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In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Award of Degree of

Bachelor of Technology



Submitted By





Summer training has an important role in exposing the real life situation in
an industry. It was great experience for me to work on the training at UTTAR
how to work in a professional environment.

Now, I would like to thank the people who guided me and have been a
constant source of inspiration throughout the tenure of my summer training.

I am sincerely grateful To MR. RAJAT MISHRA (Sub divisional

officer) at 220/132 KV substation, Chinhat who rendered me his valuable
assistance, constant encouragement and able guidance which made this training
actually possible.

I wish my deep sense of gratitude to MR. M.K YADAV, PRATAP

SINGH ,Mirtunjay Lal (JUNIOR ENGINEER) whose affection guidance has
enabled me to complete this training successfully.

I also wish my deep sense of gratitude to Prof. K.S Singh (HOD: EN

Department) and training coordinator and Other Faculty me mbers whose
guidance and encouragement made my training successfully.



The report gives an overview of 220kv power

substation. It includes electricity transmission and
distribution processes at UPPCL, Chinhat substation
Lucknow. Its substation, an assembly of apparatus
which is installed to control transmission and
distribution of electric power, its two main divisions
are outdoor and indoor substation. Different
equipments used in substations, Bus-bar, surge
arrestor, Isolator, Earth switches, Current
Transformers etc. Transformer which is being used
here is core and shell type transformer for stepping
up and down purposes. Different Instruments
transformers, voltage, Current and CVT transformers
are also being used.

 Definition
 Sub-Station
 Types of Substation
 220/132 KV sub-station
 About the sub station
 Bus-bar
 Insulators
 Isolating Switches
 Circuit breaker
 Protective relay
 Instrument Transformer
 Current Transformer
 Voltage Transformer
 Capacitor Voltage Transformer
 Metering and Indicating Instrument
 Miscellaneous equipment
 Transformer
 Lightening arrestors
 Line isolator
 Wave trap



The present day electrical power system is ac i.e. electric power

is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of
Alternating current. The electric power is produce at the power
station, which are located at favorable places, generally quite
away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumer
through a large network of transmission and distribution. At
many place in the line of power system, it may be desirable and
necessary to change some characteristic (e.g. Voltage, ac to dc,
frequency power factor etc.) of electric supply. This is
accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station for
example, generation voltage (11KV or 6.6KV) at the power
station is stepped up to high voltage (Say 220KV to 132KV) for
transmission of electric power.
Similarly near the consumer’s localities, the voltage may have
to be stepped down to utilization level. This job is again
accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station.


1. Definition of sub-station:
“The assembly of apparatus used to change some characteristics (e.g.
Voltage ac to dc freq. p.f. etc) of electric supply is called sub-station”
2. Sub-Station:

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and

distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or
the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow
through several substations at different voltage levels.

Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may

be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally
substations are unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision
and control.

A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between

high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the
interconnection of two different transmission voltages. The word
substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a
grid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating
plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy
supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The
first substations were connected to only one power station, where the
generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.

3. Types of Substation:

Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications

within the power system, the method used to insulate most connections,
and by the style and materials of the structures used. These categories
are not disjointed; to solve a particular problem, a transmission
substation may include significant distribution functions, for example.

 Transmission substation
 Distribution substation
 Collector substation
 Converter substation
 Switching station

Transmission substation:

A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The

simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In
such cases, substation contains high- voltage switches that allow lines to
be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A
transmission station may have transformers to convert between two
transmission voltages, voltage control/power factor correction devices
such as capacitors, reactors or static VAR compensators and equipment
such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two
adjacent power systems.

Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small

"switching station" may be little more than a bus plus some circuit
breakers. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area
(several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit
breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment
(voltage and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems). Modern

substations may be implemented using international standards such as
IEC Standard 61850.

Distribution substation:

A distribution substation in Scarborough, Ontario disguised as a house,

complete with a driveway, front walk and a mown lawn and shrubs in
the front yard. A warning notice can be clearly seen on the "front door".
Disguises for substations are common in many cities.

A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system

to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly
connect electric ity consumers to the main transmission network, unless
they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces
voltage to a level suitable for local distribution.

The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two

transmission o r sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for
example, 115 kV, or whatever is common in the area. The output is a
number of feeders. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage,
between 2.4 kV and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and
the practices of the local utility. The feeders run along streets overhead
(or underground, in some cases) and power the distribution transformers
at or near the customer premises.

In addition to transforming voltage, distribution substations also iso late

faults in either the transmission or distribution systems. Distribution
substations are typically the points of voltage regulation, although on
long distribution circuits (of several miles/kilometers), voltage
regulation equipment may also be installed along the line.

The down town areas of large cities feature complicated distribution
substations, with high-voltage switching, and switching and backup
systems on the low- voltage side. More typical distribution substations
have a switch, one transformer, and minimal facilities on the low-voltage

Collector substation:

In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm, a collector

substation may be required. It resembles a distribution substation
although power flow is in the opposite direction, from many wind
turbines up into the transmission grid. Usually for economy of
construction the collector system operates around 35 kV, and the
collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the
grid. The collector substation can also provide power factor correction if
it is needed, metering and control of the wind farm. In some special
cases a collector substation can also contain an HVDC converter station.

Collector substations also exist where multiple thermal or hydroelectric

power plants of comparable output power are in proximity. Examples for
such substations are Brauweiler in Germany and Hradec in the Czech
Republic, where power is collected from nearby lignite-fired power
plants. If no transformers are required for increase of voltage to
transmission level, the substation is a switching station.

Converter substation:

Converter sub stations may be associated with HVDC converter plants,

traction current, or interconnected non-synchronous networks. These
stations contain power electronic devices to change the frequency of
current, or else convert from alternating to direct current or the reverse.
Formerly rotary converters changed frequency to interconnect two
systems; such substations today are rare.


 Switching station:

A switching station is a substation without transformers and operating

only at a single voltage level. Switching stations are sometimes used as
collector and distribution stations. Sometimes they are used for
switching the current to back-up lines or for parallelizing circuits in case
of failure. An example is the switching stations for the HVDC Inga–
Shaba transmission line.

A switching station may also be known as a switchyard, and these are

commonly located directly adjacent to or nearby a power station. In this
case the generators from the power station supply their power into the
yard onto the Generator Bus on one side of the yard, and the
transmission lines take their power from a Feeder Bus on the other side
of the yard.

An important function performed by a substation is switching, which is
the connecting and disconnecting of transmission lines or other
components to and from the system. Switching events may be "planned"
or "unplanned". A transmission line or other component may need to be
de-energized for maintenance or for new construction, for example,
adding or removing a transmission line or a transformer. To maintain
reliability of supply, no company ever brings down its whole system for
maintenance. All work to be performed, from routine testing to adding
entirely new substations, must be done while keeping the whole system

Perhaps more important, a fault may develop in a transmission line or

any other component. Some examples of this:
 A line is hit by lightning and develops an arc
 A tower is blown down by high wind.

The function of the switching station is to isolate the faulted portion of

the system in the shortest possible time. De-energizing faulted
equipment protects it from further damage, and isolating a fault helps
keep the rest of the electrical grid operating with stability.
4. 220KV Sub-station :

220KV Sub-Station forms an important link between Transmission

network and Distribution network. It has a vital influence of reliability of
service. Apart from ensuring efficient transmission and Distribution of
power, the sub-station configuration should be such that it enables easy
maintenance of equipment and minimum interruptions in power supply.
Sub-Station is constructed near as possible to the load center. The
voltage level of power transmission is decided on the quantum of power
to be transmitted to the load center.

5. About the substation:

The main bus 220KV is connected to grid located at 220KV C.G City,
Kursi Road, Gomtinagar, PGCIL Lucknow. Now the transmission the
first parallel connected with lightning arrestor to diverge surge, followed
by CVT connected parallel CVT measure voltage and steps down at
110V. A.C for control panel at the same location a wave trap is
connected to carrier communication at higher frequencies. A current
transformer is connected in series with line which measures current and
step down current at ratio 800:1 for control panel. Switchgear equipment
is provided which is the combination of a circuit breaker having an
isolator at each end. A transformer is connected to main bus coupler.
The main bus has total capability of 360MVA for 132KV which is
subdivided into two transformer capacity of 126MVA (63MVA+
63MVA) parallel connected for 33KV and other two transformer
capacity of 500KVA (250MVA+250MVA) are parallel connected for
substation. At both ends transformer lighting arrestor, current
transformer and switchgear equipment are provided. Transformer steps
downs voltage from 220KV to132KV. The main bus is provided with
switchgear equipment & a current transformer. This gives way to six
feeders transmitting power to TELCO, MARTIN PURWA,
bus is connected to jack bus or transfer bus through a bus coupler &
33KV is provided with switchgear equipment. This gives way to 16
feeders transmitting power to JP NAGAR, KURSI ROAD, INDRA
SPRING DEVELOPER and SALIMAR. A step down transformer of
33KV/440V is connected to control panel to provide supply to the
equipments of the substation. Capacitor bank is connected to main bus of
33KV. It provided to improve power factor and voltage profile.

Main points to be considered while selecting the site for Grid Sub-
Station are as follows:
i) The site chosen should be as near to the load center as
ii) It should be easily approachable by road or rail for
transportation of equipments.
iii) Land should be fairly leveled to minimize development
iv) Source of water should be as near to the site as possible. This
is because water is required for various construction
activities (especially civil works), earthing and for drinking
purposes etc.
v) The sub-station site should be as near to the town / city but
should be clear of public places, aerodromes, and Military /
police installations.
vi) The land should be have sufficient ground area to
accommodate substation equipments, buildings, staff
quarters, space for storage of material, such as store yards
and store sheds etc. with roads and space for future
vii) Set back distances from various roads such as National
Highways, State Highways should be observed as per the
regulations in force.
viii) While selecting the land for the Substation preference to be
given to the Govt. land over private land.
ix) The land should not have water logging problem.
x) Far away from obstructions, to permit easy and safe
approach/termination of high voltage overhead transmission


The equipment required for a transformer Sub-Station depends upon the

type of Sub-Station, Service requirement and the degree of protection

220KV EHV Sub-Station has the following major equipments:

  Bus Bar

 Insulators

 Isolating Switches

 Circuit breaker

 Protective relay

 Instrument Transformer

 Current Transformer

 Voltage Transformer

 Metering and Indicating Instrument

 Miscellaneous equipment

 Transformer

 Lightening arrestors

 Line isolator

Wave trap

When a no. of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly
connected electrically, bus-bar are used, it is made up of copper or aluminum
bars (generally of rectangular X-Section) and operate at constant voltage.

The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders come into and get into the
instruments for further step up or step down. The first bus is used for putting
the incoming feeders in LA single line. There may be double line in the bus
so that if any fault occurs in the one the other can still have the current and
the supply will not stop. The two lines in the bus are separated by a little
distance by a Conductor having a connector between them. This is so that one
can work at a time and the other works only if the first is having any fault.


The insulator serves two purpose, they support the conductor (or bus
bar) and confine the current to the conductor. The most commonly used
material for the manufactures of insulators is porcelain. There are
several type of insulator (i.e. pine type, suspension type etc.) and there
used in Sub-Station will depend upon the service requirement.

Isolating Switches:
In Sub-Station, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for
general maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating
switch or isolator.

An isolator is essentially a knife Switch and is design to often open a

circuit under no load, in other words, isolator Switches are operate only
when the line is which they are connected carry no load. For example,
consider that the isolator are connected on both side of a circuit breaker,
if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must be opened first.

Circuit breaker:
A circuit breaker is an equipment, which can open or close a circuit
under normal as well as fault condition. These circuit breaker breaks for
a fault which can damage other instrument in the station.

It is so designed that it can be operated manually (or by remote control)

under normal conditions and automatically under fault condition.
There are mainly two types of circuit breakers used for any substations.
They are
(a) SF6 circuit breakers
(b) Spring circuit breakers

For the latter operation a relay which is used with a C.B. generally bulk
oil C.B. are used for voltage up to 66 KV while for high voltage low oil

& SF6 C.B. are used. For still higher voltage, air blast vacuum or SF6
cut breaker are used.

The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are
having high input kv input, say above 220kv and more. The gas is put
inside the circuit breaker by force i.e. under high pressure.

When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor connected to the circuit
breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower than 20.8 bar.
There is a meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually seen
if the gas goes low. The circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the
torque produce in it due to any fault in the line. The circuit breaker has a
direct link with the instruments in the station, when any fault occur
alarm bell rings.

Protective relay:
A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the
operation of the C.B. to isolate the defective element from the rest of the
system”. The relay detects the abnormal condition in the electrical
circuit by constantly measuring the electrical quantities, which are
different under normal and fault condition. The electrical quantities
which may change under fault condition are voltage, current, frequency
and phase angle. Having detect the fault, the relay operate to close the
trip circuit of CB.

Instrument Transformer:
The line in Sub-station operate at high voltage and carry current of
thousands of amperes. The measuring instrument and protective devices
are designed for low voltage (generally 110V) and current (about 5A).
Therefore, they will not work satisfactory if mounted directly on the
power lines. This difficulty is overcome by installing Instrument
transformer, on the power lines.
There are two types of instrument transformer-

1. Current Transformer:

A current transformer is essentially a step-down transformer which

steps-down the current in a known ratio, the primary of this transformer
consist of one or more turn of thick wire connected in series with the
line, the secondary consist of thick wire connected in series with line
having large number of turn of fine wire and provides for measuring
instrument, and relay a current which is a constant faction of the current
in the line. Current transformers are basically used to take the readings
of the currents entering the substation. This transformer steps down the
current from 800 amps to 1amp. This is done because we have no
instrument for measuring of such a large current.

The main use of his transformer is:

(a) Distance protection
(b) Backup protection
(c) Measurement

2. Potential Transformer:

It is essentially a step – down transformer and step down the voltage in

known ratio. The primary of these transformer consist of a large number
of turn of fine wire connected across the line.
The secondary way consist of a few turns and provides for measuring
instruments and relay a voltage which is known fraction of the line

3. C V T:

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT ) is a transformer used in power

systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage
signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most
basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the
voltage signal is split, an inductive element used to tune the device to the
supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the
voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least
four terminals, a high- voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage
signal, a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for
connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typically
single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred
kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In
practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of capacitors
connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of
capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage
drop across the second capacitor,C2, and hence the secondary terminals.

Metering and Indicating Instrument:

There are several metering and indicating Instrument (e.g. Ammeters, Volt-
meters, energy meter etc.) installed in a Substation to maintain which over
the circuit quantities. The instrument transformers are invariably used with
them for satisfactory operation.

Miscellaneous equipment:
In addition to above, there may be following equipment in a Substation :
i) Fuses
ii) Carrier-current equipment
iii) Sub-Station auxiliary supplies


There are four transformers in the incoming feeders so that the four lines
are step down at the same time. In case of a 220KV or more KV line
station auto transformers are used. While in case of lower KV line such
as less than 132KV line double winding transformers are used Auto

Transformer is static equipment which converts electrical energy from

one voltage to another. As the system voltage goes up, the techniques to
be used for the Design, Construction, Installation, Operation and
Maintenance also become more and more critical. If proper care is
exercised in the installation, maintenance and condition monitoring of
the transformer, it can give the user trouble free service throughout the
expected life of equipment which of the order of 25-35 years. Hence, it
is very essential that the personnel associated with the installation,
operation or maintenance of the transformer is through with the
instructions provided by the manufacture diverted around the protected
insulation in most cases to earth.

Auto transformer:

Transformer is static equipment which converts electrical energy from

one voltage to another. As the system voltage goes up, the techniques to
be used for the Design, Construction, Installation, Operation and
Maintenance also become more and more critical. If proper care is
exercised in the installation, maintenance and condition monitoring of
the transformer, it can give the user trouble free service throughout the
expected life of equipment which of the order of 25-35 years. Hence, it
is very essential that the personnel associated with the installation
operation or maintenance of the transformer is through with the
instructions provided by the manufacture.

Basic principles:

The transformer is based on two principles: firstly, that an Electric

current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly
that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage
across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the
current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed.
The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

It is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another

through inductively coupled conductors — the transformer's coils.
Except for air-core transformers, the conductors are commonly wound
around a single iron-rich core, or around separate but magnetically -
coupled cores. A varying current in the first or "primary" winding
creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer.
This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force
(EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary" winding. This effect is called
mutual induction.

If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in

the seconda ry winding and electrical energy will flow from the primary
circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the
induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the
primary voltage (VP), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in
the secondary to the number of turns in the primary as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows

an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS
greater than NP, or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP.

Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling

transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing
hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids.
All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs

is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for
transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in
nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage.
Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which
makes long distance transmission economically practical. Pole -
mounted single-phase transformer with center-tapped secondary. Note
use of the grounded conductor as one leg of the primary feeder.

Induction law:

The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from
Faraday's law of induction, which states that:

Where VS is the instantaneous voltage, NS is the number of turns in the

secondary coil and Φ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the
coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic
field lines, the flux is the product of the magnetic field strength B and
the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equa l to the
cross-sectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field
varies with time according to the excitation. The simplified description
above neglects several practical factors, in particular the primary current
required to establish a magnetic field in the core, and the contribution to
the field due to current in the secondary circuit.

Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible

reluctance with two windings of zero resistance, when a voltage is
applied to the primary winding, a small current flows, driving flux
around the magnetic circuit of the core. The current required to create
the flux is termed the magnetizing current; since the ideal core has been
assumed to have near- zero reluctance, the magnetizing current is
negligible, although still required to create the magnetic field.

The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF)
across each winding. Since the ideal windings have no impedance, they
have no associated voltage drop, and so the voltage VP and VS
measured at the terminals of the transformer, are equal to the
corresponding EMFs.

The primary EMF, acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage,

is sometimes termed the "back EMF". This is due to Lenz's law which
states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will
oppose development of any such change in magnetic field.

Lightening Arrester:

To discharge the switching and lightening voltage surges to earth.

Wave trap:

Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The function
of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping
wave. Its shape is like a drum. It is connected to the main incoming
feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the
instruments here in the substation.


A Single Line Diagram (SLD) of an Electrical System is the Line

Diagram of the concerned Electrical System which includes all the
required ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT connection sequence wise from
the point of entrance of Power up to the end of the scope of the
mentioned Work.

As these feeders enter the station they are to pass through various
instruments. The instruments have their usual functioning.
They are as follows in the single line diagram:

Lightening arrestors

C V T

Wave trap

Isolators with earth switch

Circuit breaker


Potential transformer with a bus isolator


Current transformer

A capacitor bank attached to the bus

This substation has the capacity of 220KV and can step down to 132KV
using four input lines through the incoming feeders.
These feeders come into the substation with 220KV

The input feeders are namely,

 PGCIL Lucknow
 Kursi Road
 PGCIL Rai Bareily/ C.G City
 Gomtinagar

The substation of 220KV/132KV has seven outgoing feeders, namely:

These out going feeders are of 132kv line.

 Barabanki
 Khurrom Nagar
 Gomtinagar
 Martin Purwa
Further, the substation of 132kv/33kv has ten outgoing feeders, namely:

 JP Nagar
 Kursi Road
 Indira Nagar-1
 Indira Nagar-2
 Chinhat-1
 Chinhat-2
 Dainik Jagron
Further, the substation of 132kv/33kv has ten outgoing feeders, namely:
 Kamta
 Shalimar Corp.


Transformer is a static machine, which transform the potential of alternating

current at same frequency. It means the transformer transforms the low voltage
into high voltage and high voltage into low voltage at same frequency. It works
on the principle of static induction principle. When the energy transformed into
higher voltage, the transformer is called step up transformer but in case of other
is known as step down transformer.


 Power Transformer

 Instrument Transformer

Auto Transformer

Further, Transformer classified in two types:

 On the basis of working

On the basis of structure




Auto Transformer:

 
o Single phase transformer
o Three phase transformer
 
o Current transformer
o Potential transformer
 
o Single phase transformer
o Three phase transformer
 
On the basis of working:
o Step down: convert HIGH VOLTAGE into LOW VOLTAGE
o Step up: convert LOW VOLTAGE into HIGH VOLTAGE
 
On the basis of structure:
o Core Type
o Shell Type


An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do

not flow freely, and therefore make it nearly impossible to conduct an
electric current under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts
with other materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct
electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an
insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than
semiconductors or conductors.

A perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain

small numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers) which can carry
current. In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive
when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears
electrons away from the atoms. This is known as the breakdown
voltage of an insulator. Some materials such as glass, paper and
Teflon, which have high resistivity, are very good electrical
insulators. A much larger class of materials, even though they may
have lower bulk resistivity, are still good enough to prevent
significant current from flowing at normally used voltages, and thus
are employed as insulation for electrical wiring and cables. Examples
include rubber-like polymers and most plastics.

Insulators are used in electrical equipment to support and separate

electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves.
An insulating material used in bulk to wrap electrical cables or other
equipment is called insulation. The term insulator is also used more
specifically to refer to insulating supports used to attach electric
power distribution or transmission lines to utility poles and
transmission towers. They support the weight of the suspended wires
without allowing the current to flow through the tower to ground.

The main cause of failure of overhead line insulator, is the flash over, occurs in between line and
earth during abnormal over voltage in the system.

During the flash over, the huge heat produced by arching, causes puncher in insulator body.


For successful utilization, this material should have some specific properties as listed

It must be mechanically strong enough to carry tension and weight of conductors.

It must have very high dielectric strength to withstand the voltage stresses in High
Voltage system.

It must possessed high Insulation Resistance to prevent leakage current to the earth.

The insulating material must be free from unwanted impurities.

It should not be porous.

There must not be any entrance on the surface of electrical insulator so that the moisture or
gases can enter in it.

 as well as electrical properties must be less affected by changing
There physical



Two types of insulating material are mainly used:

i) Porcelain insulator
ii) Glass insulator

i) Porcelain insulator:

Porcelain in most commonly used material for over head insulator in present days.
The porcelain is aluminium silicate. The aluminium silicate is mixed with plastic
kaolin, feldspar and quartz to obtain final hard and glazed porcelain insulator

The surface of the insulator should be glazed enough so that water should not be
traced on it.

Fig: porcelain insulator

ii) Glass insulator:

Now days glass insulator has become popular in transmission and distribution
system. Annealed tough glass is used for insulating purpose.

Fig; glass insulator

Advantages of Glass Insulator:

It has very high dielectric strength compared to porcelain.
Its resistivity is also very high.
It has low coefficient of thermal expansion.
It has higher tensile strength compared to porcelain insulator.
As it is transparent in nature the is not heated up in sunlight as
The impurities and air bubble can be easily detected inside
the glass insulator body because of its transparency.
Glass has very long service life as because mechanical and
electrical properties of glass do not be affected by ageing.
After all, glass is cheaper than porcelain.

Disadvantages of Glass Insulator:

Moisture can easily condensed on glass surface and hence air dust
will be deposited on the wed glass surface which will provide
path to the leakage current of the system.
For higher voltage glass can’t be cast in irregular shapes since
due to irregular cooling internal cooling internal strains are

There are five types of insulators:
1. Pin type insulator
2. Suspension type insulator
3. Strain type insulator
4. Shackle type insulator
5. Stay type insulator
1. Pin type insulator:

Pin Insulator is earliest developed overhead insulator, but still popularly

used in power network up to 33 KV system. Pin type insulator can be
one part, two parts or three parts type, depending upon application
voltage. In 11 KV system we generally use one part type insulator where
whole pin insulator is one piece of properly shaped porcelain or glass.
As the leakage path of insulator is through its surface, it is desirable to
increase the vertical length of the insulator surface area for lengthening
leakage path.

Fig: pin type insulator

2. Suspension type insulator:

2. Suspension type insulator:

In higher voltage, beyond 33KV, it becomes uneconomical to use pin

insulator because size, weight of the insulator become more. Handling
and replacing bigger size single unit insulator are quite difficult task. For
overcoming these difficulties, suspension insulator was developed.
In suspension insulator numbers of insulators are connected in series to
form a string and the line conductor is carried by the bottom most
insulator. Each insulator of a suspension string is called disc insulator
because of their disc like shape.

fig: suspension type insulator


When suspension string is used to sustain extraordinary tensile load of

conductor it is referred as string insulator. When there is a dead end or
there is a sharp corner in transmission line, the line has to sustain a great
tensile load of conductor or strain. A strain insulator must have
considerable mechanical strength as well as the necessary electrical
insulating properties.

Fig: strain type insulator


The shackle insulator or spool insulator is usually used in low voltage distribution
network. It can be used both in horizontal and vertical position. The use of such
insulator has decreased recently after increasing the using of underground cable for
distribution purpose. The tapered hole of the spool insulator distributes the load
more evenly and minimizes the possibility of breakage when heavily loaded. The
conductor in the groove of shackle insulator is fixed with the help of soft binding

Fig: shackle type insulator


For low voltage lines, the stays are to be insulated from ground at a height. The
insulator used in the stay wire is called as the stay insulator and is usually of
porcelain and is so designed that in case of breakage of the insulator the guy-wire
will not fall to the ground.

Fig: stay type insulator



A circuit breaker is the equipment, which can open or close a circuit under normal
as well as fault condition. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can
damage other instrument in the station.

It is so designed that it can be operated manually (or by remote control) under

normal conditions and automatically under fault condition.

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect

an electrical circuit from damage caused by over current or overload or short
circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after protective relays detect a

Fig: SF6 circuit breaker


The Circuit Breaker mainly consist of fixed contacts and moving contacts. In
normal “no” condition of circuit breaker, these two contacts are physically
connected tp each other due to applied mechanical pressure on the moving

There is an arrangement stored potential energy in the operating
mechanism of circuit breaker which is realized if switching
signal is given to the breaker. The potential energy can be stored
in the circuit breaker by different ways like by deforming metal
spring, by compressed air or by hydraulic pressure.

According to different criteria there are different type of circuit
According to their arc quenching media the circuit breaker can be
divided as:
 
 Oil circuit breaker
 
 Air blast circuit breaker
 
 SF6 circuit breaker
 
 Vacuum circuit breaker


A high- voltage circuit breaker in which the arc is drawn in oil to

dissipate the heat and extinguish the arc; the intense heat of arc
decomposes the oil, generating a gas whose high pressure produced a
flow of fresh fluid through the arc that furnishes the necessary insulation
to prevent a re-strike of the arc.

The arc is then extinguished, both because of its elongation upon parting
of contacts and because of intensive cooling by the gases of oil vacuum.


Fast operations, suitability for repeated operation, auto re-closure, unit
type multi break constructions, simple assembly and modest
maintenance are some of the main features of air blast circuit breakers.
The compressors plant necessary to maintain high air pressure in the air
receiver. The air blast circuit breakers are especially suitable for railway
and arc furnaces, where the breaker operates repeatedly. Air blast circuit
breaker is used for interconnected lines where rapid operation is desired.

Fig: air blast circuit breaker

High pressure air at a pressure between 20 to 30 kg/cm2 stored in the air

reservoir. Air is taken from the compressed air system. Three hollow
insulator columns are mounted on the reservoir with valves at their basis.
The double arc extinguished chambers are mounted on the top of the
hollow insulator chambers. The current carrying parts connect the three
arc extinction chamber to each other in series and the pole to the
neighbouring equipment. Since there exist a very high voltage between
the conductor and the air reservoir, the entire arc extinction chambers
assembly is mounted on insulators.




In such circuit breaker, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used as the arc
quenching medium. The SF6 is an electronegative gas and has a strong
tendency to absorb free electrons.
The SF6 circuit breakers have been found to a very effective for high power
and high voltage service. SF6 circuit breakers have been developed for
voltage 115 KV to 230 KV, power rating 10MVA.

It consists of fixed and moving contacts. It has chamber, contains SF6 gas.
Whe n the contacts are opened, the mechanism permits a high pressure SF6
gas from reservoir to flow towards the arc interruption chamber. The moving
contact permits the SF6 gas to let through these holes.

A typical SF6 circuit breaker consists of interrupter units. Each unit is

capable of interrupting currents up to 60 KA and voltage in the range 50-80
KV. A number of units are connected in series according to system voltage.
SF6 breakers are developed for voltages range from 115 to 500 KV and
power of 10MVA rating and with interrupting time of 3 cycles and less.

The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are having high
input kv input, say above 220kv and more. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker
by force i.e. under high pressure. When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor
connected to the circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower
than 20.8 bar. There is a meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually
seen if the gas goes low. The circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the torque
produce in it due to any fault in the line. The circuit breaker has a direct link with
the instruments in the station, when any fault occur alarm bell rings. The spring
type of circuit breakers is used for small kv stations. The spring here reduces the
torque produced so that
the breaker can function again. The spring type is used for step down side of
132kv to 33kv also in 33kv to 11kv and so on. They are only used in low
distribution side.

Vacuum circuit breakers are the breakers which are used to protect medium and
high voltage circuit from dangerous electrical situations. Like other types of circuit
breakers, vacuum circuit breakers are literally break the circuit so that energy can
not continue flowing through it, thereby preventing fires, power surge and other
problems which may emerge. These devices have been utilized since the 1920s and
several companies have introduced refinements to make the m even safer and more


Isolator is used to ensure that an electrical circuit is completely de-

energized for service or maintenance.

In Sub-Station, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system fo r

general maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating
switch or isolator.

An isolator is essentially a knife Switch and is design to often open a

circuit under no load, in other words, isolator Switches are operate only
when the line is which they are connected carry
no load. For example, consider that the isolator are connected on both
side of a circuit breaker, if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must
be opened first.

“An Isolator or a disconnector is a mechanical switch device, which

provides in the open position, an isolating distance in accordance with
special requirements. An isolator is capable of opening and closing a
circuit when either negligible current is broken/made or when no
significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the
poles of isolator occurs. It is also capable of carrying current under
normal circuit conditions and carrying for a specified time, current under
abnormal conditions such as those of short circuit.”


An isolator is a mechanical switch that is manually operated. Depending on the

requirement of a given system, there are different types of isolators. With isolators, one is
able to see any open circuit physically as compared to circuit breakers where no physical
observation can be made.

Since no technique for arc quenching exists in isolators, the operation of electrical
isolators should only be carried out when no possible current is flowing through a circuit.
An isolator should not be used to open a completely closed live circuit. Additionally, live
circuits should not be completed and closed using an isolator. This is to avoid large
amounts of arcing from taking place at the isolator contacts. Hence isolators should only
be opened after a circuit breaker is open and should be closed before closing a circuit

Electrical isolators can be operated using a motorized mechanism as well as by hand.

Hand operation happens to be cheaper, compared to a motorized arrangement.

As no arc quenching technique is provided in isolator it must be operated when there is

no chance of current flowing through the circuit. No live circuit should be closed or
opened by isolator operation. A complete live closed circuit must not be opened by
isolator operation and also a live circuit must not be closed and completed by isolator to
avoid huge arcing in between
isolator contacts. That is why isolator must be open after circuit breaker is open and these
must be closed before circuit breaker is closed. Isolator can be operated by hand locally
as well as by motorized mechanism from remote position. Motorized operation
arrangement costs more compared to hand operation; hence decision must be taken
before choosing an isolator for the system whether hand operated or motor operated
economically optimum for the system. For voltage up to 145 KV system hand operated
isolators are used whereas for higher voltage systems like 245 KV or 420 KV and above
motorized isolator are used.


Tandem isolator, often called split breaker or double breakers, provides two
separate circuits in the space of rectangular sized breaker opening. Every circuit
breaker panel has a limited number of circuits available. The problem is that when
the openings are all used up and you still need to add another circuit, what do you
do you? You could change the electrical panel or double up circuits on a breaker,
but this could place to much load on a particular circuit. So what then? The answer
that many have found is tandem breaker. This type of breaker is the same size as
any other breaker, but it has its difference.

The control room has various control panels which shows the information like incomming
power, outgoing power, frequency, time common to all sub-stations, status of various
lines(healthy, faulted, under outage or maintenance), status of various protective instruments like
isolators, circuit breaker, temperature of various instruments, working tap of transformer etc.

The DAS (Data Acquisition System) is used to accumulate the data received from various

The relay room is separate from the control room. All relay used here are numerical and are
either from Siemens® or ABB®.
The protection system is so fast that it can detect a fault within 30 ms and hence the circuit
breaker can be operated within as less as 80 ms. For 400KV side C.B., one time auto reclosure is
allowed in order to clear the faults automatically.


The control panels and relays of the sub-station required DC supply of 110 V.

 The DC supplyis made with the help of battery bank reserve normally kept in a separate room called
battery room.
 
The batteries used in this sub-station are Nickel-Cadmium (NI-Cd) batteries. These batteries
re used due to their advantages like low maintenance, longer life (15-20 years) etc.

Each cell is of 2 V and 300 Ah Capacity.

Fig: batteries at sub-station

Used of battery in sub-station:

Storage battery system is used in emergency situation for the working of electrical equipments:

 To open and close the switch gear

 For indication and control

 Emergency lighting

 Relay and interlocking equipments

For working of alarm circuit.

Protective Relaying:

Protective relays are used to detect defective lines or apparatus and to initiate the operation of
circuit interrupting devices to isolate the defective equipment. Relays are also used to detect
abnormal or undesirable operating conditions other than those caused by defective equipment
and either operate an alarm or initiate operation of circuit interrupting devices. Protective relays
protect the electrical system by causing the defective apparatus or lines to be disconnected to
minimize damage and maintain service continuity to the rest of the system.

There are different types of relays:

i. Over current relay

ii. Distance relay

iii. Differential relay

iv. Directional over current relay

i. Over Current Relay:

The over current relay responds to a magnitude of current above a specified value. There are four
basic types of construction: They are plunger, rotating disc, static, and microprocessor type. In
the plunger type, a plunger is moved by magnetic attraction when the current exceeds a specified
value. In the rotating induction-disc type, which is a motor, the disc rotates by electromagnetic
induction when the current exceeds a specified value.

Static types convert the current to a proportional D.C mill volt signal and apply it to a level
detector with voltage or contact output. Such relays can be designed to have various current-l
type of rotating induction-disc relay, called the voltage restrained over current relay. The
magnitude of voltage restrains the operation of the disc until the magnitude of the voltage drops
below a threshold value. Static over current relays are equipped with multiple curve
characteristics and can duplicate almost any shape of electromechanical relay curve.
Microprocessor relays convert the current to a digital signal. The digital signal can then be
compared to the setting values input into the relay. With the microprocessor relay, various curves
or multiple time-delay settings can be input to set the relay operation. Some relays allow the user
to define the curve with points or calculations to determine the output characteristics.

ii.Distance Relay:

It has the overall effect of measuring impedance. The relay operates instantaneously (within a few
cycles) on a 60-cycle basis for values of impedance below the set value. When time delay is
required, the relays energizes a separate time-delay relay or function with the contacts or output of
this time-delay relay or function performing the desired
Output functions. The relay operates on the magnitude of impedance measured by the
combination of restraint voltage and operating current passing through it according to the settings
applied to the relay. When the impedance is such that the impedance point is within the
impedance characteristics circle, the relay will trip. The relay is inherently directional. The line
impedance typically corresponds to the diameter of the circle with the reach of the relay being
the diameter of the circle.

iii. Differential Relay:

The differential relay is a current-operated relay that responds to the difference between two or
more device currents above a set value. The relay works on the basis of the differential principle
that what goes into the device has to come out .If the current does not add to zero, the error
current flows to cause the relay to operate and trip the circuit.

The differential relay is used to provide internal fault protection to equipment such as
transformers, generators, and buses. Relays are designed

to permit differences in the input currents as a result of current transformer mismatch and
applications where the input currents come from different system voltages, such as transformers.
A current differential relay provides restraint coils on the incoming current circuits. The restraint
coils in combination with the operating coil provide an operation curve, above which the relay
will operate. Differential relays are often used with a lockout relay to trip all power sources to the
device and prevent the device from being automatically or remotely reenergized. These relays are
very sensitive. The operation of the device usually means major problems with the protected
equipment and the likely failure in re-energizing the equipment.

iv. Directional Over current Relay:

A directional over current relay operates only for excessive current flow in a given direction.
Directional over current relays are available in electromechanical, static, and microprocessor
constructions. An electromechanical overcorrect relay is made directional by adding a directional
unit that prevents the over current relay from operating until the directional unit has operated.
The directional unit responds to the product of the magnitude of current, voltage, and the phase
angle between them or to the product of two currents and the phase angle between them. The
value of this product necessary to provide operation of the directional unit is small, so that it will
not limit the sensitivity of the relay (such as an over current relay that it controls). In most cases,
the directional element is mounted inside the same case as the relay it controls. For example, an

over current relay and a directional element are mounted in the same case, and the combination is
called a directional over current relay. Microprocessor relays often provide a choice as to the
polarizing method that can be used in providing the direction o f fault, such as applying residual
current or voltage or negative sequence current or voltage polarizing functions to the relay.

Line trap is also known as wave trap. What it does is trapping the high frequency communication
signals sent on the line from the remote sub-station and diverting them to the
telecom/teleprotection panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and

This is relevant in power line carrier communication (PLCC) systems for communication among
various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are
primarily teleprotection signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals.

The line trap offers high impedance to high frequency communication signals thus obstructs the
flow of these signals in to the substations bus-bars. If there were not to there, then signal loss in
more and communication will be ineffective/probably impossible.

Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The function of this trap is that it traps
the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum. It is connected to
the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the
instruments here in the substation.

Now from this report we can conclude that electricity plays an important role in our life. We are
made aware of how the transmission the transmission of electricity is done. We too came to
know about the various parts of the substation system. The three wings of electrical system viz.
generation, transmission and distribution are connected to each other and that too very perfectly.

Thus for effective transmission and distribution a substation must:

 Ensure steady state and transient stability
  Effective voltage control
 Prevention of loss of synchronism
 Reliable supply by feeding the network at various points.
 Fault analysis improvement in respective.
 Establishment of economic load distribution.