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GENERAL BIOLOGY 1

DAY 1
JOHN NEEDHAM
THEORY ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF LIFE

1.) Divine Creation Theory


- There is a supernatural being responsible for
all the life.
1ST CONTAINER 2nd Container
Example:
- Uncovered - Covered
RAJ- God of Sun/Egypt
- Become cloudy - Become cloudy
2.) Cosmozoic Theory (PANSPERMIA)
- Life was present in the form of resistant
spores and appeared on earth. PROBLEM!!!
SPORE  SHORT PERIOD OF TIME OF BOILING
- Can live in an extreme type of environment.
EXTREMOPHILES ABIOGENESIS THEORY
- ACIDIC Proponents:
CRYOPHILES
FRANCESCO REDE
- TOO COLD
HALOPHILES
MEAT BROTH

- TOO SALTY 1ST Container 2nd Container 3rd Container


- Uncovered - Covered - covered with
- Flies at meat - stayed as it is gauze
3.) Catastrophism Theory
itself - with flies and
- Life arrives from catastrophe evolved in that maggots in the
place. gauze

4.) Philosophical Theory of Eternity


- Means that “there is no beginning and there
is no end”.
LAZARRO SPALLANZANI
5.) Biogenesis Theory
MEAT BROTH
- Evolved from pre-existed life. (LONG PERIOD OF TIME OF BOILING)
6.) Abiogenesis Theory 1ST Container 2nd Container
- “A” means NO/NO EXISTING. - Uncovered - Covered
- Spontaneous generation - There’s a chance for -there’s no chance for
- Life can also come from non-living microbes to evolve. microbes to evolve.
things/organisms.

LOUIS PASTEUR
 CATASTROPHE- Tragedy
 INFINITY- Eternity
 BIO- Life
 CELL- Structural and functional unit of life.
Broth Swan-neck tube- where
 COSMOS- Universe
microbial growth may occur.
DAY 2
DAY 3
ABIOGENESIS THEORY
12 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN LIVING THINGS
Proponents:
1.) Atom
- Basic unit of matter/one type of element.
ARISTOTLE 2.) Molecules
- Accumulation of atom (water, carbon dioxide,
“Life can actually arise from
CHON or protein, CHO or carbohydrates).
non-living thing.” 3.) Organelles
- Specialized cellular part that has specific
function.

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GENERAL BIOLOGY 1
MITOCHONDRIA ANIMALCULES
- powerhouse of the cell. - Little animals that is moving in the
- Adenosine Triphosphate specimen.
CHOROPLAST - 1st one to observe a Bacteria.

 Involves in the process of photosynthesis. MATTHIAS JACOB SCHLEIDEN


Solar Energy, Carbon Dioxide, Water, Glucose
- 1839
4.) Cell - German Botanist
- Basic unit of life. - Says that “development of vegetable tissues
5.) Tissues came from the processes of cells.”
- Form one of the structural materials of a plant - Says that “all plants come from cells.”
or animal.
6.) Organs THEODOR SCHWANN
- A part of the body that has a particular
function. - 1839
7.) Organ System - German Physiologist
- Group of organs that works together. - Says that “all animals as well came from
8.) Organisms cells.”
- An individual living thing.
9.) Population CELL THEORY
- Same species living together.
10.) Community 1.) All living things are composed of one or more
- Different species living together. different types of cells.
11.) Ecosystem 2.) Cell is the basic unit of life.
- Different species living together interacting
with non-living environment. RUDOLF LUDWIG KARL
12.) Biosphere
- Part of the Earth in which life exist. VIRCHOW
DAY 4 - German Pathologist
- Proposed the BIOGENIC LAW
ROBERT HOOKE
ONMIS CELLULA CELLULAR
- 1665
- He made his own version of microscope by - “All cells come from cells.” (BIOGENESIS)
using the parts of the clock. 3.) All cells are arise from pre-existing cells.
- The who CORK the specimen or dead tissue.
DAY 5
- First one to call a term “cell”.

HANS & ZACHARRIAS Compound Light Microscope


- It’s portable.
JANSSEN - Has compound lenses
- 1590 - 2 sets of lenses (eye piece and objectives)
- Dutch spectacle makers.
- 1st compound microscope and telescope PARTS OF COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
creators.
 Arm
ANTON VAN - Holds the microscope
- Supports optical lenses
LEEUWENHOEK - Supports the upper body
- 1674  LPO & HPO
- Dutch Scientist - Works in conjunction to eyepiece.
- 1st one to observe a live specimen.
LPO
SPIROGYRA
- Low Power Objective
- Specie of an ALGAE. - General overview image
- 10X (10X)
HPO
- High Power Objective
- Detailed overview
- 40X-100X (10X)

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GENERAL BIOLOGY 1
 Eyepiece Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 10X
- Responsible for the production of carbs,
- The lens or group of lenses that is closest to
lipids, and steroid.
the eye in a microscope.
 Revolving Nosepiece Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Anchor objectives.
- Change in b/n lenses. - Presence of Ribosome
 Course Adjustment/focus - Mainly for “proteinsynthesis”
- Moves the stages. - Production of protein
4. Cytoplasm
 Fine Adjustment
- Moves the body tube.  Anchor your organelles in place inside the cell.
 Stage Cytosol
- Where you put your specimen.
 Stage Clips - Liquid part the cytoplasm
- Anchor glasses line in place. - Mainly for metabolic process
 Stage Opening 5. Ribosomes
- b/n two stage clips.  Responsible for proteinsynthesis.
- permits light to enter specimen.  Needed for DNA & RNA synthesis.
 Mirror  Needed for reperation of tissue.
- allows you to direct ambient light up through  Needed for metabolic process.
the whole in the stage and illuminate the 6. Golgi Bodies/Apparatus
specimen without electricity.  Camilo Golgi is the first one to discover and
 Mirror Housing observe to Golgi bodies.
- Where the mirror is fixed.  Responsible for sorting, tagging, packaging,
 Lamp distributing protein and lipids inside and outside.
- to illuminate the specimen. 7. Lysosomes
 Diaphragm  Also known as the Suicide Bag because it directs
- regulate the amount of light entering. a dying cell and it will disintegrate and swallow it
 Condenser whole.
- To clarify the image. Hydrolytic Enzymes
 Base
- Supports the entirely of the microscope. - Breaks down proteins and nucleic acids.
8. Peroxisomes
MIRROR ACT  Responsible for the oxidation process.
- Inverted and Reversed.  Detoxification.
9. Mitochondria
Day 6  Powerhouse of the cell.
 Produces ATP’s.
PARTS OF A CELL 10. Chloroplast
PROKARYOTES Chloropil
- Unicellular - Colors the leaves green.
- Found in Bacteria
Photosynthesis
EUKARYOTES
- Solar Energy
- Multicellular - Water
- Found in animal and plant - Carbon Dioxide
1. Cell Wall 11. Vacuole
 Cell wall only exist in plants & bacteria  Present in the cell which is responsible for the
 Plants cell wall is composed of Cellulose. water storage.
 Bacteria Cell wall is composed of  Helps the plants to be upright.
Peptidoglycan. 12. Cytoskeleton
2. Plasma Membrane/Cell Membrane  Microtubeules: responsible for cell division.
 It regulates what goes inside and outside of a cell. 13. Nucleus
Phospholipid Bilayer composed of two parts:  Governor of the cell.
14. Nucleolus
 HYDROPHOBIC TAILS- Hates water  Ribosomal RNA
 HYDRPHILIC HEADS- Loves water  Proteinsynthesis
3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Composed of SER & RER.

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GENERAL BIOLOGY 1
ANTIBIOTICS
Day 7 - Stops the production of protein.
6. Flagella
PROKARYOTES
 Use for locomotion (motion/movement).
- Unicellular  Either clockwise or counter clockwise.
- X nucleus & membrane bound organelles 7. Pili
 Transfer of genetic material
EUKOARYOTES
 Small hair projection, it will attach itself to other
- Multicellular cell to transfer genetic material.
- It has nucleus & membrane bound organelles 8. Plasmid
 Transfer of genetic material to another bacteria.
BACTERIAL SHAPE 9. Nucleoid
 Center of cytoplasm.
1. SphericalAP
 Houses the DNA material.
 Staphyloccus Aureus
- Cause skin disease
- Pneumonia
2. Rod-Shaped
- Bacillus Antharis (anthrax)
- Lactobacillus (Friendly Bacteria)
- Escherichiacoli (Diarrhea Infection)
3. Curved-Shaped
- Vibrios (Food-borne Disease)
4. Star-Shaped
- Stella Hemosa
- Stella Vacuolata
5. Spiral-Shaped
- Leptospira Interrogans (Leptospirosis)

PARTS OF BACTERIA
1. Cell Wall
 Made up of Peptidoglycan.
 Protects what inside the cell.
 Shapes the cell.
 Supports the cell.
2. Capsule
 Keeps the bacteria from drying out.
 Regulate the fluid content of the cell.
 Protecting from phagocytosis (eating out the
smaller organism)
3. Cytoplasm
 Metabolic processes.
 Replication of genetic material located in the
nucleoid region.
4. Plasma Membrane
 What goes in and out in the cell.
 Composed of Phospholipia.
5. Robosome
 Proteinsynthesis
 Uses proteins to transfer genetic material.

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