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Emerging trends in HRD:

Core Competencies

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“Human resource development”

HRD is…
“The integrated use of training and development, organization
development, and career development to improve individual, group, and
organizational effectiveness.” (McLagan, 1989)
A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its
members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develops
their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. It includes such
opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance and
development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee
identification, tuition assistance, and organization development.

The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the

most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish
their work goals in service to customers. Organizations have many opportunities for human
resources or employee development, both within and outside of the workplace.

Human Resource Development can be formal such as in classroom training, a college

course, or an organizational planned change effort. Or, Human Resource Development can
be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organizations believe in
Human Resource Development and cover all of these bases.

Human resource development importance:

Skill shortages in key areas (e.g., systems analysts, engineers, data base specialist,
information/communications specialists) caused by a greater demand for information
processing/skills along with a shrinking labour force (the baby bust) making it increasingly
important to plan for, and to develop staff effectively
 The requirement to foster management teams capable of "accomplishing more with
less", and with a more diverse workforce.
 The challenge of containing human resources costs in the context of the trend by
governments to off-load training/development, health, benefits, and other costs onto
 The pressures of accelerating social and legislative changes (e.g., pay equity,
employment equity, etc.).
 The challenge of making the most of staff, many of whom are educationally very well
qualified, but under utilized.
 Employees as organization assets
 Driving business strategy
 Spanning organizational functions

 HRD Deliverables:
 Performance
 Capacity Building
 Problem solving/consulting
 Org. change and development

Many organizations are finding that alarming numbers of secondary and post-secondary
school graduates do not have the literacy, numeric, and technical skills that they require
(Coates, 1990). Some of these problems may stem from the fact that increasing numbers of
employees are working in their second language, while technological and other changes are
creating new demands that the educational system cannot respond to quickly enough.

Evaluation of human resource development:

 Early apprenticeship programs

 Early vocational education programs
 Early factory schools
 Early training for unskilled/semiskilled
 Human relations movement
 Establishment of training profession
 Emergence of HRD

Emergence of human resource development:

 Employee needs extend beyond the training classroom
 Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving
 Need for basic employee development
 Need for structured career development
 ASTD changes its name to the American Society for Training and Development

Human resource development function:

 Training – improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-
term, particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,
 Employee orientation
 Skills & technical training
 Coaching
 Counseling

 Development – preparing for future responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to

perform at a current job
 Management training
 Supervisor development

 Career development - Ongoing process by which individuals progress through series of

changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.
 Career planning
 Career management

Critical issues in human resource development:

 Strategic management and HRD

Strategic management aims to ensure organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable
Future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years
HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new products, procedures, and

 The supervisor’s role in HRD

Supervisor Implements HRD programs and procedures
1. On-the-job training (OJT)
2. Coaching/mentoring/counseling
3. Career and employee development
4. A “front-line participant” in HRD

 Organizational structure of HRD

Depends on company size, industry and maturity
No single structure used
Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager becomes an institutional part of
the Company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user

Presence of HRD in large organization:

Human resource development role:

 HR Strategic Advisor
Consults with corporate strategic thinkers
Helps to articulate goals and strategies
Develops HR plans
Develops strategic planning education and training programs

 HR Systems Designer/Developer
Assists HR manager in the design and development of HR systems
Designs HR programs
Develops intervention strategies
Plans HR implementation actions

 Organization Change Agent

Develops more efficient work teams
Improves quality management
Implements intervention strategies
Develops change reports

 Organization Design Consultant

Designs work systems
Develops effective alternative work designs
Implements changed systems

 Learning Program Specialist

Identifies needs of learners
Develops and designs learning programs
Prepares learning materials and learning aids
Develops program objectives, lesson plans, and strategies

 Instructor/Facilitator
Presents learning materials
Leads and facilitates structured learning experiences
Selects appropriate instructional methods and techniques
Delivers instruction

 Individual Development and Career Counselor

Assists individuals in career planning
Develops individual assessments
Facilitates career workshops
Provides career guidance

 Performance Consultant (Coach)

Advises line management on appropriate interventions to improve individual
and group performance
Provides intervention strategies
Develops and provides coaching designs
Implements coaching activities

 Researcher

Assesses HRD practices and programs

Determines HRD program effectiveness
Develops requirements for changing HRD programs to address current and
future problems

Challenges for HRD :

 Changing workforce demographics
 Competing in global economy
 Eliminating the skills gap
 Need for lifelong learning
 Need for organizational learning

Competing in the Global Economy

 New technologies
 Need for more skilled and educated workers
 Cultural sensitivity required
 Team involvement
 Problem solving
 Better communications skills
A Framework for the HRD Process
HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages):
 Needs assessment
1. Establishing HRD priorities
2. Defining specific training and objectives
3. Establishing evaluation criteria

 Design
1. Selecting who delivers program
2. Selecting and developing program content
3. Scheduling the training program

 Implementation

 Evaluation
Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,
1. Keep or change providers?
2. Offer it again?
3. What are the true costs?
4. Can we do it another way?

Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations
together so that the goals of each other are met. The role of HR manager is shifting
from that of a protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent.
Personnel directors are the new corporate heroes. The name of the game today in
business is personnel. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or
operating report unless your personnel relations are in order.

Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low
skilled jobs are decreasing. This calls for future skill mapping through proper HRM
Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems, management cultures
and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. There is a need
for multi skill development. Role of HRM is becoming all the more important.

Some of the recent trends that are being observed are as follows:

 The recent quality management standards ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 of 2000
focus more on people centric organizations. Organizations now need to prepare
themselves in order to address people centered issues with commitment from the
top management, with renewed thrust on HR issues, more particularly on
 Charles Handy also advocated future organizational models like
Shamrock, Federal and Triple I. Such organizational models also refocus on
people centric issues and call for redefining the future role of HR professionals.
 To leapfrog ahead of competition in this world of uncertainty, organizations have
introduced six- sigma practices. Six- sigma uses rigorous analytical tools with
leadership from the top and develops a method for sustainable improvement.
These practices improve organizational values and helps in creating defect free
product or services at minimum cost.
 Human resource outsourcing is a new accession that makes a traditional HR
department redundant in an organization. Exult, the international pioneer in HR
BPO already roped in Bank of America, international players BP Amoco & over the
years plan to spread their business to most of the Fortune 500 companies.
 With the increase of global job mobility, recruiting competent people is also
increasingly becoming difficult, especially in India. Therefore by creating
an enabling culture, organizations are also required to work out a retention
strategy for the existing skilled manpower.


 Becoming the employer of choice
 Winning the war for talent
 Contributing to the organization as a strategic business partner
 Cultivating leadership through e-learning and development
 Recognizing the workforce as a profit center
 Thinking globally while complying locally
 Incorporating flexibility and adaptability into the organization
 Embracing technology as the underlying facilitator
 The policies of many companies have become people centric
 Attracting and retaining of human resource has become difficult as loyalty
factor is losing its shine, .
 With the increase of global job mobility, recruiting competent people is also
Increasingly becoming difficult, especially in India.


 Developing Effective Reward and Recognition Systems

 Creating and Becoming Transformational Leaders
 Engaging the Workforce in Continuous Change and Innovation
 Collaborating in Resolving of Strategic Problems
 Partnering with Community Groups and Business Organizations
 Encouraging Real Employee Involvement
 Coaching and Counseling Individuals and High Performance Teams
 Empowering and Facilitating Learning, Change, and Decision-making
 Creating the "Learning" Organization
 Designing Organizations, Processes, and Performance Systems
 Keeping Up-to-Date on Technological Advances in HR Applications
 Maintaining a Global Business Perspective

Trends in Professional HRD

 Higher Visibility
 Higher Accountability
 Greater Cross-Functional Involvement
 Higher Performance Demands
 Multiple Projects
 Greater need for comprehensive business knowledge
 Need for solid research and theory know-how
 Expatriate Training & Development
 Continual Development: Online Assistance and Training
 Repatriation Orientation and Training

Training & HRD Process Model

Examples of HRD practices:
3M Company: Industrial Markets Initiative (IMI)
 3M: 75,000 employees in 60 countries
 Sales: US$ 15 Billion, 303rd on Fortune 500 list
 IMI: Cross-Business Cooperative Strategic Effort with 6 divisions
 Gap Analysis

East Central Minnesota Human Resource Development Partnership

 5 family-owned businesses/rural MN
 Total workforce: 300, range 12 - 123
 Pine Technical College
 WorkKeys assessment and training
 Problems Solving; Interpersonal Skills, Communication Skills

Lucent Technologies
 Global Fortune 50 Telecommunication Co, 140,000 employees, US$28
Billion Revenue
 Leadership and Culture Audit for 2 US and 1 German production sites

Parkland College, Champaign, Illinois

 Publicly funded community college in East Central IL
 17,000 Annual Students, 50% in Occupational programs
 Business Training Center
 Workforce Preparation Center

 Abbott Laboratories
 60,000+ employees in 120 countries
 Five divisions
 Corporate and division level HRD
 Director of Training and Organizational Development, Ph.D. HRD
 Staff of 15 (instructional designers, trainers, OD consultants)
 Performance Management, Leadership Development, Quality
Management, Expatriate Training, New employee orientation,
regulatory/mandated training
 Diversity Initiatives
 Clients: Everybody!
 Divisional and corporate roles (committees, councils, strategic planning)

Example of Changing Demographics in the U.S. Workplace :

By 2020, it is predicted that:

 African-Americans will remain at 11%
 Hispanics will increase from 9% to 14%
 Asians will increase from 4% to 6%
 Whites will decrease from 76% to 68%
 Women will increase from 46% to 50%
 Older workers (>55) will increase to 25%