cfm = vol x ach
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OUTDOOR AIR HEAT

 Outdoor air heat comprised of both


sensible and latent load
 Except for bypassed air, the load
appears on the upstream of the coil
 Requirements of outdoor/fresh air
base on air change rate or cfm/sq.ft
or per person
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QUESTION

 Calculate the outdoor/fresh air


requirement of the office space, if
the recommended fresh air change
is 2 ach.
Answer : (ach/60) x Vol.
= (2/60) x 32000
= 1067 cfm
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RETURN DUCT LOSSES

 Return duct are normally shorter


than supply duct
 Temperature of air at about 75°F -
80°F
 Return duct slightly negative
 1% for Return duct heat gain &
 1% for return duct leakage loss
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RETURN AIR or BLOW THRU’
FAN
 Fan and motor heat appear on the
upstream side of the coil.
 …..hp x 2545

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GRAND TOTAL HEAT

 Total heat load the coil must


remove from the air passing over it.
 Also known as dehumidifier load

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REFRIGERATION LOAD

 Introducing two additional loads not


experience by the coil
– Piping sensible heat gain
– Pumping heat gain

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APPARATUS DEW POINT (ADP)

 Effective Room Sensible Heat (ERSH)


Effective Room Total Heat (ERTH)
 ADP obtained from plot ESHF line
or Table 65
 Indicated ADP & Selected ADP
 ADP must be > 48°F

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QUESTION

 ERSH = 115 000


 ERLH = 15 000
 Calculate the ESHF
 Find ADP if room is 75°F/55%rh
from table

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DEHUMIDIFIED AIR QUANTITY

 Dehumidified rise = (trm-tadp)x(1-BF)

 Cfmda = ERSH
1.09 x (trm-tadp)x(1-BF)

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SUPPLY AIR QUANTITY (cfmsa)

 Outlet temp. diff = RSH =Fdes.dif


(trm - tgrille) 1.09 x cfmda

 Supply cfm = RSH = cfmsa


1.09 x Fdes. dif

 Bypass cfm = cfmsa - cfmda


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RESULTING ENTERING AND
LEAVING CONDITIONS AT
APPARATUS
 tedb= trm + cfmoa x (toa - trm)
cfmsa

 tldb = tadp + bf x (tedb - tadp)

 tewb & tlwb read from psych. chart


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SOME EX. OF COMPUTERISED
HEAT LOAD CALCULATIONS
 See Lotus files

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GO TO PSYCHRO 2

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