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Hydrocarbon Drainage & Recovery Mechanisms

Chap 2: Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

Axel Dorian P. Toko, Ing. Reservoir


SPE YPs Chair
UY1, Yaounde 2019

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Outline…
A. Reservoir Drive Mechanism
1. Definition
2. Reservoir Energy Sources
3. Types of Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
4. Drive mechanisms in Primary Recovery
 Oil Reservoirs and Gas Reservoirs
 Recovery Factor
 Artificial lift
5. The Material Balance Equation
6. Other Drive mechanisms
B. Reservoir Performance prediction
C. Summary

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Learning Objectives…
At the end of this course, student should be able to:
•Define reservoir drive mechanism.
•Describe with the aid of sketches the various reservoir drive mechanism.
•Describe with the aid of sketches solution gas drive distinguishing behaviour both
above and below the bubble point.
•Describe with the aid of sketches the reservoir performance characteristics of a SGD reservoir.
•Describe with the aid of sketches the reservoir performance characteristics of water drive reservoir.
•Describe with the aid of sketches the rate sensitivity aspect of water drive reservoir.
•Introduce and give a detailed discussion of the various primary recovery
mechanisms and their effects on the overall performance of oil reservoirs.

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Introduction

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Introduction
Identify the type of fluid regime dominating in a petroleum reservoir is of paramount interest
because it will influence the type of petroleum production system to be used for production.

For a proper understanding of reservoir behavior and predicting


future performance, it is necessary to have knowledge of the driving mechanisms
that control the behavior of fluids within reservoirs.

The overall performance of oil reservoirs is largely determined by the nature of the energy,
i.e., driving mechanism, available for moving the oil to the wellbore.
•Rock and liquid expansion drive •Water drive
•Depletion drive •Gravity drainage drive
•Gas cap drive •Combination drive

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
1.Definition
Drive mechanism :The natural energy of a reservoir can be used to move oil and gas toward the
wellbore. Used in such a fashion, these sources of energy are called drive mechanisms.
Petroleum Reservoir. Accumulations of O&G occur in underground traps that are formed by structural
and/or stratigraphic features. A reservoir is the portion of the trap that contains the oil and/or gas in a
hydraulically connected system.

Natural Gas Reservoir reservoirs where the fluid at all pressures in the reservoir or on the surface is a single
gaseous phase, estimates of reserves and recoveries are relatively simple.

Primary Recovery: The first stage of hydrocarbon production, in which natural reservoir energy, such as gas
drive, water drive or gravity drainage, displaces hydrocarbons from the reservoir, into the wellbore and up to
surface.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
2.Reservoir Energy Sources

 Liberation, expansion of solution gas


 Influx of aquifer water
 Expansion of reservoir rock
 Expansion of original reservoir fluids
• Free gas
• Interstitial water
• Oil, if present
 Gravitational forces

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
2.Reservoir Energy Sources
Liberation, expansion of solution gas
When pressure drops below the bubble point in the reservoir, small, disconnected gas bubbles form in pores,
also pushing the oil toward the wellbore.

Influx of aquifer water


The expansion of water from the aquifer results in an overflow of water from the aquifer into the petroleum
reservoir. The net overflow of water into the petroleum reservoir, in turn, results in an equal volume of fluid
expulsion from the petroleum reservoir.

Expansion of reservoir rock


As reservoir fluid pressure declines, the pressure on solids, or net confining pressure (Pnc), increases. Some
reservoirs respond to the increase in Pnc by the collapse of the pore space. This can be an efficient way to
expel hydrocarbons.
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
2.Reservoir Energy Sources
Expansion of original reservoir fluids
Free gas in a gas reservoir or in the gas cap of an oil reservoir expands to replace
produced hydrocarbons. In an oil system, this expansion slows the rate of fluid pressure
drop in the reservoir and supports hydrocarbon production.

Gravitational forces
Gravity segregation or gravity drainage does not directly result in fluid expulsion but causes oil to
settle to the bottom and gas to migrate to the top of the reservoir. By producing from only the lower
reaches of the reservoir, this process affords a skilled operator a means to recover oil selectively and
possibly recover more oil than would otherwise be recovered.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
3.Types of Drive Mechanisms
Recovery of hydrocarbons from an oil reservoir is commonly recognized to occur in
several recovery stages. We use different mechanisms in these stages. These are :

Primary recovery
Secondary recovery
Tertiary recovery (Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR)
Infill recovery

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
3.Types of Drive Mechanisms
Primary recovery:This is the recovery of hydrocarbons from the reservoir using the natural energy of the
reservoir as a drive.

Secondary recovery: This is recovery aided or driven by the injection of water or gas from the surface.

Tertiary recovery (Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR):There are a range of techniques broadly labelled
‘Enhanced Oil Recovery’ that are applied to reservoirs in order to improve flagging production.

Infill recovery: Is carried out when recovery from the previous three phases have been completed. It
involves drilling cheap production holes between existing boreholes to ensure that the whole reservoir has
been fully depleted of its oil.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
3.Types of Drive Mechanisms
Primary recovery
During primary recovery the natural energy of the reservoir is used to transport hydrocarbons
towards and out of the production wells. There are several different energy sources, and each
gives rise to a drive mechanism.

 Natural energy of the reservoir works as Drive


 Expansion of original reservoir fluids
 Natural energy is determined by Production data (Reservoir
Pressure and Fluid production Ratios)
 Use of the pressure already in the reservoir
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
4.Drive Mechanisms in Primary Recovery

 Oil Reservoir  Gas Reservoir


•Rock and liquid expansion drive • Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion drive)
•Depletion drive • Water drive
•Gas cap drive • Combination drive
•Water drive
•Gravity drainage drive
•Combination drive

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
4.Drive Mechanisms in Primary Recovery
Oil Reservoir
• Rock and liquid expansion drive
When an oil reservoir initially exists at a pressure higher than its bubble-point pressure, the reservoir is called an
undersaturated oil reservoir.
As the reservoir pressure declines, the rock and fluids expand due to their individual compressibilities.
As the expansion of fluids and reduction in the pore volume occur with decreasing reservoir pressure, the crude oil and
water will be forced out of the pore space to the wellbore.
The oil reservoir under this driving mechanism is characterized by a constant gas-oil ratio that is equal to the gas solubility
at the bubble point pressure.
This driving mechanism is considered the least efficient driving force and usually results in the recovery of only a
small percentage of the total oil in place.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• The depletion drive mechanism
This driving form may also be referred to by the following various terms:
• Solution gas drive
• Dissolved gas drive
• Internal gas drive

In this type of reservoir, the principal source of energy is a result of gas liberation from the crude oil and the
subsequent expansion of the solution gas as the reservoir pressure is reduced.

As pressure falls below the bubble-point pressure, gas bubbles are liberated within the microscopic pore spaces.
These bubbles expand and force the crude oil out of the pore space toward the wellbore.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• The depletion drive mechanism
Cole (1969) suggests that a depletion-drive reservoir can be identified by the following characteristics:
• Reservoir pressure: The reservoir pressure declines rapidly and continuously.
• Water production: The absence of a water drive means there will be little or no water production with the oil
during the entire producing life of the reservoir.
• Gas-oil ratio: A depletion-drive reservoir is characterized by a rapidly increasing gas-oil ratio from all wells. The
gas will also begin a vertical movement due to the gravitational forces, which may result in the formation of a
secondary gas cap. Vertical permeability
is an important factor in the formation of a secondary gas cap.
• Ultimate Oil Recovery: Oil production by depletion drive is usually the least efficient recovery method. This is a
direct result of the formation of gas saturation throughout the reservoir.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• The depletion drive mechanism

Fig. Solution gas drive reservoir. (After Clark,


N. J., Elements of Petroleum Reservoirs, SPE, 1969.)

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• The depletion drive mechanism

Fig. Formation of a
Secondary Gas Cap

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• The depletion drive mechanism

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Gas cap drive
Gas-cap-drive reservoirs can be identified by the presence of a gas cap with little or no
water drive.
Due to the ability of the gas cap to expand, these reservoirs are characterized by a slow decline in the reservoir
pressure. The natural energy available to produce the crude oil comes from the following two sources:

• Expansion of the gas-cap gas


• Expansion of the solution gas as it is liberated
Less significant drive contributions are provided by the expansion of the rock and its associated water.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Gas cap drive
Cole (1969) and Clark (1969) presented a review of the characteristic trends associated with gas-cap-drive reservoirs. These
characteristic trends are summarized below:
• Reservoir pressure: The reservoir pressure falls slowly and continuously. Pressure tends to be maintained at a higher
level than in a depletion drive reservoir.
• Water production: Absent or negligible water production.
• Gas-oil ratio: The gas-oil ratio rises continuously in up-structure wells.
• Ultimate oil recovery: Oil recovery by gas-cap expansion is actually a frontal drive displacing mechanism that,
therefore, yields a considerably larger recovery efficiency than that of depletion-drive reservoirs.
• Well behavior: Because of effects of gas-cap expansion on maintaining reservoir pressure and the effect of decreased
liquid column weight as it is produced out the well, gas-cap-drive reservoirs tend to flow longer than depletion-drive
reservoirs.
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

 Oil Reservoir
• Gas cap drive

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Gas cap drive
The ultimate oil recovery from a gas-cap-drive reservoir will vary depending largely on
the following six important parameters:
The size of the original Gas Cap
Vertical Permeability
Oil Viscosity
Degree of Conservation of the Gas
Oil Production Rate
Dip Angle

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Water drive
In a water drive reservoir, the oil zone is in communication with an aquifer that provides the bulk of
the reservoir's drive energy. As oil is produced, the water in the aquifer expands and moves into
the reservoir, displacing oil. Water drive reservoirs are also of two types.
There is an edge water drive reservoir. There is a bottom-water-drive reservoir

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Water drive

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Water drive
 Reservoir bounded by aquifers.
 During Pressure Depletion, the compressed water expands and overflow towards reservoir.
 Invading water drive the oil towards producing wells.
 Water influx acts to mitigate the Pressure Decline.
 The recovery from water driven reservoirs is usually good (20-60% OOIP)
 Oil recovery from water drive reservoirs typically ranges from 35 to 75% of the original oil in place

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Gravity drainage drive
The mechanism of gravity drainage occurs in petroleum reservoirs as a result of differences in
densities of the reservoir fluids.
The density differences between oil and gas and water result in their natural segregation in the
reservoir. This process can be used as a drive mechanism, but is relatively weak, and in
practice is only used in combination with other drive mechanisms.
In gravity drainage, oil drains downward through a reservoir under the influence of gravity.
The best conditions for gravity drainage are:
 Thick oil zones.
 High vertical permeabilities.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

 Oil Reservoir
• Gravity drainage drive

Fig. Gravity drainage

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Gravity drainage drive
 Density Differences segregate oil, water and gas .
 Relatively weak mechanism
 Can be used as drive mechanism in combination with other drive mechanism
 The best conditions for gravity drainage are:
1. Thick oil zones.
2. High vertical permeabilities
 Rate of production generated by gravity mechanism is vey low(50-70% OOIP).
 The rate of oil gravity drainage in the reservoir is usually low compared to field production rates.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Combination drive
The driving mechanism most commonly encountered is one in which both water and free gas are
available in some degree to displace the oil toward the producing wells. The most common type of
drive encountered, therefore, is a combination- drive mechanism.

Two combinations of driving forces can be present in combination drive reservoirs:

(1) depletion drive and a weak water drive;


(2) depletion drive with a small gas cap and a weak water drive.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Combination drive

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Oil Reservoir
• Combination drive
 In practice, reservoir usually incorporates at least two main drive mechanisms.
 The management of the reservoir for different drive mechanisms can be diametrically opposed.
 For example Gas cap & Aquifer are sometime present together.
 Strength of drives must be identified as early as possible in the life of reservoir to optimize the
reservoirs performance.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
4.Drive Mechanisms in Primary Recovery
 Gas Reservoir

• Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion drive)


• Water drive
• Combination drive

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Gas Reservoir
Gas volumetric reservoir
Reservoir type
Gas reservoir with no aquifer
Main source(s) of reservoir energy
Expansion of original reservoir gas
Reservoir rock and fluids expansion can be important sources of reservoir energy for abnormally
high-pressured gas reservoirs.
Typical production characteristics
Long flowing life.
Slow decline in pressure
Recovery = 70 to 90% of OGIP
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Gas Reservoir
Water Drive in Gas reservoir
Reservoir type
Communication with an aquifer
Main source(s) of reservoir energy
Influx of aquifer water
Expansion of original reservoir gas
Typical production characteristics
Pressure declines more slowly than gas drive
Can flow for a extended period until water production occurs. Water production may cause the well to die.
 Recovery = 35 to 65% of OOIP

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Summary

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Summary

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
 Summary

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Recovery Factor

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
5. Recovery Factor

The recovery factor is defined as the percentage of the


amount of hydrocarbon produced (recovered) from the amount
of hydrocarbon initially in place.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
5. Recovery Factor
Average Recovery Factors
Oil Reservoirs

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
5. Recovery Factor

Average Recovery Factors


Gas Reservoirs

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
5. Recovery Factor
Estimating Oil Recovery Factors
• Solution-gas drive - API study

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
5. Recovery Factor

Estimating Oil Recovery Factors


• Water drive - API study

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
Production using artificial lift is considered primary recovery. The primary recovery stage reaches its
limit either when the reservoir pressure is so low that the production rates are not economical, or when the
proportions of gas or water in the production stream are too high.

Artificial lift is a means of overcoming bottomhole pressure so that a well can produce at some desired
rate, either by injecting gas into the producing fluid column to reduce its hydrostatic pressure, or using a
downhole pump to provide additional lift pressure downhole.

We associate artificial lift with mature, depleted fields, where Pavg has declined such that the
reservoir can no longer produce under its natural energy. But these methods are also used in
younger fields to increase production rates and improve project economics.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
Approximately 50% of wells worldwide need artificial lift systems. The commonly used artificial lift
methods include the following:
• Sucker rod pumping • Hydraulic jet pumping
• Gas lift • Plunger lift
• Electrical submersible pumping • Progressing cavity pumping
• Hydraulic piston pumping

Each method has applications for which it is the optimum installation. Proper selection of an artificial lift method for a
given production system (reservoir and fluid properties, wellbore configuration, and surface facility restraints)
requires a thorough understanding of the system.
Economics analysis is always performed. Relative advantages and disadvantages of artificial lift systems are
discussed before selection.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
 Gas Lift

Gas lift technology increases oil production rate by injection of compressed gas into the lower
section of tubing through the casing–tubing annulus and an orifice installed in the tubing string.
Upon entering the tubing, the compressed gas affects liquid flow in two ways:

(a)the energy of expansion propels (pushes) the oil to the surface;


(b) the gas aerates the oil so that the effective density of the fluid is less and, thus,
easier to get to the surface.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
Gas Lift

Gas Lift System

A complete gas lift system consists of a gas compression Fig. Configuration of


station, a gas injection manifold with injection chokes and a typical gas lift well.
time cycle surface controllers, a tubing string with
installations of unloading valves and operating valve, and a
down-hole chamber.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
 Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP)
ESP: is an artificial-lift system that utilizes a downhole pumping system that is electrically driven.
The pump typically comprises several staged centrifugal pump sections that can be specifically configured to suit the
production and wellbore characteristics.
•Electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are easy to install and operate.
•They can lift extremely high volumes from highly productive oil reservoirs.
•Crooked/deviated holes present no problem.
•ESPs are applicable to offshore operations.
•Lifting costs for high volumes are generally very low.
Limitations to ESP applications include high-voltage electricity availability, not applicable to multiple completions, not
suitable to deep and high-temperature oil reservoirs, gas and solids production is troublesome, and costly to install and
repair.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
 Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP)
The ESP is a relatively efficient artificial lift. Under certain conditions, it is even more efficient
than sucker rod pumping. An ESP consists of subsurface and surface components.

ESP operations
1.Electric energy is transported to the down-hole electric motor via the electric cables.
2.These electric cables are run on the side of (and are attached to) the production tubing.
3.The electric cable provides the electrical energy needed to actuate the down-hole electric motor.
4.The electric motor drives the pump and the pump imparts energy to the
fluid in the form of hydraulic power, which lifts the fluid to the surface.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
6. Artificial Lift
 Electrical Submersible
a. Subsurface components Pump (ESP)
-Pump
-Motor
-Seal electric cable
-Gas separator

b. Surface components
-Motor controller (or variable speed
controller)
-Transformer
-Surface electric cable
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
7. Material Balance
The material balance equation (MBE) has long been recognized as one of the basic tools of reservoir
engineers for interpreting and predicting reservoir performance. The MBE, when properly applied,
can be used to:
•Estimate initial hydrocarbon volumes in place
•Predict future reservoir performance
•Predict ultimate hydrocarbon recovery under various types of primary driving mechanisms
The equation is structured to simply keep inventory of all materials entering, leaving and accumulating
in the reservoir.

Initial volume = volume remaining + volume removed

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
7. Material Balance
The Material Balance Equation

The cumulative gas produced Gp: Gp = Rp.Np

The above relationship is referred to as the material balance equation (MBE).

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
7. Material Balance
The Material Balance Equation
The total (two-phase) formation volume factor Bt: Bt = Bo + (Rsi − Rs) Bg
Introducing Bt and assuming, for sake of simplicity, no water or gas injection gives:

In a combination drive reservoir where all the driving mechanisms are simultaneously present, it is of practical interest to
determine the relative magnitude of each of the driving mechanisms and its contribution to the production.

A = Np [Bt + (Rp − Rsi) Bg]

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
7. Material Balance
The Material Balance Equation
The previous Equation can be abbreviated and expressed as:

DDI + SDI + WDI + EDI = 1.0


DDI = depletion-drive index
where
SDI = segregation (gas-cap)-drive index
WDI = water-drive index
EDI = expansion (rock and liquid)-depletion index
The four terms of the left-hand side of the Equation represent the major primary driving mechanisms by which oil
may be recovered from oil reservoirs.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
7. Material Balance
a.Depletion Drive (DD): is the oil recovery mechanism wherein the production of the oil from its
reservoir rock is achieved by the expansion of the original oil volume with all its original dissolved
gas.

b.Segregation Drive (SD): or (gas-cap drive) is the mechanism wherein the displacement of oil from the formation is
accomplished by the expansion of the original free gas cap.

c.Water Drive: mechanism wherein the displacement of the oil is accomplished by the net
encroachment of water into the oil zone.
d.Expansion Drive. For undersaturated oil reservoirs with no water influx, the principle source of energy is a result of the
rock and fluid expansion. Negligeable and ignored with others.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
7. Material Balance
a.Depletion Drive (DD): is the oil recovery mechanism wherein the production of the oil from its
reservoir rock is achieved by the expansion of the original oil volume with all its original dissolved
gas.

b.Segregation Drive (SD): or (gas-cap drive) is the mechanism wherein the displacement of oil from the formation is
accomplished by the expansion of the original free gas cap.

c.Water Drive: mechanism wherein the displacement of the oil is accomplished by the net
encroachment of water into the oil zone.
d.Expansion Drive. For undersaturated oil reservoirs with no water influx, the principle source of energy is a result of the
rock and fluid expansion. Negligeable and ignored with others.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Secondary Recovery

 Results from human intervention in the reservoir to improve recovery


after the low efficiencies of Natural /Primary Drive mechanisms.

 Two techniques are commonly used :

(i) Water flooding


(ii) Gas flooding

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Water Flooding Mechanism

 Injection of water in the base of reservoir .


 Water flooding maintain the reservoir pressure.
 Displace oil (usually with gas and water) towards production wells.
 The successful outcome depends on:
1. Designs based on accurate relative permeability
data in both horizontal directions,
2. The choice of a good injector/producer array

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms

Water Flooding Mechanism

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Gas Flooding Mechanism
Gas flooding is the injection of hydrocarbon or non-hydrocarbon components into oil reservoirs that
are typically waterflooded to residual oil.
The key to gas flooding is to contact as much of the reservoir with the gas as possible and to recover
most of the oil once contacted.
 Same as Water Flooding.
 Injection of a gas.
 e.g CO2, N2 or flue gases are generally used.
 Categorized into two types :
1. Immiscible gas injection.
2. Miscible or high-pressure gas injection.

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Gas Flooding Mechanism Immiscible gas injection
 Inefficient fluid for additional oil recovery.
 Gas is non-wetting to reservoir rocks
 Gas will move through the larger spaces of the reservoir rock
 Thus the initial gas may be displacing gas not oil.

Miscible or high-pressure gas injection.


 The gas is wetting the reservoir rock.
 The gas moves through smaller pores.
 The injection of non aqueous hydrocarbons solvent.
 The displacement of oil occurs.
An important factor is that the mass transfer between displaced andthe displacing factor/ phase.
 Leads to the formation of oil bank, to move.
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Gas Flooding Mechanism

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Tertiary Recovery (EOR)
 Extraction by Primary and Secondary recovery methods is about 35%
of the original oil in place.
 All are extremely expensive, are only used when economical, and are
implemented after extensive SCAL studies.
 Many methods are used:
(i) Thermal
(ii) Chemical
(iii) Miscible gas

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
8. Other Drives Mechanisms
Thermal EOR
 Use of heat to improve oil recovery by reducing the viscosity of heavy
oils and vaporising lighter oils and hence improving their mobility.
 This technique includes :
1. Steam injection
2. In-situ combustion or Fire flooding
3. Microwave heating downhole
4. Hot water injection.
5. Cyclic Steam Injection

 Thermal EOR is probably the most efficient EOR approach.

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Questions !!!
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Thank
you
for
your
Attention

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learn, no one can stop you.” 68
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