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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Converting wastes to energy and biogas is one of the key parameters to

improve the environment, reduce pollution and lessen climate change. Global

trend shows increasing volume of waste and this is due to rapid growth of

population and improper waste disposal. This problem about waste management

of the country is getting serious, however, the Philippine government is making

investments in technologies that have capability to utilize these wastes and convert

it to sustainable energy and biogas.

Solid wastes, such as animal manure and food wastes, are a good source

of energy, which can produce biogas. Biogas, a type of biofuel, is a renewable

energy which is produce naturally by the biological breakdown of organic matter.

When organic matter breaks down in an anaerobic environment, it releases a blend

of gases, mainly methane and carbon dioxide. This process of producing biogas

is known as anaerobic digestion. Seizing and utilizing biogas can be done both in

large and small scale. Biogas can be used for cooking, lighting, electricity or

vehicle fuels, replacing the use of fossil fuels.

Food wastes and an increasing amount of animal manure are one of the

major problems that the country is facing. The population in the Philippines is

increasing annually; therefore, more foods are wasted every year. According to

World Food Program, there is enough food for everyone, but unfortunately, one-

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third of it is wasted. Restaurants and fast food chains are the major sources of food

wastes. In most cases, food scraps are dump in landfill and causing bad odour as

it decomposes and has a potential to add biological oxygen demand to the

leachate and produce methane, a greenhouse gas.

Livestock is considered significant in the Philippines because it contributes

significantly to the economy of the country. Without regard to, animal wastes also

contribute to the production of the methane gas. It consists of large amounts of

organic matter in which if broken down by bacteria in the absence of oxygen, it will

produce significant amount of methane gas.

Background of the Study

JI Farm at Bagong Pook, San Jose, Batangas is a family owned business

by Mr. Ferdinand Ilagan and Mrs. Marilou Ilagan and is operating for five (5) years.

Due to the growing population of swine in their farm, their main problem focuses

on how they will properly dispose the manure that is produced every day

considering the environment and their neighbouring areas. As of now, there are 70

swine in the farm that produces about 10 piglets per day and the swine manure

that is produced everyday is approximately 50kg. Along with the problems about

swine manure, Mr. Jayson llagan, son of owners, said that approximately 10kg of

household food waste is also a problem on their compound since they have several

personnel on their farm.

In regard to the problem, anaerobic biogas digester is proposed to utilize

the wastes produced by the farm in order not to harm the environment and does

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not affect the neighbouring areas. Biogas is more beneficial not only as a

replacement to LPG but also in utilizing household food and animal waste

especially in the area where the primary means of livelihood produces such

wastes.

Biogas digester or also known as anaerobic digester is a tank wherein the

decomposition of organic material takes place and the biogas is produced through

the process called anaerobic digestion. The design of the digester will be based

on the wastes produced by the JI Farm. A typical biogas digester consists of a

container that holds the slurry, which is a mixture of organic matters and water,

and another container or bag that holds the gas which has been produced after

the organic matter is broken down and these two containers are connected through

pipes. The digester also consists of transport system that takes the biogas to

where it will be used and a mechanism for ejecting the residue or what is called

digestate.

Digestate is a residue from anaerobic digestion and commonly used as

fertilizer to crops. The quality and fertilizer value of the digestate depends on the

nutrition of the substrate digested. Digestate, compared to raw manure as fertilizer,

emits fewer odours and will penetrate into the soil faster. It is reported to have

priming effects on the soil, and compared to inorganic fertilizer, the digestate can

still decompose after application to the soil.

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Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to design and develop a 2-in-1 anaerobic

biogas digester of household food and animal waste for bio fuel extraction and

organic fertilizer production. Specifically, the study aims to:

1. Fabricate a 2-in-1 anaerobic biogas digester of household food and

animal waste for bio fuel extraction and organic fertilizer production

taking into account the following:

1.1 system components

1.2 material specifications

2. Conduct preliminary testing of the developing machine to establish the

following parameters:

2.1 proportion using balloon test method

2.2 agitator speed

3. Evaluate the performance of the fabricated machine in terms of the

following:

3.1 production rate of biogas

3.2 percent yield of biogas

3.3 biogas composition

3.3.1 % CH4

3.3.2 % CO2

3.3.3 % H2S

3.3.4 % CO

3.3.5 % NH3

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3.3.6 % other gases

4. Evaluate the applicability of the biogas that will be produced through

boiling of water.

5. Evaluate the effectiveness of digestate as organic fertilizer after soil

application through the following laboratory tests:

5.1 Nitrogen contents

5.2 Potassium contents

5.3 Phosphorus contents

5.4 Traced Elements Content

5.4.1 Copper

5.4.2 Zinc

5.4.3 Magnesium

5.4.4 Iron

5.5 pH level

6. Develop an operation and maintenance manual of the apparatus.

Significance of the Study

Utilizing wastes to produce renewable, sustainable and affordable energy

is the main purpose of the study. It aims to design an anaerobic digester that was

cheap among others, easy to construct and maintain.

Specifically, the results of the study would be beneficial to these sectors and

specific end-user through the following aspects:

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To JI Farm, this study could help the owners to utilize the swine manure,

and food wastes on their community that can yield useful products that can be

used by them.

To Batangas State University, this study can be considered as another

contribution to the triumph in the field of engineering in this institution. It could also

yield important information especially to the students of Batangas State University

which could be used in future research and inventions.

To Mechanical Engineering Department, this study could contribute to the

students’ understanding of the principles and concepts of biogas as an alternative

source of methane gas for cooking.

To the future researchers, this study can be used as basis for knowledge

insight and development for the forthcoming associated research.

To the researchers, this would give them more significant information for

further improvement of their understanding in theoretical concepts and principles

of anaerobic digester.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The study will focus mainly on the design and development of 2-in-1

anaerobic biogas digester by utilizing the household food and animal waste for the

production of biogas and organic fertilizer. It will include the design of the

components of the digester and locally available materials that will be used. The

swine manure will be collected direct from the pigpen of the farm while the

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household food wastes will be collected from the residents on the nearby areas of

the farm.

In the preparation of the raw materials, the proportion of household food

wastes and animal wastes will be determined using balloon test method. This

experiment will use bottles with 1500mL loaded at 60% of its given capacity. The

mixture of animal wastes, kitchen wastes and water will be given different

proportions and the highest biogas yield will be tested as the feed ratio for the

operation in the actual digester. Factors that are affecting biogas production and

will be monitored are pH and temperature of the feedstock.

The biogas that will be collected after the process will be tested for its

percentage composition to determine the percent yield. This will include %CH4,

%CO2, %H2S, %CO, %NH3 and other gases. Also, the applicability of the biogas

will be evaluated through boiling of water.

The digestate that will be produced as a by-product will be utilized as an

alternative to commercial fertilizer. The digestate will be mixed on the soil at the

farm. The laboratory examinations of chemical composition of the soil with and

without the digestate such as NPK content, traced elements, and pH level are

included in this study. Also, the soil with the commercially available fertilizer will

undergo laboratory examinations. The physical testing of the digestate through

planting of crops is not included in this study.

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Conceptual Framework

This study focuses on the design and development of 2-in-1 anaerobic

biogas digester for the production of bio fuel and organic fertilizer. The conceptual

framework of the study will be presented using Conceive – Design – Implement –

Operate (CDIO) system model. The design will not include the conceptualization

and design of the system. The design will consider the input and output of the study

as well as the methods and procedures that are concern in each operation. Figure

1 shows the research paradigm of the study.

In the conceiving stage, requirements for knowledge in biogas, process of

anaerobic digestion, conditions and variables influencing anaerobic digestion,

organic fertilizers and its nutrient content will be considered.

In the design stage, the design layout, material specification, system

components and dimensions will be considered in the development of anaerobic

digester.

In the implementation stage, all the design requirements included in the

design stage will be considered in the fabrication of anaerobic digester. The

preliminary testing includes selecting the best proportion of raw materials using

balloon test method, mixing interval and retention time. The performance testing

of the anaerobic digester includes the production rate of biogas, biogas quality,

percent yield and the quality of fertilizer. Evaluation of the quality of the biogas to

be produced is includes the CH4, CO2, H2S, CO, and NH3.

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Lastly, the operation stage consists of fabrication of anaerobic digester. It

also includes developing an operation and maintenance manual which serves as

a guide for the operation and maintenance for the prototype will be included in this

stage.

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CONCEIVE DESIGN IMPLEMENT OPERATE

Knowledge Design Requirements Hardware Requirements

Requirements  Design Layout  Materials and

 Biogas  Fabrication of the Equipments for  Designed and


Construction
 Process of System Developed 2-in-1
 Fabrication
Anaerobic  Material Anaerobic Biogas
 Collection and
Digestion Specification Digester of
preparation of
 Conditions and  System Household Food
materials
variables Components and Animal Waste
influencing  Dimension Preliminary Testing for Biofuel
anaerobic Extraction and
 Proportion using
digestion balloon test method Organic Fertilizer
 Organic Fertilizers  Agitator speed Production
 Nutrient contents  Retention time
of fertilizers  Operation and
Performance Testing
Maintenance
 Production Rate Manual
Technical
Requirements  Biogas Quality
 Percent Yield
 Performance of the
Digester  Fertilizer Quality

 Reliability of biogas
and digestate

Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the Study


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Definition of Terms

For further understanding, the following terms are conceptually and

operationally defined.

Acetogenesis.It is the third stage of anaerobic digestion wherein the

organic acids and alcohols from acidogenesis process are broken down into

hydrogen, acetic acid and carbon dioxide that will be digested in the final stage

where biogas will be produced. In this study, the organic acids and alcohols from

the substrate which is the mixture of household food wastes, animal wastes and

water will break down for biogas production.

Acidogenesis. The products of hydrolysis that further decompose the

products into volatile fatty acids (VFA), alcohols and carbonic acids. In this study,

it is the second stage of anaerobic digestion where household food wastes and

animal wastes are mixed with water are being metabolized by the acidogenic

bacteria to produce chain fatty acids and alcohol.

Anaerobic digestion. It is the process of cultivating methanogens in an

oxygen-free environment. In this study, it is the process that will be used in the

prototype to achieve a large amount of methanogen population to produce

methane.

Biogas. It is a mixture of different gases, mainly methane and carbon

dioxide, which will be produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence

of oxygen. In this study, the biogas will be used as an alternative to cooking fuel.

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Biomass. It refers to a fuel that will be developed from organic materials, a

renewable and sustainable source of energy to produce electricity or other forms

of power. In this study, household food wastes and animal wastes will be used as

biomass to produce biogas for cooking purposes.

Digestate. It is the byproduct of anaerobic digestion which may be utilize

as a fertilizer. In this study, the digestate will be used as an alternative to

commercially available fertilizer for crops.

Hydrolysis. It is the first stage in anaerobic digestion wherein the

carbohydrates, fats and proteins will be hydrolyzed into sugars, fatty acids, and

amino acids. In this study, hydrolysis is the chemical breakdown of a compound

due to reaction with water.

Methane.It is the primary component of natural gas and a common fuel

source. In this study, methane (CH4) is the combustible gas produced from the

anaerobic digester.

Methanogens. It is the bacteria that will produce methane from the

feedstock. In this study, it is the bacteria that will be collected inside the digester

tank to produce methane.

Retention time. It is the number of days where the anaerobic process

occurs from day one to the day where the biogas yields optimum.

Slurry.It is the mixture of the wastes or other organic matter and water

processed in the digester.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter discusses conceptual and research literature which has been

done prior to this study. Foreign and local studies have been utilized to provide

substantial background of the study.

Conceptual Literature

This section states the leading concepts that serve as the reference for the

completion of the study. This includes the details about biofuels, process of

recovering energy from household food and animal waste and the treatment of

waste after digestion process.

Biofuel

It is the type of fuel generally comes from organic matters, includes animal

waste, plant materials and human-generated waste, yield through biological

process which includes anaerobic digestion etc. It is the combustible fuel that is

generated from biomass, transform it to alternative energy via thermal, chemical

and biochemical conversion. Biomass, after treated, may result to biofuel as solid,

liquid or gas.

Based on the article, BIOFUELS: The Fuels of the Future (2010), biofuel in

any type of fuel in which the energy derived from the process of biological carbon

fixation. Biological carbon fixation occurs in living organisms. The biggest

difference between a biofuel and a fossil fuel is the time period over which the

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fixation occurs. In a biofuel, fixation occurs in months or years. In a fossil fuel,

fixation occurs over thousands or millions of years. Additionally, fossil fuels are

made entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms while biofuels contain carbon,

hydrogen, and oxygen.

Biogas is the best example of the gas state biofuels. Methane is extracted

from organic materials under the anaerobic digestion. Also according to

Biofuel.org.uk, methane can be harvested from landfills through a process known

as “landfill gas capture.” Waste can also be gasified directly at high temperatures

and with controlled concentrations of oxygen and steam to produce syngas.

Second Generation Biofuels

Second generation biofuels are the more developed version of first

generation types, in the sense that they’re typically not derived from food crops.

Hence, they pose less of a risk to the food chain. These are substances only used

as biomass after they’ve been used for their primary purpose (The Earth Project,

2018)

The fuels that is produced is extracted from food and non-food waste. It is

commonly yield from municipal waste in the landfill that exerted gas and foul odor,

agricultural waste such as sugar bagasse, corn cubs, wood chips and paper waste,

and household waste includes left-over food, vegetables and fruit scrap and animal

scrap waste. It is treated in an industrial type of operation and massive production.

Biodiesel, cellulose ethanol and biogas are naturally the by-product of this

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generation. It is very beneficial since it provides alternative source of energy from

the remains of consumption that afterwards turns into trash or waste.

Table 1.

Classification of 2nd Generation Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Feedstock.

Biofuel Group Specific Biofuel Production Process


Advanced enzymatic
Cellulosic ethanol hydrolysis and
Bioethanol
fermentation

Biomass-to-liquids (BTL)
Biomethanol Gasification and
Synthetic biofuels Heavier alcohols (butanol and synthesis
mixed)
Dimethyl ether (DME)
Gasification and
Bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG)
Biogas synthesis
Bio-methane
Anaerobic digestion
Source: Ajayi-Oyakhire and Mohammed (2012)

Biogas

Biogas refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of

organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw

materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material,

sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source.

Biogas is a combustible mixture of gases. It consists mainly of methane

(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and is formed from the anaerobic bacterial

decomposition of organic compounds, i.e. without oxygen. The gases formed are

the waste products of the respiration of these decomposer microorganisms and

the composition of the gases depends on the substance that is being decomposed.

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If the material consists of mainly carbohydrates, such as glucose and other simple

sugars and high-molecular compounds (polymers) such as cellulose and

hemicellulose, the methane production is low. However, if the fat content is high,

the methane production is likewise high (Jørgensen, 2009).

According to Dugand (2010), biogas is produced when organic material is

decomposed by specialized microorganisms under oxygen-free conditions. The

result is a gas – biogas – composed by around 65% methane (CH4) and 35%

carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases in smaller amounts. Several different

organic materials can be used for biogas production – some with more yields per

ton than other – like manure, food waste, agricultural waste or sludge from

wastewater treatment. The digestate, which is the material left after the anaerobic

digestion takes place, is a nutrient-rich organicfertilizer.

Also, Muršec et.al, (2010) stated that biogas is derived from the anaerobic

fermentation of organic matter such as manure, plants, food wastes, offal, etc…

When that organic matter is stored without the approach, a biological process

starts, resulting in biogas. Biogas from sewage digesters usually contains 55 % to

65 % methane, 35 % to 45 % carbon dioxide and <1 % nitrogen biogas from

organic waste digesters usually contains 60 % to 70 % methane, 30 % to 40%

carbon dioxide and <1 % nitrogen while in landfills the methane content is usually

45% to 55 %, 30 % to 40 % carbon dioxide and 5 % to 15 % nitrogen. Typically

the biogas also contains hydrogen sulphide and other sulphur compounds,

compounds such as siloxanes and aromatic and halogenated compounds.

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Ajayi-Oyakhire and Mohammed (2012), defined biogas as the gas produced

from the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. The raw gas is

typically composed of 60% methane (CH4) and 40% carbon dioxide, however,

depending on the source, other components can exist which include oxygen (O2),

hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), siloxanes, ammonia (NH3) and water

vapour (moisture).

Table 2.

Typical Composition of Biogas

Compound Chemical Formula %


Methane CH4 50-85
Carbon dioxide CO2 5-50
Hydrogen H2 0-1
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 0-3
Nitrogen N2 0-5
Oxygen O2 0-2
Source: Ajayi-Oyakhire et.al, 2012

In addition, Ajayi-Oyakhire et al, 2012, cited that biogas can be produced

from a range of feedstock including some biomass sources and waste streams.

Waste sources including those from food waste, energy crops, crop residues,

slurry or sewage waste, landfill gas and manure from animals can all be processed

to biogas via AD. The faster the feedstock breaks down, the better the overall

efficiency and gas yields obtained per unit of raw material.

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Table 3.

Biogas production potential from different waste

Methane content in
Raw Material Biogas Production (L/kg)
Biogas (%)
Cattle Dung 40 60.0
Green leaves and 100 65.0
twigs
Food waste 160 62.0
Bamboo dust 53 71.5
Fruit waste 91 49.2
Bagasse 330 56.9
Dry leaves 118 59.2
Non-edible oil seed 242 67.5
cakes
Source: Chuo (2011)

For most purposes, biogas can be divided into two categories: land-fill type

and anaerobic digestion type. Land-fill (LF) type biogas is produced by allowing

natural decay to occur within a land-fill producing a gas that is captured, while

anaerobic digestion biogas is produced in purpose-designed above-ground plants

to optimize the gas producing decay process for greater efficiencies.

1. Calorific Value

IRENA (2016) stated that the biogas production is usually measured or

estimated in cubic metres over a period of time, but it should be converted and

reported in energy units. The main calculations are to convert biogas production

into methane production and then convert that into energy production (in MJ).

 1 m3 of biogas = 0.65 m3 of methane

 1 m3 of methane = 34 MJ of energy

 1 m3 of biogas = 22 MJ of energy

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 1 m3/day of biogas = 8,060 MJ/year

Anaerobic Digestion

According to American Biogas Council (2015), anaerobic digestion is a

series of biological processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable

material in the absence of oxygen. One of the end products is biogas, which is

combusted to generate electricity and heat, or can be processed into renewable

natural gas and transportation fuels. A range of anaerobic digestion technologies

are converting livestock manure, municipal wastewater solids, food waste, high

strength industrial wastewater and residuals, fats, oils and grease (FOG), and

various other organic waste streams into biogas, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Costa et al (2015)stated that anaerobic digestion is the natural process in

which microorganisms break down. In this instance, “organic” means coming from

or made of plants or animals. Anaerobic digestion happens in closed spaces

where there is no air (or oxygen). Anaerobic digestion systems can minimize odors

and vector attraction, reduce pathogens, produce gas, produce liquid and solid

digestate, and reduce waste volumes.

Costa et al (2015) also added, anaerobically digesting organic carbon

involves naturally occurring bacteria. Digestion takes place when organic materials

decompose in an oxygen-free environment. Some digester systems differentiate

between “wet” and “dry” digesters, or low-solid and high-solid systems, and

sometimes the process is called fermentation.

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Figure 2. Anaerobic Digestion Cycle

(Source: Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association, 2018)

Verma (2002) described anaerobic biodegradation of organic material

proceeds in the absence of oxygen and the presence of anaerobic

microorganisms. It is the consequence of a series of metabolic interactions among

various groups of microorganisms.

Arsova (2010) also mentioned that anaerobic digestion is a microbial

decomposition of organic matter into methane, carbon dioxide, inorganic nutrients

and compost in oxygen depleted environment and presence of the hydrogen gas.

This process, also known as bio methanogenesis, occurs naturally in wetlands,

rice fields, intestines of animals, manures and aquatic sediments, and is

responsible for the carbon cycle in the ecosystems.

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Phases of Anaerobic Digestion

Appels et al (2008) specified that the anaerobic digestion of organic material

basically follows; hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.

Anaerobic digestion is a complex process which requires strict anaerobic

conditions to proceed, and depends on the coordinated activity of a complex

microbial association to transform organic material into mostly CO2 and methane

(CH4). Despite the successive steps, hydrolysis is generally considered as rate

limiting.

Figure 3. Anaerobic Digestion Process


(Source: Appels et al ,2008)

1. Hydrolysis

Manyi-Loh et al (2013) addressed that during hydrolysis, complex polymers

like carbohydrates, proteins and fats are being degraded into sugars, amino acids

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and long chain fatty acids respectively. This breaking down process occurs

primarily through the activity of extracellular enzymes (lipases, proteases,

cellulases& amylases) secreted by hydrolytic bacteria attached to a polymeric

substrate. In addition, Appels et al (2008) stated the hydrolysis step degrades both

insoluble organic material and high molecular weight compounds such as lipids,

polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids, into soluble organic substances (e.g.

amino acids and fatty acids). As cited by Verma (2002), the hydrolytic activity is of

significant importance in high organic waste and may become rate limiting.

Nursanto (2017) showed that hydrolysis of particulates are modelled as a first

order reaction with respect to hydrolysable compounds at the rate of 0.3 – 0.7 per

day.

2. Acidogenisis

According to Dr. Caroline E. Burgess Clifford (2018), during acidogenesis,

soluble monomers are converted into small organic compounds, such as short

chain (volatile) acids (propionic, formic, lactic, butyric, succinic acids), ketones

(glycerol, acetone), and alcohols (ethanol, methanol)

3. Acetogenisis

Gould (2012) discussed, in general, acetogenesis is the creation of acetate,

a derivative of acetic acid, from carbon and energy sources by acetogens.

Acetogens catabolize many of the products created in acidogenesis into acetic

acid, CO2 and H2, which are used by methanogens to create methane.

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Appels et al (2008) emphasized that this conversion is controlled to a large

extent by the partial pressure of H2 in the mixture. Also Manyi-Loh et al (2013),

stressed that acetate, carbon dioxide, formate, methylamines, methyl sulphide,

acetone and methanol produced in this phase can be directly utilized for

methanogenesis. Consequently, the other intermediary products from

acidogenesis are converted to acetate, formate or CO2 & H2 by

syntrophicacetogens in a bid to maximize methane production. Nursanto (2017)

added, the growth rate of acetogenic organisms is slightly higher than

methanogenic organisms but still lower than fermentation. The µm (maximum

specific growth rate) of the microorganisms are ~ 0.5 – 0.8 per day.

4. Methanogenesis

The final stage of methanogenesis produces methane by two groups of

methanogenic bacteria: the first group splits acetate into methane and carbon

dioxide and the second group uses hydrogen as electron donor and carbon dioxide

as acceptor to produce methane. (Appels et al, 2008). Nursanto (2017) illustrated

The growth rate of methanogenic organisms is low, µm are recorded at range ~

0.3 – 0.5 per day.

Methane is produced during methanogenesis by methanogens in two ways:

either through cleavage of acetic acid molecules to produce methane and carbon

dioxide or reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen by acetotrophic and

hydrogenotrophic methanogens, respectively. (Manyi-Loh et al, 2013)

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Table 4.

Parameters of biogas production during 4 stages of anaerobic digestion

Parameter I-III stages IV stage

Temperature 25-35oC Mesophilic:32-42oC;

Thermophilic:50-65oC

PH value 5.2-6.3 6.7-7.5

C:N ratio 10-45 20-30

DM content <40% Dry matter <30% Dry matter

Required C:N:P:S ratio 500:15:5:3 600:15:5:3

(Source: Guo, 2010 )

Substrate and Co-Digestion Substrate

Livestock manure and many other substrate including food processing

wastes such as cheese whey, yogurt, factory wastewater, sugarbeet processing

wastewater, and fruit and vegetable waste are commonly used feedstock. (Chen

and Neibling, 2014)

Substrates are the organic feedstocks for anaerobic digestion applications.

Substrates that attracted recent research interests included the algal biomass and

wastes from other treatment units. Maize silage has become a substrate of focus

in Germany since excess anaerobic digestion plants are recently installed and

operated. Estimation of methane productivity from specific substrates is also of

practical interest for anaerobic digestion research. (Zhang et al, 2016)

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Wei Wu (2007) specified that co-digestion is the simultaneous digestion of

a homogenous mixture of multiple substrates. The most common situation is when

a major amount of main basic substrates is mixed and digested together with minor

amounts of a single, or a variety of additional substrates. Recent research

demonstrates that using co-substrates in anaerobic digestion systems improves

biogas yields through positives synergisms established in the digestion medium

and the supply of missing nutrients by the co-substrates.

According to the article published by Dennis Totzke in Biocycle Magazine

(2009), co-digestion refers to the anaerobic digestion of multiple biodegradable

substrates (feedstocks) in an AD system. The general idea is to maximize the

production of biogas in an AD plant by adding substrates that produce much more

biogas per unit mass than the base substrate. Two readily available substrates –

municipal biosolids and agricultural manure – are the base substrates most often

utilized and are located near the bottom of the “biogas per unit mass” scale.

Factors that Influence Anaerobic Digestion

There are some factors that is needed to be considered and controlled in

order to obtain the desired outcome in an anaerobic digestion. Design parameters

must be properly observed, measured, and regulated to achieve the maximum

efficiency of the process.

1. Pretreatment

Pretreatment process exercise prior to the feeding and digestion proper.

This includes the preparation of material that will undergo biological breakdown in

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the selected type of biogas reactor. Particle size and ratio of different substrates

are taking in consideration in order to achieve the highest possible efficiency of

methane production.

Lu et al (2017) cited that pretreatment is a crucial step for valorization of

lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products such as H2, ethanol, acids, and

methane. Precise pretreatment is defined as the pretreatment measures that are

carefully selected, optimized, combined, and customized, precisely according to

the modification mechanism of each measure and the potential effect on the

subsequent product-oriented utilization; the potential effect of each measure is fully

expectable and controllable. Also,Harmsen et al (2010) specified pretreatment

involves the alteration of biomass so that (enzymatic) hydrolysis of cellulose and

hemicellulose can be achieved more rapidly and with greater yields. Mechanical

methods such as chipping, grinding and milling (often referred to as physical

methods) reduce crystallinity but more importantly give reduction of particle size,

make material handling easier and increase surface/volume ratio. Chemical

pretreatments that use chemicals like alkalis, ozone, peroxide, or organic solvents

are largely focussed on lignin removal, which in turn leads to an enhanced

enzymatic degradability of cellulose.

2.Temperature

Singh et al (2017) showed the efficiency of plant is maximum at ideal

temperature and it falls with increase and decrease in temperature. These

temperatures decide the inhibition/stimulation of a particular microorganism kind

(for instance, an optimal temperature for the survival of thermophilic and

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mesophilic bacteria are 55oC and 35oC, respectively). They also added that the

microorganisms (specifically, the methanogenic kind of bacteria) that take part in

anaerobic digestion are largely categorized into three types as follows:

 Thermophiles: It occupies the area of thermophilic digestive regime and the

range of temperature for its operation is between 50°C and 60°C.

 Cryophiles (Psychrophiles): It occupies the area of cryophilic digestive

regime and the range of temperature for its operation is between 12°C and

24°C.

 Mesophiles: It occupies the area of mesophilic digestive regime and the

range of temperature for its operation is between 22°C and 40°C.

3. VS, TS and VFA

In an article of Corrosionpedia.com (2018) a volatile solid (VS) is a

substance that can easily transform from its phase to its vapor phase without going

through a liquid phase. The greater the concentration of organic or volatile solids,

the stronger the wastewater. It is helpful when assessing the amount of biologically

inert organic matter, such as lignin, in the case of wood pulp waste liquids. On the

other hand, total solid (TS) is a measurement that includes the combination of total

dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A higher total solids level indicates

that there is a high level of solid material in a water sample.

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are preferred valuable resources, which can be

produced from anaerobic digestion process (Yang et al, 2016). The produced VFA

27
composition is important as it can provide useful information regarding the degree

of hydrolysis and fermentation (Wang et al, 2014)

4. pH Value and Alkalinity

According to Department of Conservation of Vermont, the pH level is rarely

taken as a measure of substrate acids and/or potential biogas yield. A digester

containing a high volatile-acid concentration requires a somewhat higher-than-

normal pH value. If the pH value drops below 6.2, the medium will have a toxic

effect on the methanogenic bacteria. However, the alkalinity, or buffering capacity,

of the system is the ability of the solution to resist massive changes in pH as acid

are added and helps to stabilized the pH in the optimum range for the methane

formers.

The growth of anaerobic process microorganism significantly depends on

the pH value of the system. Most methanogens prefer a narrow pH range and the

optimal is reported to be 7 to 8. Acidogens usually have a lower value of optimum

pH. The optimum pH interval for mesophilic digestion is between 6.5 and 8 and the

process is severely inhibited if the pH value falls out of this range (Seadi et al,

2008).

5. Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio (C/N)

Carbon and nitrogen ratio or the C:N ratio indicates the amount or content

of carbon and nitrogen present in a particular solution or mixture of materials. It is

the proportion of those two element appearsin an organic materials subjected to

28
any certain activities. Value of the ratio may affects the conditions of the anaerobic

digestion process.

Orhorhoro et al, 2016, implies that the higher the C/N ratio of substrates

composition, the longer the digestion of the substrates. On the other hand the

lower the C/N ratio the faster the digestion of substrates and the shorter the

hydraulic retention time.

6. Hydraulic Retention Time

Favoino et al (2013) defined Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT), the calculated

mean time the feedstock is retained in the fermenter until being thrown out in a

continuous system.Gerardi (2003) added, the conversion of volatile solids to

gaseous products in an anaerobic digester is controlled by the HRT. The design

of the HRT is a function of the final disposition of the digested sludge. The HRT

may be relatively high or low, if the digested sludge is to be land applied or

incinerated, respectively. However, increases in detention time >12 days do not

contribute significantly to increased destruction of volatile solids.

7. Loading System and Loading Rate

Reactors loading systems define either batch processes, or continuous

processes; in the latter case, the digesters are periodically (daily or every few

hours) fed with a given amount of waste, and an equal amount of digestate is

withdrawn. If batch technologies are considered easier to be managed, a higher

specific biogas production is generally granted by continuous processes, where

microbial kinetics are constantly kept at their best. (Favoino et al, 2013)

29
The organic loading rate (OLR) is an important parameter because it

indicates the amount of volatile solids to be fed into the digester each day. The

actual loading rate depends on the types of wastes fed into the digester [6],

because the types of waste determine the level of biochemical activity that will

occur in the digester. (Mattocks, 1984 cited by Babaee and Shayegan, 2011)

8. Agitation

The term “agitation” subsumes different ways of homogenizing the

substrate or mixing it with water and co-substrate: Mixing and homogenizing the

substrate in the mixing chamber, agitation inside the digester and poking through

the in- and outlet pipes (small scale plants). The most important objectives of

agitation are; removal of metabolites produced by methanogens (gas), mixing of

fresh substrate and bacterial population (inoculation), preclusion of scum formation

and sedimentation, avoidance of pronounced temperature gradients within the

digester, provision of uniform bacterial population density and prevention of the

formation of dead spaces that would reduce the effective digester volume. (Keanoi

et al, 2014)

Inhibition Factors

Cornet (2017) stated, the production of biogas by utilizing the anaerobic

digestion process is an economically and ecologically interesting process.

However, the microbial community and the chemical balances of the anaerobic

digestion process are vulnerable to a range of inhibitors. Determining inhibitors

30
and solving the problems that come along is key to increase methane yields in the

biogas production.

Microbial community is the group of microorganism the lives and present in

the same environment. Bajpai (2017) discussed, in anaerobic processes where

inorganic sulphur is constituent of the wastewater, the sulphate-reducing

bacteria—Desulfovibreo are also of importance. Sulphate and/or sulphite is

present in most effluents from acid sulphite, neutral sulphitesemichemical (NSSC),

Kraft, chemimechanical (CMP) and chemithermomechanical pulp mills and where

aluminum sulphate is used as a sizing agent for paper production. The sulphur-

reducing bacteria use sulphate and sulphite as electron acceptors in the

metabolism of organic compound to produce hydrogen sulphide and carbon

dioxide as end products. Sulphur reduction can become a significant factor in the

performance and operation of pulp and paper anaerobic treatment systems. The

hydrogen sulphide produced can be both toxic and corrosive. The sulphur reducing

and the methane bacteria use and compete for the same organic compounds,

reducing methane yield per unit of substrate removed.

Another inhibitory factor is the accumulation of ammonium and ammonia.

As cited in the study of Cornet (2017), in water ammonia is present in two forms,

a protonated form of ammonia named ammonium (NH4 +) and free ammonia

(NH3). The protonated form is not believed to have a negative effect on the

anaerobic digestion system. On the contrary, NH4 + is actively taken up by some

of the microbes as a nitrogen source. The free form of ammonia is the more

troubling compound for the system.In the research made by Strik et al (2005) it

31
was shown that ammonia can be present in biogas of thermophilic anaerobic

digestion. A maximum NH3 concentration in biogas of 332 ppm was measured. It

could be expected that in biogas from the full scale digestion of livestock waste

NH3 will be present. To protect the environment against extra NO x emissions and

to make a potential biogas fuel cell application possible, it is important to monitor

the NH3 in biogas and take the necessary measures to reduce this.

Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) amass during anaerobic digestion restrain

the production of methane. Hanaki et al.(1981), as mentioned by Alves et al.

(1997),stated that the conversion of lipids to long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and

glycerol is not rate limiting but LCFA are known to be inhibitors at very low

concentrations and may cause severe damage in anaerobic treatment systems.

As concluded in the investigation conducted by Alves et al. (1997), the presence

of lipids affected the distribution of adhered and entrapped biomass without

affecting the total amount of biomass accumulated. The butyrate activity was

enhanced by the presence of lipids and the contact with lipids rendered the

acetoclastic bacteria more susceptible to the presence of sodium oleate.

When biogas leaves the digester, it is saturated with water vapours and

contains, in addition to methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), various amounts

of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Hydrogen sulphide is a toxic gas, with a specific,

unpleasant odour, similar to rotten eggs, forming sulphuric acid in combination with

the water vapours in biogas.The biogas produced by co-digestion of animal

manure with other substrates can contain various levels of H2S. Most of the

conventional engines used for CHP generation need biogas with levels of H 2S

32
below 700 ppm, in order to avoid excessive corrosion and rapid and expensive

deterioration of lubrication oil.

Safety

For the safety of the process and the elimination of harmful effect of

anaerobic digestion properties constituted in the system must take in

consideration. In line with this, Chen and Neibling (2014) elaborated that methane

(the major component of biogas generated from anaerobic digestion), when mixed

with air, is highly explosive. In addition, biogas is heavier than air, and it displaces

oxygen near the ground if it leaks from a digester and accumulates in a non-

ventilated space. Further, biogas can act as a deadly poison if H2S is present,

which occurs most commonly in the biogas from anaerobic digestion of manure.

Types of Anaerobic Digester

An article of Extension, Animal Manure Management, (2012) shared that

anaerobic digester designs arise in accordance to the qualification and suitability

of the system in a certain location. As enumerated in articles.extention.org, under

Animal Manure Management, there are a wide variety of anaerobic digesters, each

performing this basic function in a subtly different way. Seven of the most common

digesters are described in this article. Construction and material handling

techniques can vary greatly within the main categories.

For clarity, we can divide digesters into three categories:

 Passive Systems: Biogas recovery is added to an existing treatment

component.

33
 Low Rate Systems: Manure flowing through the digester is the main source

of methane-forming microorganisms.

 High Rate Systems: Methane-forming microorganisms are trapped in the

digester to increase efficiency.

1. Covered Lagoon

Described in an article Build-a-Biogas-Plant.com (2014), covered lagoon

digesters are generally fully covered lagoons although there are floating type cover

partial systems used to collect methane from these ponds. More often than not the

systems are built around manure discharges or effluent from dairy or piggery

operations. They can be a cost effective method of reducing odors, greenhouse

gas emissions, potential water quality impacts and of course the production of

biogas to generate electricity and/or process heat. The surface covers are secured

around the pond sometimes by burying in a perimeter trench or by anchoring to a

concrete perimeter curb. Covered lagoon digesters use covers that are made from

high density polyethylene or polypropylene and some of these materials have a

life span of more than 20 years and can also be easily repaired.

34
Figure 4. Covered Lagoon Digester
(Source:Build-a-Biogas-Plant.com, 2014)

2. Complete Mix Digester

Research Energy Institute (2007) described complete mix digester as one

of the basic types of anaerobic digesters comprised of a sealed tank that organic

waste materials, principally manure as generated at a dairy farm, is heated and

mixed with microorganisms for breaking down the waste. The incoming liquid

displaces an equal amount of liquid in the complete mix digester, and an equal

amount exits. Biogas (methane or ch4) is generated inside of the complete mix

digester which is then extracted from the top of the digester for biogas processing

and upgrading into "biomethane" which can then be sold as natural gas to a natural

gas pipeline, or used as a substitute fuel for natural gas. Retention times for a

complete mix digester are in the 21 - 30 day range.

35
Figure 5. Complete Mix Digester
(Source:Research Energy Institute (2007)

3. Plug Flow Digester

This type of digesters are unmixed systems that works on a semi-

continuous mode by regularly receiving untreated wastes in one side of the reactor,

and ejecting digested waste out at the end of the digester. Manure in a plug-flow

digester does not mix longitudinally on its way through the digester. It advances

towards the outlet as a plug whenever new manure is added. When the waste

reaches the outlet, it discharges over an outlet weir arranged to maintain a gas

tight atmosphere, but still allow the effluent to flow out. Actually the waste does not

remain as a plug, and part of the manure flows through the digester faster than

other that stays longer (EBIMUN: Evaluation of biomass resources for

municipalities).

36
Figure 6. Plug Flow Digester
(Source: EBIMUN: Evaluation of biomass resources for municipalities)

4. Fixed Film Digester

The basic fixed-film digester design consists of a tank filled with plastic

media on which consortia of bacteria attach and grow as a slime layer or biofilm

— hence the name “fixed-film” digester. The media is fully submerged and

wastewater flow can be in either the upflow or downflow mode. As the wastewater

passes through the media-filled reactor, the attached and suspended anaerobic

biomass convert both soluble and particulate organic matter in the wastewater to

biogas, a mixture of mostly methane and carbon dioxide. Being a completely

closed system, however, a fixed-film digester allows more complete anaerobic

digestion of the odorous organic intermediates found in stored manure to less

offensive compounds (Wilkie, 2000).

37
Figure 7. Fixed Film Digester
(Source: Wilkie, 2000)
5. Suspended Media Digester

In these types of digesters, microbes are suspended in a constant upward

flow of liquid. Flow is adjusted to allow smaller particles to wash out, while allowing

larger ones to remain in the digester. Microorganisms form biofilms around the

larger particles, and methane formers stay in the digester. Effluent is sometimes

recycled to provide steady upward flow. Some designs incorporate an artificial

media such as sand for microbes to form a biofilm; these are called fluidized bed

digesters.Suspended media digesters that rely on manure particles to provide

attachment surfaces come in many variations. Two common types of suspended

media digesters are the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digester, or UASB

digester and the induced blanket reactor, or IBR digester. The main difference

between these two systems is that UASB digesters are better suited for dilute

waste streams (<3-percent total suspended solids); whereas, the IBR digester

38
works best with highly concentrated wastes (6 percent to 12 percent TS)(An article

of Extension, Animal Manure Management, 2012)

Figure 8. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Digester


(Source: Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2016)

Figure 9. Induced Blanket Reactor (IBR) Digester


(Source:Bio-Energetik Systems)

39
6. Sequencing Batch Digester

According to Qualicom Solutions Ltd, sequencing batch reactors (SBR) or

sequential batch reactors are industrial processing tanks for the treatment of

wastewater. SBR reactors treat wastewater such as sewage or output from

anaerobic digesters or mechanical biological treatment facilities in batches.

Oxygen is bubbled through the wastewater to reduce biochemical oxygen demand

(BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which makes the effluent suitable for

discharge to surface waters or for use on land.

Figure 10. Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) (Source: Qualicom Solutions Ltd)

Digestate

Another product being generated after anaerobic digestion is the digestate.

It is the effluent material excreted in the digestion tank which happens during the

feeding of the raw materials that will subject to biological degradation. It is also the

outgoing substance of the process in order to maintain the capacity of feed

elements inside the reactor.

Also,The Official Information Portal on Anaerobic Digestion

(2009)explained that digestate is a nutrient-rich substance produced by anaerobic


40
digestion that can be used as a fertiliser. It consists of left over indigestible material

and dead micro-organisms - the volume of digestate will be around 90-95% of what

was fed into the digester. Digestate is not compost, although it has some similar

characteristics.

As per Lukehurst et al, (2010) comparing with raw slurry, digestate has

fewer odours, percolates more quickly into the soil and has a much lower risk of

odour nuisance during and after spreading. However, because digestate is higher

in ammonia content than raw slurry the potential for ammonia volatilisation during

and after digestate application is greater. The most suitable methods of application

are therefore those that minimise the surface area exposed to air and also ensure

contact with the topsoil.

Digestate is produced both by acidogenesis and methanogenesis and each

has different characteristics. The acidogenic stage digestate is largely unaltered

during the subsequent methanogenic stage when the methane producing

organisms are active.It is the acidogenicdigestate that possess the high moisture

retention properties which are much valued by farmers. The raw digestate usually

also contains minerals, and the remains of the micro-organisms (mainly bacteria)

which were active during the digestion process.Methanogenicdigestate is a liquid

or sludge (sometimes called liquor). This would usually be high in nutrients such

as ammonium and phosphates.( The Official Information Portal on Anaerobic

Digestion, 2009)

41
Composition of Digestate

The composition of the fertilizing agents in a digestate depends to a large

extent on the feedstock, and can therefore vary substantially. However, the

availability of nutrients is invariably higher in digestate than in untreated organic

waste (anaerobic-digestion.com).All the nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium

present in the feedstock will remain in the digestate as none is present in the

biogas (The Official Information Portal on Anaerobic Digestion, 2009).

1. Nitrogen (N)

The Article of Waste & Resources Action Programme (2012 ) shown that

an impressive 80% of the total nitrogen in food-based digestate is present as

readily available nitrogen. This high level of availability means that digestate can

be used as a direct replacement for ‘bagged’ nitrogen fertilizer. Digestion of

livestock slurry will typically increase availability of the nitrogen in the slurry by

around 10%. In addition, Prasa et al (2012) concluded that the nitrogen content of

digest can vary a great deal not only due to nitrogen volatilization but also due to

feedstock. Manure type of feedstock for e.g. poultry manure would give a higher

nitrogen content and presumably higher nitrogen availability per unit of nitrogen

than a feedstock based mostly on an energy crop e.g. maize.

2. Phosphorus (P)

Moller and Muller (2012), as cited from previous studies, explained that as

a constituent of adenylates, nucleic acids and phospholipids, phosphorus is an

important plant macronutrient. The natural supply of P in most soils is small and

42
the availability of P in the soil solution is usually very low. It is often stated that

degradation processes during AD will improve phosphorus (P) plant availability.

Concerning the effects of AD on P losses, while passing through the biogas plant,

small amounts of P (<10%) are lost. Few paper indicate much higher P losses up

to 25% or even 36% . The probable causes are partial retention in the digesters

due to the precipitation processes. No studies about the effects of AD on P losses

via leaching and runoff after field application were found. The loss of P in surface

runoff occurs as sediment-bound and in dissolved forms.

3. Potassium (K)

Prasa et al (2012) shared, total potassium gives a good indication of plant

availability in contrast to total nitrogen or even phosphorous as potassium is not

bound into the structural part of the plants and occurs in the plant sap. Other

definition was mentioned by Koszela andLorencowicza (2015) characterized

Potassium as a macroelement which has a fundamental significance for plant

nutrition. It plays a key role in plant water balance, activates enzymes, takes part

in the process of photosynthesis and transportation of assimilates, and also

activates sensitivity to water stress associated with drought.

4. Heavy Metals

According to Valeur (2011), heavy metal in digestate may pose an

environmental risk if the digestate is to be spread on arable land, because the

metals directly harm microorganisms and plants, and may accumulate in plants

43
and lead to health effect, such as oxidative stress, in animals and humans. Heavy

metals includes Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg and Pb.

Digestate as Fertilizer

The nutrients are considerably more available than in raw slurry, meaning

it is easier for plants to make use of the nutrients. The exact composition of

digestate is determined by the plants diet. However, some typical values for

nutrients are:

 Nitrogen: 2.3 - 4.2 kg/tonne

 Phosphorous: 0.2 - 1.5 kg/tonne

 Potassium: 1.3 - 5.2 kg/tonne (The Official Information Portal on Anaerobic

Digestion, 2009).

L. John Fry (1973) commended that most solids not converted into methane

settle out in the digester as a liquid sludge. Although varying with the raw materials

used and the conditions of digestion, this sludge contains many elements essential

to plant life: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium plus small amounts of metallic salts

(trace elements) indispensable for plant growth such as boron, calcium, copper,

iron, magnesium, sulfur, zinc, etc.

Fertilizing fields with digestate brings destruction of possible pathogens.

Digestate utilization as a fertilizer brings tangible benefits in agricultural production,

but it is also a product, the application of which can reduce the negative effects of

mineral fertilization and contribute to development of sustainable agriculture

44
(Koszel et al, 2018). In addition, as cited in their study from other reviews, they

stated that the use of post-digestion liquid as a fertilizer brings substantial benefits

for agriculture; the possibility of using fermented biomass as a fertilizer contributes

to improved soil fertility and higher crop yields. The utilization of post-digestion

liquid as a fertilizer leads to the reduction of the use of mineral fertilizers.

Thedigestate does not contain any heavy metals, and consequently can be used

as a mineral fertilizer, which is an important step towards better environmental

protection.

Diminution of Odor

One of the main concern circulating around the anaerobic digestion effluent

substances was the odor yielded in the digestate. Since raw materials were

organic matter, it is given that once exposed in the decomposition stage, foul odor

occurred. But in some previous studies, one of the noticeable positive changes

which take place through anaerobic digestion of manure is the significant reduction

of odoriferous substances (volatile acids, phenol and phenol derivatives) (Al Seadi

et al, 2008). This statements was likewise agreed by the research made Hansen

et al. (2004), cited by Lukehurst et al, (2010) showed that digestion significantly

reduced concentrations of many of these compounds, such that their potential for

giving rise to offensive and lingering odors during storage and spreading was

significantly reduced. Thereafter, the use of appropriate spreading methods can

prevent the release of any residual odor.

45
Figure 11. Concentration of VFA in untreated slurry and digested slurry
(Hansen et al., 2004, cited by Lukehurst 2010)

Pathogens

Saunders (2013) characterized manure as a biologically active material that

hosts and supports many microorganisms and thus can seldom be considered

“pathogen free.” Certain manure handling techniques and methods, however, can

limit the production and multiplication of such pathogens. Common sense must be

used when making manure handling decisions. Pathogens are microbes such as

bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and other organisms that cause disease.

Digestate conditioning

Al Seadi et al (2008) stated that digestate has a high water content and

consequently high volume. Conditioning of digestate aims to reduce the volume

and to concentrate the nutrients. This is particularly important if digestate has to

be transported away from the areas where there is an excess of nutrients from

animal manure but not sufficient land available for their application. The nutrients

46
in excess must be transported to other areas in an economic and efficient way.

Digestate conditioning aims to reduce volume and by this the nutrient

transportation costs as well as to reduce emissions of pollutants and odours.

Sludge Dewatering

According to Tesfamariam et al, (2018), dewatering is a post sludge-

treatment technology that is employed to reduce sludge volume by reducing its

water content and increasing solid concentration, hence enhancing its handling

and transportation during disposal.Likewise, an article of NPTEL IIT Kharagpur

Web Courses, stated that the digestion of the primary or mixed sludge will bring

down the water content to about 90%; however, treatment is necessary to reduce

the water content further. When digested sludge is applied on the sludge drying

beds, the water content of the sludge can be reduced to around 70%.

Sludge drying bed

Wang et al (2007), said that sludge drying beds are used to dewater sludge

both by draining through the sludgemass and by evaporation from the surface

exposed to the air. Furthermore, an article of NPTEL IIT Kharagpur Web Courses,

illustrated the major portion of the liquid drains off in the first few hours after which

drying occur due to evaporation. Sludge cake shrinks, producing cracks which

further accelerate evaporation from the sludge surface. In dry region generally the

sludge will get dried within two weeks.

47
Figure 13. Design of Sludge Drying Beds
(Source:Bhagwat, 2018)

Tchobanoglous et al. (2003) as cited by Bhagwat (2018), shared the typical

conventional SDB has dimensions of 6 m width, 6 - 30 m length, with sand layer

ranging from 230 – 300 mm depth. The sand should have a uniformity coefficient

of not over 4.0 and effective size of 0.3 to 0.75 mm. The piping to the sludge drying

beds should be designed for velocity of at-least 0.75 m/s. In addition, the sludge is

placed on the bed in 20–30 cm layers and allowed to dry. Sludge cake removal is

manual by shovelling into wheel-barrows, trucks, scraper, or front-end loader. The

drying period is 10–15 days, and the moisture content of the cake is 60 – 70%

(Bhagwat, 2018).

Research Literature

In this part, foreign and local researches are being cited to provide

substantial background on the validation of the study regarding in the design and
48
development of 2-in-1 anaerobic biogas digester of household food and animal

waste for biofuel extraction and organic fertilizer production. This section furnish

confirmable findings and reviews that will give direction to the study.

Foreign Literature

Ajayi-Oyakhire and Mohammed (2012) characterized biofuels as a type of

fuel derived from organic matter (broadly described as biomass) produced by living

organisms i.e. plants and animals. Biomass can be converted to an energy-rich

gas (biogas or bio-SNG) that can be used in boilers and gas turbines to generate

heat and electricity, used in gas-fuelled transport as compressed biomethane

(CBM) or supplied to the gas grid.

Eisentraut (2010) stated that biomass is the oldest source of energy and

currently accounts for roughly 10% of total primary energy consumption. While

traditional biomass in form of fuel wood still is the main source of bioenergy, liquid

biofuel production has shown rapid growth during the last decade.

Previousresearchers identified the problem in using the materials under the first

generation type which mainly exploiting the food crops that caused major loss in

food economic of a certain community. An article in the sites.google.com, under

Biotech Biofuels 4, explained that the goal of second generation biofuel processes

is to extend the amount of biofuel that can be produced sustainably by using

biomass comprised of the residual non-food parts of current crops, such as them

stems, leaves and husks that are left behind once the food crop has been

extracted, as well as other crops that are not used for food purposes, such as

49
switch grass, cereals that bear little grain and more fibre, and also industry waste

such as wood chips, skins and pulp from fruit pressing etc.

Biogas produce from the utilization of biodegradable waste after human

consumption and animal manure categorically falls under the second generation

type. According to Al Seadi et al (2008) production of biogas through anaerobic

digestion (AD) of animal manure and slurries as well as of a wide range of

digestible organic wastes, converts these substrates into renewable energy and

offers a natural fertiliser for agriculture. At the same time, it removes the organic

fraction from the overall waste streams, increasing this way the efficiency of energy

conversion by incineration of the remaining wastes and the biochemical stability of

landfill sites.

Assertion was made in an article of Jarvie (2018) explicated that anaerobic

digestion was a chemical process in which organic matter is broken down by

microorganisms in the absence of oxygen, which results in the generation

of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Materials high in organic content,

such as municipal wastewater, livestock waste, agricultural waste, and food

wastes, may all undergo anaerobic digestion. The methane gas produced may be

collected and used directly as a fuel for cooking or heating, or it can be burned to

generate electricity. Unlike the production of methane from gas wells, anaerobic

digestion is a renewable source of energy.Shalaby (2013) further discussed

thatmethane fermentation was a versatile biotechnology capable of converting

almost all types of polymeric materials to methane and carbon dioxide under

anaerobic conditions.Methane fermentation is the consequence of a series of

50
metabolic interactions among various groups of microorganisms. A description of

microorganisms involved in methane fermentation, based on an analysis of

bacteria isolated from sewage sludge digesters and from the rumen of some

animals.

With regards to the digestion process, Dr. Caroline Burgess Clifford, from

her lesson on Alternative Fuels from Biomass Sources, explained that there are

variations in the operational factors and environmental conditions of the digester.

Mixing is one important factor in any reaction. The goal of mixing is to keep the

microorganisms in close interaction with the feed and nutrients. Mixing also

prevents the formation of a floating crust layer, which can reduce the amount of

biogas percolating out of the slurry. Mixing will benefit the breakdown of volatile

solids and increase biogas production, but keep in mind mixing adds energy cost,

so this must be balanced.

Lindmark et al. cited from previous studies that the continuously stirred tank

reactor (CSTR) is a very common digester design where the content is mixed

continuously to maintain the solids in suspension and to form a homogenous

mixture. Intermittent mixing means that mixing is turned on and off according to a

preset time interval that can range from a few seconds of mixing per day to an

almost continuous mixing mode. Gas release from the liquid digestate in

intermittently mixed digesters has been shown to increase by up to 70% during

mixing periods. This implies that gas release is impeded in the unmixed condition

and that mixing increases the mass transfer of the gas from the liquid phase to the

gas phase. In addition, Reactors used in wet digestion processes generally are

51
referred to as continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR), with application of

mechanical mixers or a combination of mechanical mixing and biogas injection

(Banks and Stentiford, 2007, Nayono et al, 2009).

Vesvikar and Al –Dahhan (2006) illustrated,mixing can be provided by

various methods: Mechanical agitation, Recirculation of biogas, Recirculation of

digester slurry, sometimes no mixing (plug flow reactor or lagoons).

Table 5.

Impact of Mixing

Biogas Methane yield


% TS % VS
Type of Mixing production rate (L/gm VS
reduction reduction
(L/L/day) Loaded)
Unmixed 0.92 0.19 41 35
Gas mixed 1.07 0.21 49 39
Impeller Mixed 1.14 0.23 47 41
Slurry Recirculation 1.20 0.24 45 35
Source: Vesvikar and Al –Dahhan (2006)
In the experiment made by Sindal et al., it was showed that it can be seen

that a mixing speed of 200 rpm led to serious reduction in biogas production,

whilst mixing at 50 rpm allowed an increase in biogas production. There appears

to be a velocity gradient threshold above which increased mixing becomes

counter-productive and biogas production falls. This conclusion was agreed by

Hoffman et al (2008) in which they explained that the intense mixing showed a

negative effect during the initial startup. Thus, to prevent digester failure during the

initial startup period, intense mixing should be avoided. Mixing intensity affected

the competition between the acetoclastioc methanogens M. concilii and

Methanosarcina spp. with the latter becoming important in the intensely mixed

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digesters. Since the presence of Methanosarcina spp. resulted in more stable

digesters, the long-term stability may have been positively affected by increased

mixing intensities.

Coker and Smith (2017) explained, the good and reliable mixing in digesters

will provide a more uniform environment for microbial degradation, enhance

biological reaction rates, improve volatile solids reduction efficiencies and reduce

potential for process upsets while improving the operating safety margin at the

facility.

Mixing process helps increase the presence of volatile solids in total solid

contents, which has the great positive effect in biogas extraction. As deduced in

the study made by Orhorhoro et al (2017), the results obtained reveal that bio-

digesters should be run at 10.16% total solids, since maximum biogas generation

was obtained at this percentage total solid concentration. The results obtained

from the experiment show a significant decrease in percentage total solid below

the optimum value (10.16%). Moreover, biogas production was reduced due to

increase in percentage total solid above 10.16. Also, increase in percentage

volatile solid resulted to higher quantities of cumulative biogas generated.

Therefore, for optimum biogas yield, percentage total solid of 10.16% is

recommended.

Manyi-Loh et al, (2013) described HRT as the average period of time that

the substrate resides in the anaerobic digester and OLR describes the amount of

organic matter expressed in g COD/L or g TS/L or g VS/L added to the digester

per reactor volume and unit time. Dareioti and Kornaros (2014) concluded, at

53
higher HRTs vast amounts of VFAs could be produced accompanied by lower

hydrogen productivity, whereas, Gaby et al (2017) added, from their study, that the

ammonium levels in the methanogenic reactors were about 950 mg/L NH4 + when

HRT was 17 days but were reduced to 550 mg/L NH4 + at 10 days HRT. Methane

production increased from ~ 3600 mL/day to ~ 7800 when the HRT was

decreased.

Gaby et al (2017) also imparted that increased loading rate under short HRT

operation of the digestion systems resulted in greater solubilization extent than

those operated at long HRT.

In addition, Poulsen (2003) discussed the choice and control of temperature

is of major importance for the course of the digestion processes, thus the optimum

choice of HRT is mostly dependent on the temperature and to some degree the

type of material being digested.

Table 6.

Yield factors for biogas production, by temperature and feedstock

retention time

Feedstock retention Temperature (°C)

time (in days) 16-18 19-21 22-24 25-27 28-30 31-33

6-10 5.41 7.98 10.83 13.59 15.91 18.33

11-15 4.73 6.79 8.99 11.09 12.88 14.74

16-20 4.21 5.90 7.68 9.37 10.82 12.32

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21-25 3.79 5.22 6.70 8.11 9.33 10.59

26-30 3.44 4.69 5.95 7.15 8.20 9.28

31-35 3.16 4.25 5.35 6.39 7.32 8.26

36-40 2.91 3.88 4.86 5.78 6.60 7.44

41-45 2.71 3.58 4.45 5.27 6.02 6.77

46-50 2.53 3.32 4.10 4.85 5.53 6.21

51-55 2.37 3.09 3.81 4.49 5.11 5.74

56-60 2.23 2.89 3.55 4.18 4.78 5.33

61-65 2.10 2.72 3.33 3.91 4.44 4.98

66-70 1.99 2.57 3.13 3.67 4.17 4.67

71-75 1.89 2.43 2.95 3.46 3.93 4.40

76-80 1.80 2.30 2.80 3.27 3.71 4.15

81-85 1.72 2.19 2.66 3.10 3.52 3.94

86-90 1.65 2.09 2.53 2.95 3.34 3.74

91-95 1.58 2.00 2.41 2.81 3.19 3.56

96-100 1.52 1.92 2.31 2.69 3.04 3.4

Source: IRENA (2016)

As an effluent matter after digestion, utilizing digestate is one of the major

concerns nowadays. Several suggestions and hypothesis being established as the

possible usage of this material. In an article, The Use of Digestate as an Organic

Fertiliser, published last 2014, it was stated that a broad range of nutrients are

contained in digestate including, among others, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P),

potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). The fertiliser value of digestate

55
depends on the nutrient value of used feedstock. Since almost all macro- and

micro-nutrients are conserved during anaerobic digestion, high-quality digestate

can be ensured by feeding AD plants with high-quality substrate, such as source

separated organic waste.

However, as cited by Koszel et al (2015), it is important to understand that

natural and organic fertilizers are not the same according to the law. In common

language these two terms have the same meaning, which leads to numerous

misunderstandings. Natural fertilizer is defined as a fertilizer derived from farm

animals (manure, liquid manure), whereas organic fertilizer is produced from an

organic substance or a mixture of organic substances. A natural fertilizer must be

mixed with soil, but an organic one need not.

Plants need 17 essential nutrients, each in varying amounts. Combined, C,

H, and O account for about 94% of a plant’s weight. The other 6% of a plant’s

weight includes the remaining 14 nutrients, all of which must come from the soil.

Of these, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), the

primary macronutrients, are the most needed (Crouse D. A., 2017).

Table 7.

Relative amounts (out of 100) of the essential nutrients required by most plants.

Primary Nutrients
Carbon (C) 45
Oxygen (O) 45
Hydrogen (H) 6
Nitrogen (N) 1.5
Potassium (K) 1

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Phosphorus (P) 0.2
Secondary Nutrients
Calcium (Ca) 0.5
Magnesium (Mg) 0.2
Sulfur (S) 0.1
Micronutrients
Iron (Fe) 0.01
Chlorine (Cl) 0.01
Manganese (Mn) 0.005
Boron (B) 0.002
Zinc (Zn) 0.002
Copper (Cu) 0.0006
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.00001
Amounts unknown for Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co)
Source: Crouse D. A. (2017)

Local Literature

According to Cruz (2015), with the progress of developing countries like the

Philippines comes the need to utilize limited resources more efficiently. Nowhere

is this becoming more apparent than in the area of power generation, where

renewables or “greener” energy sources are coming to fore as one of the most

viable and sustainable options. At present, biogas is gaining significance as a

renewable energy source, and independent power producers (IPPs) are taking

notice of the viability of “greener” energy solutions.

To obtain favorable accomplishment in extracting biogas, effective and well-

designed anaerobic digester and factors affecting the digestion process must take

in account. Properties of all elements that constitute the whole system must be

considered.

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Maramba Sr. (1978)reported, the rate of gas production during the growth

phase is a good index for the study of conditions for methane fermentation. It is to

be noted however that besides the rate in liters of gas per day, another informative

ratio is the number of liters of gas per kg of manure. The various methods that may

be used in reporting gas production are shown below:

Table 8.

Gas Production Reporting method

Time Period in Days


0-20 0-30 0-60
Gas volume, Liters 48.0 64.5 71.4
Gas per day, Liters 2.40 2.15 1.19
Gas per kg manure 47.4 63.7 70.5
Gas per kg per day 3.37 2.12 1.12
Source: Maramba Sr. (1978)

Maramba Sr. (1978) also added that the reduction of the retention time to

one-half increased the biogas production and at the same time doubled the

manure-processing capacity of the biogas plants. In other words, the capital outlay

required to construct biogas plants to dispose of the same amount of manure was

reduced to one-half.

In line with this, Alvarez et al (2018) concluded that mixing is an important

parameter to digestion as it improves the contact between the microorganism and

the substrate and improves the bacterial population’s ability to obtain nutrients.

However, excessive mixing can disrupt the microorganisms and therefore slow

mixing is preferred.

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Synthesis

This study on the design and development of 2-in-1 anaerobic biogas

digester of household food and animal waste for bio fuel extraction and organic

fertilizer production will employ the utilization of two by product of the anaerobic

digestion (biogas and digestate) at the same time in a continuous process. On a

daily basis, while producing biogas, the digester will emits sludge of food and

animal waste in which it will be stocked in a sludge drying bed for dewatering

before it will be apply as a soil conditioner.

In order to utilize the wastes produce daily, continuous feeding system will

be considered by this study. Also, size of reactor,as well as the operating capacity,

was designed according on the total waste that will undergo anaerobic digestion

process. In line with this, Alvarez et al (2018) suggested the capacity that attained

higher biogas yield was established as the most suitable operating capacity. The

capacity that attained the said criteria was 60%, thus being established as the best

capacity w/ 40% gas space.

This study will use a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) since

literatures show positive outcome if the substrate is continuously mix compare to

those unmixed digester. Also, mixing will be operated using electric motor to

ensure constant speed throughout the process. Typical small scale biogas reactor

uses manual mixing, in which ropes are commonly incorporated, and in an

intermittent manner. This practice depends on the availability of the worker

managing the digester which may result of variable time and intensity of mixing.

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Previous researches suggested different technologies that will improve the

digestion process. Mixing was one of the most predominant application that was

experimented. Lindmark et al (2014) shared that mixing in an anaerobic digester

keeps the solids in suspension and homogenizes the incoming feed with the active

microbial community of the digester content. Likewise, this study incorporated

mixing in continuous loading system to ensure the high volatile solid content in

digester, in which this volatile solids can be easily converted into gas.

This research managed to evaluate the effect of mixing intensity at the value

based on its objective to achieve the desired output. Coker and Smith (2017)

elaborated the mixing mode and intensity are important control measures for the

Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) and many investigations have shown

that they have direct effects on the biogas yield.

Different speed value was to be tested in order to come up to suitable speed

requirement on the designed process. Thus, during the experiment made by Wang

et al (2016), anaerobic digestion failed at the propeller speed of 20 r/min because

of VFA accumulation and pH drop. The methane yield increased with the increase

of propeller speed, and the optimum propeller speed for a 30 L CSTR was 100

r/min. On the other hand,Lindmark (2014) argued that reducing mixing is

sometimes associated with practical problems, but similar gas production can be

achieved at lower operational costs. High mixing intensities may even be

associated with reduced gas production. Also Lindmark et al (2014) added, a

mixing intensity of 50–100 rpm resulted in a good gas production. Moreover,

60
Chaoui and Richard (2008) suggested the need to further investigate an optimal

mixing frequency in anaerobic digestion.

Continuous mixing was being consider in this study as a mode of mixing,

thus, Coker and Smith (2017) explained, with continuous mixing, mass and heat

transfer to the microbes is enhanced.

Lindmark et al (2014) discussed the lower mixing intensities during startup

allow for a more stable process and allow the microbial community to grow. This

action was also regarded in this study to prevent the instability of the start-up

process that may lead to poor biogas production due impartial cycle of the

microbial community inside the reactor.

Other parameters being looked for and monitored will be the pH and

alkalinity, temperature, C/N and other inhibitory factors that may lead to slowing

and at worst, terminating the biological degradation of the organic material inside

the digester. Also, this elements are accountable in the production of different

hazardous chemicals that might be released in the atmosphere and cause damage

in the environment and even in the people surrounding it. On the other hand, the

biological and chemical reconstruction of substance resulted from digestion

process of the raw materials feed in the reactor and treatment afterwards may help

eliminate harmful matter exhausted in the environment.

Another by-product of anaerobic digester is digestate. The possible

utilization of this material as a waste product of anaerobic digestion will be

acknowledge in this research. An article of Litmanen and Kirchmeyr (2014)

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illustrated that the digestate is a fully fermented nutrient-rich material, which can

be used as such, or can be further processed by separating it into liquid and solid

fractions to be upgraded, for example. 100% of nutrients included in the used

feedstock are contained in the digestate. Sludge drying bed principle will be utilize

by this study as a sort of liquid solid separation.

It is stated in the literature that the essential plant nutrient requirements,

aside from those supplied by water and air, are almost equal to the typical values

of the nutrients available in the digestate. Therefore, this study evaluates the

applicability of the digestate as an organic fertilizer through measuring the amount

of macro and micro nutrients present in the soil after the application of the effluent

through laboratory test.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents the discussions of the methods and procedures that

are employed to design and develop a stirring type digester. This includes the

research design, development stages, the preparation of raw materials, and

methods of testing that were conducted that served as a guide.

Research Design

This study employed engineering design, systematic planning and analysis

of the data that were gathered for the design and development of stirring type

digester. The totality of the design and development were set into four

development stages: the design, fabrication, preliminary testing and actual data

gathering, respectively.

Development Stages

1. Design Stage

This stage considered the design of the stirring type digester. This also

described the important phases of the said study. This considered the proper

economical materials that were used according to its availability in the local market.

The components of the proposed machine were designed based from different

parameters present in the whole process. The volume of the reactor will be based

on the rate of daily feeding, retention time and the volume of the substrate that will

be subjected to anaerobic digestion. Thus,

Vd = Sd* RT [ m3 = m3/day × number of days ]

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Where:

Vd = volume of digester

Sd = substrate input

RT = retention time

2. Fabrication Stage

At this stage, the fabrication of stirring type digester was done. The

principles of operation of the machine parts were considered and were based from

some existing design of digester. In order to achieve the desired output, all the

material specification and system components were considered. Good working

conditions was also considered for safety purposes.

3. Preparation of Raw Materials

For the preparation of kitchen waste, food scraps will be gathered and

segregated from bones and other non-biodegradable materials. Non-

biodegradable materials and bones can deplete the biogas production of the

digester. Swine manure will be manually collected directly from the site.

4. Preliminary Testing Stage

4.1 Determination of Proportion using Balloon Testing

Balloon testing is a method used to properly identify the best proportion of

kitchen waste, animal waste and water that will yield the highest amount of biogas.

Different proportions are confined in different containers and a balloon is stretched

on the mouth of each container to be secured by a rubber band.

The investigation will use water bottles each having three liters of volume.

The bottles will be filled with 60 percent capacity and will be stored for fifteen days.

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The proportions of animal waste, kitchen waste and water respectively are as

follows:

 300mL : 300mL : 300mL (1:1:1)

 225mL : 225mL : 450mL (1:1:2)

 180mL : 180mL : 540mL (1:1:3)

 150mL : 150mL : 600mL (1:1:4)

 128.5mL : 128.5mL : 642.5mL (1:1:5)

 225mL : 450mL : 225mL (1:2:1)

 180mL : 540mL : 180mL (1:3:1)

 160mL : 600mL : 150mL (1:4:1)

 128.5mL : 642.5mL : 128.5mL (1:5:1)

 450mL : 225mL : 225mL (2:1:1)

 540mL : 180mL : 180mL (3:1:1)

 600mL : 150mL : 150mL (4:1:1)

 624.8mL : 128.5mL : 128.5mL (5:1:1)

The proportion with the highest biogas yield is used in testing the

parameters in the actual digester.

4.2 Agitator Speed

Suitable agitator speed will be identified by using three different speed of

the agitator blades. Trials with the agitator speed of 30 rpm, 60 rpm and 90 rpm

will be established and the agitator speed that will yield the highest biogas will be

chosen for the study.

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4.3 Retention Time

In this study, the retention time will be determined during testing. The

number of days from the first day of the trial until the day after the digestate

reached its peak of biogas generation will be the retention time.

4.4 Collecting Digestate

Daily digestate discharge (partially strained) will be collected in the sludge

drying bed and subjected to additional 9 days of sun drying. Gathering of digestate

will be done before loading period.

4.5 Land Preparation

Two 4m by 4m land area will be prepared and selected to where digestate

and commercial fertilizer will be spreaded, respectively. Using Hoe Method, soil

will be subjected to plowing. According to Leonard (1998) in his manual entitled

Traditional Field Crops, plowing depth in the 15-20 cm range is usually adequate,

and there is seldom any advantage in going deeper.

4.6 Application of Digestate to Soil

Digestate will be applied to the soil at a rate of 20,000-40,000 kg/ha or 2-4

kg/sq.m, based on the ratio stated by Leonard (1998). Same rate will be used in

the application of commercial fertilizer. 10 days holding period will be provided

before evaluating the soil.

5. Methods of Determining Performance Parameters

Performance parameters are important to determine if the designed

digester meets the set objectives. It is determined by using the following formulas:

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5.1 Production Rate

Production rate is the amount of biogas that will be produced in every time

(t) by the digester. It is given by the formula:

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐵𝑖𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑


𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 =
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒

5.2 Percent Yield

This demonstrates the efficiency of the digester and is the ratio of the

experimental yield and the theoretical yield. It is given by the formula:

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐵𝑖𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑


𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑌𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 = × 100%
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐵𝑖𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑

According to Steffen R. et al (2008), theoretical biogas produced is given by

the formula:

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐵𝑖𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑

= 0.60𝑚3 × 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑅𝑎𝑤 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 × 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠

5.3 Biogas Quality

Biogas properties include in the objectives of the study namely: CH4, CO2,

H2S, CO, NH3 and other trace gases will be examined based on content

percentage thru ASTM D1945 –14:Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural

Gas by Gas Chromatography in which this test method covers the determination

of the chemical composition of natural gases and similar gaseous mixtures within

the range of composition. This test method may be abbreviated for the analysis of

lean natural gases containing negligible amounts of hexanes and higher

hydrocarbons, or for the determination of one or more components, as required.

Gas sample, after passing through scrubber and dehumidifier, will be collected the

67
submitted to the reliable gas testing laboratory and subjected to Gas

Chromatography.

5.5 Soil Testing

Soil properties will be evaluated based on its percentage composition in

terms of: %N, %P, %K and traces elements such as %Cu, %Zn, %Mn, %Fe.

Moisture content, physical Analysis, soil texture and pH level will also be included

in soil testing. One kg of soil sample will be collected and sent to Southern Tagalog

Integrated Agricultural Research Center (STIARC) under Department of

Agriculture for analysis.

6. Experimental Testing

6.1 Testing will be done to identify if the biogas generated is suitable for

consumption. This is done by boiling of water in the burner using the biogas yield

from the digester.

6.2 In order to ensure the applicability of digestate as fertilizer, soil samples will be

drawn out before and after the application of digestate and soil with commercial

fertilizer.

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