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Unit 1 - Fundamental of Electromagnetic Analysis

I. Fundamental of Electromagnetic Analysis:


Concepts of circuits and fields – Vector analysis – Physical interpretation of
gradient, divergent and curl – Vector relation in other coordinate systems –
Integral theorems.

Objective:

After completion of this unit, the students will be able to achieve the following objectives

 Introduction on the basic vector algebra that includes arithmetic operation of vectors,
dot product, cross product, divergence of vector and curl of vectors.
 Physical interpretation of the divergence, curl and few basic laws such as Stokes
theorem and divergence theorem will be discussed.
 Students will be able to learn the different coordinate systems like rectangular
coordinate systems, cylindrical coordinate systems and spherical coordinate systems.
 Transformation from one coordinate systems to other coordinate systems are also,
discussed towards the end of the unit.

Introduction:
In this section, fundamental concepts required to understand electromagnetic
theory such as vector calculus, coordinate system, integral equations to be used on
electrostatics and magnetostatics will be discussed. Vector calculus concepts
include arithmetic operations of vectors, gradient of vector, divergent of a vector,
curl of a vector and their properties will be discussed. The section will introduce
the difference between scalar operators and vector and differentiate scalar
operators and vector operators.

5.1 Scalars:
Scalars are quantity that have only magnitude. For example: temperature,
population etc.,
They are denoted by alphabetical letters A,B,C,D…..
5.2 Vectors:
Quantity that have both magnitude and direction are called Vectors. For
example : displacement, force, velocity etc.,
They are denoted with an arrow above alphabets or printed in bold texts. Some
representation are ,
𝐴⃗, 𝐵
⃗⃗ , 𝐶⃗ … 𝑜𝑟 𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶 𝑜𝑟 𝑨, 𝑩, 𝑪
In an x-y plane, vectors are represented as shown in figure1.1. Vector has got
a direction and can be resolved into corresponding x- component and y-
component.
The x- component is represented as 𝐴𝑥 and y- component is represented as 𝐴𝑦 . It
is to be noted that there is no arrow above the components. They represent only
magnitude. Hence, to represent the direction, the magnitude is multiplied by the
unit vector corresponding to that particular direction. For example, for the figure
1.1, the vector in x-direction is given as 𝐴𝑥 ⋅ 𝑥⃗ and the vector in y direction is
given as 𝐴𝑦 ⋅ 𝑦⃗.
Also, from figure 1.1,
𝐴𝑥 = 𝐴⃗ cos 𝜃
𝐴𝑦 = 𝐴⃗ sin 𝜃

Where, 𝜃 is the angle made by the vector 𝐴⃗ with respect to the x-axis.

Fig. 1.1 Vector representation

Vector 𝐴⃗ from figure 1.1 is represented as


𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⋅ 𝑥⃗ + 𝐴𝑦 ⋅ 𝑦⃗ in two-dimensional coordinates
and in three dimensional coordinates,
𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⋅ 𝑥⃗ + 𝐴𝑦 ⋅ 𝑦⃗ + 𝐴𝑧 ⋅ 𝑧⃗

Vector 𝐴⃗ can also be represented as


𝐴⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 )
5.3 Unit Vectors:
Vector with magnitude one are called unit vectors. 𝑥⃗ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦⃗ vectors in figure
1.1 are unit vectors, in x-direction and y-direction respectively. Let unit vectors of
𝐴⃗ be ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝐴 and is given by
𝐴⃗ 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧
𝑎𝐴 =
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ =
|𝐴⃗| √𝐴𝑥2 + 𝐴2𝑦 + 𝐴2𝑧

5.4 Arithmetic operations on vector:


Scalar arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division are performed conventionally. But arithmetic operations on vector require
understanding of vector calculus.

5.5 Addition of two vectors:


Henceforth, let us assume vectors with 3D coordinate axes. Hence, let the vectors
𝐴⃗ and 𝐵
⃗⃗ be given as,

𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 )
⃗⃗ = 𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
and 𝐵 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧 = (𝐵𝑥 , 𝐵𝑦 , 𝐵𝑧 )

if 𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ + 𝐵
⃗⃗ , then

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑎𝑧 + (𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑎𝑧

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 + 𝐵𝑥 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 + (𝐴𝑦 + 𝐵𝑦 )𝑎 𝑦 + (𝐴𝑧 + 𝐵𝑧 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧

or

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 + 𝐵𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 + 𝐵𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 + 𝐵𝑧 ).

Graphically, the addition of two vectors is given in figure 1.2

[Grab your reader’s attention with a


great quote from the document or
use this space to emphasize a key
point. To place this text box
anywhere on the page, just drag it.]

Figure 1.2 addition of two vectors.


5.6 Subtraction of two vectors:
Subtraction of two vectors is similar to the addition of two vectors except the
difference in the operation. Hence let the two vectors be 𝐴⃗ and 𝐵
⃗⃗ , the resultant

vector be 𝐶⃗, then

𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧 = (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 )

⃗⃗ = 𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
and 𝐵 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧 = (𝐵𝑥 , 𝐵𝑦 , 𝐵𝑧 )

Therefore, 𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ − 𝐵
⃗⃗

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 − 𝐵𝑥 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 + (𝐴𝑦 − 𝐵𝑦 )𝑎 𝑦 + (𝐴𝑧 − 𝐵𝑧 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧

or

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 − 𝐵𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 − 𝐵𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 − 𝐵𝑧 ).

Graphically, the subtraction of two vectors is given in figure 1.3

[Grab your reader’s attention with a


great quote from the document or
use this space to emphasize a key
point. To place this text box
anywhere on the page, just drag it.]

Figure 1.3 Subtraction of two vectors.

In figure 1.3, note the direction of the resultant 𝐶⃗ and compare the direction of 𝐶⃗
in figure 1.2.

5.7 Multiplication of Vector:


Multiplication of vector may be categorised as follows:

a) Multiplication of vector by a Scalar


b) Multiplication of vector by a Vector
(i) Scalar multiplication
(ii) Vector multiplication

In other words,

a) For two vectors:


 Dot product ( Scalar multiplication)
 Cross product (Vector multiplication)
b) For three vectors:
 Scalar triple product (Scalar multiplication)
 Vector triple product (Vector multiplication)

5.7 a)Multiplication of vector by a scalar:


When a vector is multiplied with a scalar, there is no effect on the direction of
the vector, but the magnitude is increased. Let the vector be 𝐴⃗ and the scalar be k,
then the product is given as ,

𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ 𝑘 = 𝑘 𝐴⃗

Graphically,

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐴⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐶 = 𝑘𝐴⃗

5.7 b) Multiplication of vector by a vector:


When two vectors are multiplied they may be either “dotted” or “crossed”.
Based on the type of the multiplication performed, the resultant of the
multiplication may be either a Scalar or a Vector.

5.8 Dot product:


When two vectors are dotted, the resultant is a scalar. The dot product is
performed as below:

Let the vectors to be multiplied be

𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

⃗⃗ = 𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐵 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

The dot product is given as

𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐵
⃗⃗

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑎𝑧 ⋅ (𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑎𝑧

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑥 𝐵𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 𝐵𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝐵𝑧 ) [SCALAR]

The resultant 𝑐⃗ is a scalar. The resultant, 𝐶⃗ is also given as


𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐵
⃗⃗ = |𝐴⃗||𝐵
⃗⃗| cos 𝜃𝐴𝐵

Where

𝜃𝐴𝐵 = angle between the vectors 𝐴⃗ and 𝐵


⃗⃗ .

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document or use this space to
emphasize a key point. To
place this text box anywhere
on the page, just drag it.]

Properties:
a) Dot product obeys
- Commutative laws: 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐵 ⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗
⃗⃗ = 𝐵

- Distributive laws: 𝐴⃗ ⋅ (𝐵
⃗⃗ + 𝐶⃗ ) = 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐵
⃗⃗ + 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐶⃗

b) Dot product of same vectors:

let 𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 )

𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗

= (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 ) ⋅ (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 )

2
𝐶⃗ = (𝐴2𝑥, 𝐴2𝑦, 𝐴2𝑧 ) = |𝐴⃗| = 𝐴2

b) Dot product of unit vectors:


Let the unit vectors be ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗,
𝑎𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 and 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 in the x, y and z direction
respectively.
Then, 𝐶⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 = |𝑎
𝑎𝑥 ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗||𝑎
𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗|
𝑦 cos 𝜃𝑎𝑥− 𝑎𝑦

We know that, unit vector has the magnitude of 1 and the angle
between the unit vector are 90°. Therefore,
𝐶⃗ = 1.1. cos 90° = 0
Similarly,
𝑎𝑦 ⋅ 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 = 0
But,
𝑎𝑥 ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑥 = |𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗||𝑎
𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗|
𝑥 cos 0° = 1.1.1 = 1

Similarly,
𝑎𝑦 ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 = 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 ⋅ 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = 1

5.9 Cross Product:


When two vectors are crossed, the resultant vector is a vector. The
cross product is performed as below:

Let the vectors to be multiplied be

𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

⃗⃗ = 𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐵 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

The resultant cross product is given as,

𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ = |𝐴⃗||𝐵
⃗⃗ | sin 𝜃𝐴𝐵 ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑛

𝑎𝑛 is a unit vector normal to the plane of 𝐴⃗ × 𝐵


Where ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗.Graphically, cross product
is represented I figure 1.4.

[Grab your reader’s


attention with a great
quote from the
document or use this
space to emphasize a
If 𝐶⃗ = 𝐵
⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗ , then key point. To place this
text box anywhere on
⃗ ⃗⃗
𝐶 = |𝐵 ||𝐴⃗| sin
the 𝜃𝐴𝐵
page, (−𝑎
just ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
drag = −|𝐴⃗||𝐵
𝑛 it.]
⃗⃗| sin 𝜃𝐴𝐵 ⋅ 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑛

Therefore, 𝐶⃗ = 𝐵
⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗ = −𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗

[Grab your reader’s


attention with a
great quote from the
document or use this
space to emphasize a
key point. To place
this text box
anywhere on the
page, just drag it.]
In order to identify the direction of the unit normal vector, put your fingers on
your right hand above 𝐴⃗ and swirl towards 𝐵
⃗⃗ for 𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ and vice versa for 𝐵
⃗⃗ ×

𝐴⃗. The direction of thumb represents the direction of the unit normal vector ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗.
𝑎𝑛

The cross product 𝐴⃗ × 𝐵


⃗⃗ is also given as,

𝑎𝑥
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ = |𝐴𝑥
𝐶 =𝐴×𝐵 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧 |
𝐵𝑥 𝐵𝑦 𝐵𝑧

𝐶⃗ = (𝐴𝑦 𝐵𝑧 − 𝐵𝑦 𝐴𝑧 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 − (𝐴𝑥 𝐵𝑧 − 𝐵𝑥 𝐴𝑧 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 + (𝐴𝑥 𝐵𝑦 − 𝐵𝑥 𝐴𝑦 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧

The resultant 𝐶⃗ is a vector.

Properties:
a) Cross product does not obey commutative law.
𝐴⃗ × 𝐵 ⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗
⃗⃗ ≠ 𝐵

But 𝐴⃗ × 𝐵 ⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗
⃗⃗ = −𝐵
b) They obey distributive law:
𝐴⃗ × (𝐵
⃗⃗ + 𝐶⃗) = 𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ + 𝐴⃗ × 𝐶⃗

c) 𝐴⃗ × (𝐵
⃗⃗ + 𝐶⃗) ≠ (𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ ) × 𝐶⃗

d) Cross product of unit vectors:


Let the unit vectors be ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗,
𝑎𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 and 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗.
𝑧

𝑎𝑥 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 = 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 𝑎𝑥 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 = −𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
𝑎𝑦 × 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 𝑎𝑦 × 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = −𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥
𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 = −𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦

Graphically,

[Grab your reader’s


attention with a great
quote from the
document or use this
space to emphasize a
Similarly key point. To place this
text box anywhere on
𝑎𝑥 page,
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
the × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = |𝑎
𝑎𝑥 just ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗||𝑎
𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗|
drag 𝑥 sin 0° ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
it.] 𝑎𝑛 = 0
Therefore 𝑎𝑦 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧 × 𝑎⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 = 0

e) Cross product of same vectors:


Let 𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧

𝐶⃗ = 𝐴⃗ × 𝐴⃗ = |𝐴⃗||𝐴⃗| sin 0°⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑎𝑛
1.1.0. ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑛 = 0

Therefore, cross products of like vectors are always zero.

5.10 Scalar triple product:


This type of product involves three vectors. The resultant of this triple vector
product is a scalar. This product is a combination of dot and cross product.

Let the three vectors be,

𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

⃗⃗ = 𝐵𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐵 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐵𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

𝐶⃗ = 𝐶𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐶𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐶𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

Scalar triple product is given as,

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥
𝑎 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
𝐴⃗ ⋅ (𝐵
⃗⃗ × 𝐶⃗) = (𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑧 ⋅ |𝐵𝑥
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗) 𝐵𝑦 𝐵𝑧 |
𝐶𝑥 𝐶𝑦 𝐶𝑧

= [𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗]
𝑎𝑧
⋅ [(𝐵𝑦 𝐶𝑧 − 𝐶𝑦 𝐵𝑧 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 − (𝐵𝑥 𝐶𝑧 − 𝐶𝑥 𝐵𝑦 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 + (𝐵𝑥 𝐶𝑦 − 𝐶𝑥 𝐵𝑦 )𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗]
𝑧

= 𝐴𝑥 (𝐵𝑦 𝐶𝑧 − 𝐶𝑦 𝐵𝑧 ) − 𝐴𝑦 (𝐵𝑥 𝐶𝑧 − 𝐶𝑥 𝐵𝑦 ) + 𝐴𝑧 (𝐵𝑥 𝐶𝑦 − 𝐶𝑥 𝐵𝑦 )

𝑜𝑟

𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
𝐴⃗ ⋅ (𝐵
⃗⃗ × 𝐶⃗) = | 𝐵𝑥 𝐵𝑦 𝐵𝑧 | [SCALAR]
𝐶𝑥 𝐶𝑦 𝐶𝑧

The scalar triple product represents a volume of a parallelepiped


[Grab your reader’s
attention with a great quote
from the document or use
this space to emphasize a
key point. To place this text
Property: box anywhere on the page,
a) 𝐴⃗ ⋅ (𝐵 ⃗⃗ ⋅ just
⃗⃗ × 𝐶⃗) = 𝐵 drag it.]
(𝐶⃗ × 𝐴⃗) = 𝐶⃗ ⋅ (𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ )

b) The resultant of a scalar triple vector is a scalar.

5.11 Vector triple product:


Vector triple product involves three vectors, say 𝐴⃗, 𝐵
⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶⃗ . The resultant is a
vector. It involves cross product and gives as

𝐴⃗ × (𝐵
⃗⃗ × 𝐶⃗) = 𝐵
⃗⃗ (𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐶⃗) − 𝐶⃗(𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝐵
⃗⃗ )

For easy recall, the right hand side (RHS) of the above relation is given as “BAC-
CAB” rule.

5.12 Differential operator or Del operator:


The differential operator that operates on vector are called vector differential
operator or del operator. It is represented as “∇" or nabla operator.

It operates on all directors of a coordinate system.it is a vector operator and is


given as,

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
⃗∇⃗= 𝑎𝑥 +
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

Based on the operandi, the operations are classified as,

⃗⃗ (Scalar)
1) Gradient operator -∇
⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗
2) Divergence operator -∇
⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗
3) Curl operator -∇
4) Laplacian operator = ∇2 (Scalar)

⃗⃗ (𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑟)]
5.13 Gradient operator: [∇
When the del operator, operates on a scalar, then they are called as Gradient of
a scalar. Let the scalar be ‘V’, then,
⃗⃗𝑉 = ( 𝜕 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
∇ 𝑎 𝑥 +
𝜕
𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 +
𝜕
𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗) 𝑉
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
⃗⃗⃗⃗
∇𝑉 = 𝜕𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝜕𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 [Vector]

Therefore, ⃗∇⃗(𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑟) is a vector. It can also be represented as,

⃗⃗(𝑉).
grad (V) or ∇

⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗)
5.14 Divergence operator: (∇
Divergence is a dot operator on a vector. As the name suggests, this operator
implies the diverging property of the vector in the given direction. Divergence
may be classified as

 Positive divergence

Fig.

 Negative divergence or convergence

Fig.

 Zero divergence

Fig.

Divergence of a vector is given as,

⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ = ( 𝜕 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

𝜕
𝑎 + 𝜕𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕
𝑎𝑦 + 𝜕𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑧 ⋅ (𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑎𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝑥

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
∇ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ = (𝜕𝑥 𝐴𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 𝐴𝑦 + 𝜕𝑧 𝐴𝑧 )
⃗⃗⃗⃗ [Scalar]

The resultant of a divergence operator is scalar. It may also be represented as


𝑑𝑖𝑣 ⋅ 𝐴⃗.
Properties:

a) ⃗∇⃗ ⋅ (𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑟) donot make any meaning.


b) They obey distributive law:
⃗∇⃗ ⋅ (𝐴⃗ + 𝐵
⃗⃗ ) = ⃗∇⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ + ⃗∇⃗ ⋅ 𝐵
⃗⃗

c) ⃗∇⃗. (𝑉𝐴⃗) = 𝑉(∇


⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗) + 𝐴⃗ ⋅ (∇
⃗⃗𝑉)

d) The resultant of divergence is a scalar.

5.15 Curl operator:( ⃗∇⃗ × 𝐴⃗ )


Curl operator is a cross product between the del operator and a vector.In other
words, curl operator represents the differential curling or circulation of a vector 𝐴⃗.

It can be expressed as

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥
𝑎 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕|
⃗∇⃗ × 𝐴⃗ = || |
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

𝜕𝐴𝑧 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑥


⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ = [𝑎
∇ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 ( − ) − ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 ( − ) + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧 ( − )]
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

The resultant of a curl operator is a vector. It can also be represented as curl 𝐴⃗.

Properties:

1) 𝑑𝑖𝑣. [𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙(𝐴⃗)] or ⃗∇⃗ ⋅ (∇


⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗) = 0.

The divergence of a differential circulation of a vector can be related to a tornedo


of wind that dies out in the upper atmosphere.

2) They obey distributive law:


⃗∇⃗ × (𝐴⃗ + 𝐵 ⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗) + (∇
⃗⃗ ) = (∇ ⃗⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ )

3) ⃗∇⃗ × (∇
⃗⃗𝑉) = 0 or curl[Grad(V)] = 0.

4) ⃗∇⃗ × (𝑉𝐴⃗) = (∇
⃗⃗𝑉) × 𝐴⃗ + 𝑉(∇
⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗)

5) ⃗∇⃗ × 𝑉 ⇒ differential circulation of a constant do not make any meaning.


Hence ⃗∇⃗ × 𝑉 = 0.
6) ⃗∇⃗ × (𝐴⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ ) = 𝐴⃗(∇
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐵
⃗⃗ ) − 𝐵 ⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗) + 𝐴⃗(𝐵
⃗⃗ (∇ ⃗⃗ (𝐴⃗ ⋅ ⃗∇⃗)
⃗⃗ ⋅ ⃗∇⃗) − 𝐵
5.16 Laplacian of a scalar:
Divergence of a gradient of scalar results in Laplacian operator. Laplacian
operator is a second order vector differential operator. It is expressed as,

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
⃗∇⃗ ⋅ (∇
⃗⃗𝑉) = ( ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑧 ⋅( 𝑎𝑥 +
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎𝑦 +
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕 2𝑉 𝜕 2𝑉 𝜕 2𝑉
⃗⃗ ⋅ (∇
∇ ⃗⃗𝑉) = + + = ∇2 𝑉 = 𝐿𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑛(𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑟)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

5.17 Laplacian of a vector:


Laplacian of a vector is a given by

∇2 𝐴⃗ = ⃗∇⃗(∇
⃗⃗. 𝐴⃗) − ⃗∇⃗ × ⃗∇⃗ × 𝐴⃗

Proof:

Let 𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

LHS:

𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2
2⃗
∇ 𝐴=[ + + ] [𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗]
𝑎𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2
=[ + + ] 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + [ + + ] 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + [ + + ] 𝐴 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 ⟶𝐼
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧 𝑧

RHS:

⃗⃗. 𝐴⃗) − ⃗∇⃗ × ⃗∇⃗ × 𝐴⃗


⃗∇⃗(∇

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥
𝑎 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕|
⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗ = ||
∇ |
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
𝜕𝐴𝑧 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑥
= ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 ( − ) − ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 ( − )+𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 ( − )
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥
𝑎 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
| 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 |
⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗ =
⃗⃗ × ∇
∇ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
|𝜕𝐴 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑥 |
𝑧
− − + −
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑥 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑥 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑥 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦
= ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 [ − − + ] − 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 [ − − + ]
𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑧 2 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 2
𝜕 2 𝐴𝑥 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦
+𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 [ − − + ] ⟶ 𝐼𝐼
𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑧

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑧


⃗⃗. 𝐴⃗) = ( ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗∇⃗(∇ 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝑧 ( + + )
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕 2 𝐴𝑥 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧
= ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 ( + − ) + 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 ( + + )
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑧
𝜕 2 𝐴𝑥 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑦 𝜕 2 𝐴𝑧
+ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧 ( + + ) ⟶ 𝐼𝐼𝐼
𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 2

𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2 𝜕2
III – II =[𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑧] 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + [𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑧] 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + [𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑧] 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

= ∇2 𝐴⃗

=RHS

5.17 Solenoidal Vectors:


A vector 𝐴⃗ is said to be solenoidal if the divergence of a vector is zero. That is ,

∇2 ⋅ 𝐴⃗ = 0, then 𝐴⃗ is solenoidal or divergionless.

5.18 Irrotational vector:


A vector 𝐴⃗ is said to be irrotational, if the curl of a vector is zero. That is ,

⃗∇⃗ × 𝐴⃗ = 0, then 𝐴⃗ is irrotational.

5.19 Coordinate Systems:


For the representation of vectors, following coordinate systems are useful.
They are

 Rectangular coordinate system


 Cylindrical coordinate system
 Spherical coordinate system.

5.20 Rectangular coordinate system:(x,y,z)


Coordinates : (x,y,z)

Limits of the coordinates : −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞,


−∞ < 𝑦 < ∞
𝑎𝑛𝑑 −∞<𝑧 <∞

The rectangular coordinate system is represented in figure 1.4. Consider a point p


in a three- dimensional space, located at a distance r from the origin. The position
of p is at (x,y,z) and the distance r is given by,

𝑟 = 𝑥𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 + 𝑦𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 + 𝑧𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
It is analogous to moving a distance of x in x-direction (𝑥𝑎 𝑥 and the moving a

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
distance y in y-direction (𝑦𝑎 𝑦 and finally moving a distance z in z-direction

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)
(𝑧𝑎 𝑧 to reach the destination point (x,y,z).

Fig 1.4-Cartesian or rectangular coordinate system

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗:
5.20(a) Differential length (𝑑𝑙)
Consider moving a small distance from p to q over a short differential length,
⃗⃗⃗⃗ . Then 𝑑𝑙
𝑑𝑙 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ is given by,

⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝑑𝑥𝑎
𝑑𝑙 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 (𝑉𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟)

5.20(b) Differential area: ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑠
In a rectangular coordinate system , the differential surface area ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 is given as

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
𝑜𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥

𝑜𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑧𝑑𝑥 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧

5.20(c) Differential volume (dv):


The differential volume(dv) in a rectangular coordinate system is a scalar and
is given as,

𝑑𝑣 = 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧

5.21 Cylindrical Coordinate system: (𝜌, 𝜙, 𝑧)


Coordinates: (𝜌, 𝜙, 𝑧)

Limits: 0 ≤ 𝜌 < ∞, 0 ≤ 𝜙 < 2𝜋, −∞ < 𝑧 < ∞

Cylindrical coordinates system are useful when the structure under consideration
is cylinder. In cylindrical coordinate system, 𝜌 represents the radius of the
cylinder, 𝜙 represents the angle of currature and z represents the height of the
cylinder. The cylindrical coordinate system representing the coordinates are given
in figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5 Cylindrical coordinate system


5.21(a) Transformation:
It is always required to move operate between different coordinate system.
Hence it is possible to transform the vectors from cartesian coordinate system to
cylindrical coordinate system and vice versa.

(i) Cylindrical coordinate system to Cartesian coordinate system:


It is possible to represent (𝜌, 𝜙, 𝑧) in terms of (x, y, z). Their
equivalency is given in table1.1.
Given system Transformed system
𝜌 𝑥2 + 𝑦2
𝜙 𝑦
tan−1 ( )
𝑥
𝑧 𝑧

(ii) Cartesian coordinate system to Cylindrical coordinate system:


It is possible to convert the (x, y, z) coordinates to (𝜌, 𝜙, 𝑧) coordinate.
Their equivalency is given in table 1.2.
Given system Transformed system
𝑥 𝜌 cos 𝜙
𝑦 𝜌 sin 𝜙
𝑧 𝑧

If a vector 𝐴⃗ given as 𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 is to be transformed to a
cylindrical coordinate system with coordinates (𝐴𝜌 , 𝐴𝜙 , 𝐴𝑧 ) then the following
transformational matrix is used.
To convert Cartesian system to Cylindrical system,
𝐴𝜌 cos 𝜙 sin 𝜙 0 𝐴𝑥
[𝐴𝜙 ] = [− sin 𝜙 cos 𝜙 0] [𝐴𝑦 ] ⟶ 𝐼
𝐴𝑧 0 0 1 𝐴𝑧
To convert Cylindrical system to Cartesian system,
𝐴𝑥 cos 𝜙 −sin 𝜙 0 𝐴𝜌
[𝐴𝑦 ] = [ sin 𝜙 cos 𝜙 0] [𝐴𝜙 ] ⟶ 𝐼𝐼
𝐴𝑧 0 0 1 𝐴𝑧
Comparing the transformational matrix in equation I and II, they are inverted to
each other .
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ):
5.21 (b) Differential length (𝑑𝑙
When moving a small differential length ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 from point 𝑝(𝜌, 𝜙, 𝑧)in a fig 1.5,
the movement is equal to
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝑑𝜌 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜌 + 𝜌𝑑𝜙 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜙 + 𝑑𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
To move from 𝑝(𝜌, 𝜙, 𝑧) to 𝑝′(∆𝜌, ∆ 𝜙, ∆𝑧) following movement is required.
A differential radius 𝑑𝜌 in ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜌 direction, followed by a differential angle at a
radius 𝜌𝑑𝜙 in ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜙 direction and a differential height 𝑑𝑧 in 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 direction.

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗) :
5.21 (c) Differential Surface (𝑑𝑠
The differential surface in a cylindrical coordinate system is given as

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = (𝜌𝑑𝜙)𝑑𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑠 𝑎𝜌

𝑜𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝜌𝑑𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜙

𝑜𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = (𝜌𝑑𝜙)𝑑𝜌 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜌

In various representations of cylindrical coordinate system, always 𝑑𝜙 is at a


radius ′𝜌′ , hence we get (𝜌𝑑𝜙).

5.21 (d) Differential Volume (𝑑𝑣)


The differential volume (𝑑𝑣) is a scalar quantity given as,

𝑑𝑣 = 𝑑𝜌(𝜌𝑑𝜙)𝑑𝑧

𝑑𝑣 = 𝜌𝑑𝜌𝑑𝜙𝑑𝑧

5.22 Spherical Coordinate system (𝜌, 𝜃, 𝜙) :


Coordinates : (𝜌, 𝜃, 𝜙)

Limit: 0 ≤ 𝜌 < ∞, 0 ≤ 𝜃 < 𝜋, 0 < 𝜙 < 2𝜋

In spherical coordinate system, 𝜌 represents the radius of the sphere, 𝜃 represents


the angle between the point on a sphere p (𝜌, 𝜃, 𝜙) and z axis to obtain the
vertical sweep and 𝜙 represents the 2𝜋 sweep with respect to x axis to obtain the
circular circumference of the sphere. The spherical coordinate system
representing the coordinates are given in figure 1.6.
Figure 1.6. Spherical coordinate system

5.22 (a) Transformation:


Similar to transformation between cartesian system and cylindrical system,
transformation from spherical system to other coordinate system are also
possible.

(i) Spherical Coordinate system to Cartesian coordinate system:


For transformation from spherical (𝜌, 𝜃, 𝜙) to Cartesian system (x
,y,z) table 1.3 provides the equivalency.
Given system Transformed system
𝜌 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2
𝜃 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
tan−1 ( )
𝑧

𝜙 𝑦
tan−1 ( )
𝑥

(ii) Cartesian coordinate system to Spherical coordinate system:


For transformation from Cartesian system (x, y, z) to (𝜌, 𝜃, 𝜙) table 1.4
provides the relations,
Given system Transformed system
𝑥 𝜌 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜙
𝑦 𝜌 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜙
𝑧 𝜌 cos 𝜃

If a vector 𝐴⃗ in Cartesian system is given as 𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧 , it can
be transformed to a spherical coordinate system with coordinates (𝐴𝜌 , 𝐴𝜃 , 𝐴𝜙 ),
then the following transformational matrix is used.
To convert from cartesian coordinate system to spherical coordinate system,
𝐴𝜌 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜙 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜙 cos 𝜃 𝐴𝑥
[ 𝜃 ] = [ cos 𝜃 cos 𝜙
𝐴 − cos 𝜃 sin 𝜙 − sin 𝜃] [𝐴𝑦 ]
𝐴𝜙 − sin 𝜙 cos 𝜙 1 𝐴𝑧
For easier recall:
Compare the entries of table 1.4. and row 1 of the transformational matrix for
easy recall. In row 2 the ′𝜃′ term of row 1 is an integrable version, while
replicating the ′𝜙′ term. In row 3, ′𝜙′ term alone is a integrable version of ′𝜙′
term in row 3.
To convert from spherical system to Cartesian system,
𝐴𝑥 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜙 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜙 − sin 𝜙 𝐴𝜌
[𝐴𝑦 ] = [ sin 𝜃 sin 𝜙 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜙 cos 𝜙 ] [ 𝐴𝜃 ]
𝐴𝑧 cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃 0 𝐴𝜙

For easier recall:


Follow the above recall technique explained for Cartesian system, but with the
following change
1) Operate column wise rather than row wise.
2) Perform differentiation rather than integration.

⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) :
5.22 (b) Differential length (𝑑𝑙
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) in a spherical coordinate system is given as,
The differential length (𝑑𝑙

⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙 = 𝑑𝜌𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜌 + 𝜌𝑑𝜃𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜃 + 𝜌 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜙𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜙

Where,

𝑑𝜌 ⟶ differential radius.

𝜌𝑑𝜃 ⟶differential ‘𝜃′ at a radius ‘𝜌′.

𝜌 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜙 ⟶ differential ‘𝜙′ over a radius ‘𝜌′ limited to sine of ‘𝜃′ (vertical
sweep with respect to z direction).

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗):
5.22 (c) Differential surface (𝑑𝑠
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = (𝜌𝑑𝜃) (𝜌 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜙)𝑎
𝑑𝑠 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜌

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝜌2 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜌

𝑜𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝜌(𝜌 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜙)𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜃 = 𝜌 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜌𝑑𝜙 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜃

𝑜𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝜌(𝜌𝑑𝜃)𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜙 = 𝜌 𝑑𝜌𝑑𝜃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝜙
5.22 (d) Differential volume (𝑑𝑣):
The differential volume (𝑑𝑣) is a scalar quantity given as,

𝑑𝑣 = 𝑑𝜌(𝜌𝑑𝜃)(𝜌 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜙)

𝑑𝑣 = 𝜌2 sin 𝜃𝑑𝜌𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙

5.23 Integrals in vector analysis:


Integrals of vectors are important in the analysis of electromagnetic problems.
They may be either closed integral or open integral. When the integral is operated
over a closed surface or line or volume, closed integral are used.

Following integrals will be reviewed.

a) Line integral
b) Surface integral
c) Volume integral.

5.23(a) Line integral:


Assume a vector 𝐴⃗ traveling around a line as shown in figure 1.6. vector,
𝐴⃗ when differentiated over the length of the line with differential length
elements, then line integral is given as

For open line ∫ 𝐴⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑙

For closed line ∮ 𝐴⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑙

Fig 1.6 (a) line integral Fig 1.6(b) closed line integral

5.23(b) Surface integral:


⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ over the entire surface
Integrating over small elemental surface area 𝑑𝑠
helps in determing the surface integral.

For open surface : ∫𝑠 𝐴⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑠

For closed surface: ∮𝑠 𝐴⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑠
Surface integrals are double integrals integrated over sides of surfaces.
Fig 1.7 surface integral

(c) Volume integral:


Volume integral is given as

∫ 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝑣
𝑣

Volume integrals are triple line integrals integrated over all the three sides of
the volume.

5.24 Integral theorems:


As a result of divergence and curl of a vector, there are two important
theorems that forms the basis of electromagnetic theory. They are

 Divergence theorem
 Stokes theorem.

5.24(a) Divergence theorem:


Divergence theorem states that the closed surface integral of a vector is equal
to the volume integral of the divergence of the vector.

Mathematically divergence theorem is expressed as,

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ ∇
∫ 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝑠 ⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ 𝑑𝑣
𝑠 𝑣

Proof:

Let 𝐴⃗ be

𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑧


Therefore ⃗∇⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ = + +
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

We know that volume integral in Cartesian coordinate system is given as

𝑑𝑣 = 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧

𝜕𝐴 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑧
Therefore ∫𝑣 ⃗∇⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ 𝑑𝑣 = ∫𝑣 ( 𝜕𝑥𝑥 + + ) 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑧
=∭ ( + + ) 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝐴𝑥 𝜕𝐴𝑦 𝜕𝐴𝑧


=∭ [ 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧] + ∭ [ 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧] + ∭ [ 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧]
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

= ∬ 𝐴𝑥 𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧 + ∬ 𝐴𝑦 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑧 + ∬ 𝐴𝑧 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ + ∬ 𝐴𝑦 𝑑𝑠
=∬ 𝐴𝑥 𝑑𝑠 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ + ∬ 𝐴𝑧 𝑑𝑠
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

= ∯ 𝐴⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑠

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
= ∮𝑠 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝑠

=LHS

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ ∇
Therefore, ∮𝑠 𝐴⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝑠 ⃗⃗ ⋅ 𝐴⃗ 𝑑𝑣
𝑣

5.24 (b) Stoke’s theorem:


Stoke’s theorem is given as closed line integral of a vector is equal to the
surface integral of the curl of the vector. Stoke’s theorem is given as,

∮𝐿 𝐴⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ × 𝐴⃗) ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗


𝑑𝑙 = = ∮𝑠 (∇ 𝑑𝑠

Proof:

Let 𝐴⃗ = 𝐴𝑥 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎𝑧

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑥
𝑎 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑎 𝑦 𝑎
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝑧
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕|
⃗∇⃗ × 𝐴⃗ = || |
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧

Consider the figure below in x-y plane.

Figure 1.8(a) figure 1.8(b)

The figure in (a) is transformed to fig (b) to a different ‘lm’ plane. In the figure
1.8, ‘s’ corresponds to a region s’ in lm plane and corresponds to the boundary D
of s’. Let’s prove stoke’s theorem for the surface‘s’ and a continuously
differentiable field 𝐹⃗ by expressing the integrals in terms of l and m.

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕𝑠 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕𝑠
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐹⃗ ⋅
∫ 𝐹⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝑠 ⋅ 𝑑𝑙 + 𝐹⃗ ⋅ ⋅ 𝑑𝑚
𝑐 𝐷 𝜕𝑙 𝜕𝑚

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕𝑠 𝜕𝑟 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
If 𝐺1 = 𝐹⃗ ⋅ 𝜕𝑙 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐺2 = 𝐹⃗ ⋅ 𝜕𝑚

𝑑𝑠 = ∫ 𝐺⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
∫ 𝐹⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑑𝑠′
𝑐 𝐷

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕𝑠 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝜕𝑠
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝐹⃗ ⋅
∫ 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝐹⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝐴 × 𝑑𝑙𝑑𝑚
𝜕𝑙 𝜕𝑚

𝜕𝐺2 𝜕𝐺1
= ∫( − ) 𝑑𝑙𝑑𝑚
𝜕𝑙 𝜕𝑚

= ∫ 𝐹⃗ ⋅ ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑙
𝑙

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = ∫ 𝐹⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝑙
Therefore, ∫𝑠 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝐹⃗ ⋅ 𝑑𝐴 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ .
𝑙

Short answer questions

1. State stokes theorem.


The line integral of a vector around a closed path is equal to the surface integral of
the normal component of its curl over any surface bounded by the path
H.dl = (𝛁xH).ds

2. Define divergence.
The divergence of a vector F at any point is defined as the limit of its surface integral
per unit volume as the volume enclosed by the surface around the point shrinks to zero.

3. State Divergence Theorem. (April/May-2010)


The integral of the divergence of a vector over a volume v is equal to the surface integral
o f the normal component of the vector over the surface bounded by the volume.

4. What is the physical significance of div D?


𝛁•D= v
The divergence of a vector flux density is electric flux per unit volume leaving a small
volume. This is equal to the volume charge density.
5. Mention any two sources of electromagnetic fields (or) (April/May-2008)
 Current carrying conductors.
 Mobile phones.
 Microwave oven.
 Computer and Television screen.
 High voltage Power lines.

6. State the condition for the vector F to be irrotational.


A vector F is said to be irrotational if its curl is zero.
i.e if 𝛁x F =0 ,then F is said to be irrotational

7. Describe what are the sources of electric field and magnetic field?
Stationary charges produce electric field that are constant in time, hence the term
Electrostatics. Moving charges produce magnetic fields hence the term magnetostatics.
8. What is a Scalar quantity?
A Quantity which has magnitude only is called Scalar quantity. It is represented by
length. EG: Temperature, Mass, Volume and Energy.

9. What is a Vector quantity?


A Quantity which has both magnitude and direction is called Vector quantity. It
is graphically represented by a line with an arrow to show magnitude and direction.
EG: Force, Velocity, and Acceleration

10. What are co-ordinate systems? List the types.


There are three simple methods to describe a vector accurately such as specific lengths,
directions, angles, projections or components. The three types are
1. Cartesian coordinate system
2. Cylindrical coordinate system
3. Spherical coordinate system

11. Give the properties of Vectors.


1) Vector addition obeys commutative law A + = B +A
2) Vector addition obeys associative law A + (B +C) = (A + B) + C
3) A is also a vector. It has same magnitude; its direction is 1800 away from direction
of A. A - B = A + (- B)

12. Define Scalar or Dot Product.


A.B = ABcos  0 where A = A and B = B and  angle between two vectors. It is denoted
as A.B It is the product of magnitudes of A and B and the cosine of the angle between them.

13. Define Cross or Vector product.


It is denoted as Aҳ B.It is a vector whose magnitude is equal to the product of magnitudes of two
vectors multiplied by the sine angle between them and direction perpendicular to plane
containing A and B.
14. Define vector field.
If a quantity which is specified in a region to design a field is a vector, then the
corresponding field is called vector field. Ex: The velocity of particles in a moving fluid, wind
velocity of atmosphere, displacement of a flying bird in a space.

Long answer questions

1. State & prove divergence theorem.


2. State & prove stroke’s theorem.
3. What are the different types of co-ordinate system? Explain any one in detail.
4. Check validity of the divergence theorem considering the field D  2 xyi  x 2 j c / m 2
and the rectangular parallelepiped formed by the planes x=0,x=1;y=0,y=2;&z=0,z=3.
5. Define divergence, gradient, and curl in spherical co-ordinate system with
Mathematical expressions.
6. Given two points A(x=2, y=3, z=-1) & B=(r=4,   25 ,   120 ).Find spherical
Co-ordinates of A, Cartesian co-ordinates of B & distance AB.
7. Use the cylindrical co-ordinate system to find the area of the curved surface of a
Right circular cylinder where r=20m, h=5m & 30    120
8. Transform a vector A  yi  x j  zk into cylindrical co-ordinates.(april-may2003).
 Eds  4 xzi  y j  yzk over the cube
2
9. Using divergence theorem evaluate,
bounded by x=0,x=1;y=0,y=1;z=0,z=1.
10. Given two points A(x=2,y=3, z=-1) & B(r=4,   25 ,   120 ).Find spherical
Co-ordinates of A, Cartesian Co-Ordinates of B& distance.
11. A) Show that the vector H  3 y 4 z 2 i  4 x 3 z 2 j  3x 2 y 2 k is Solenoid.
B) Show that the vector H  2 xy z 2 i  ( x 2  2 yz ) j  ( y 2  1)k is irrotational.
12. A)Give the Cartesian co-ordinates of a point whose cylindrical co-ordinates are
r=1,   45 , z=2.
B) Show that H  x 2 i  y 2 j  z 2 k is a conservative vector field.
C) Find the curl of F= x 2 yi  y 2 z j  z 2 xk .
D) Find the divergence of A  e y (cos xi  sin x j )