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Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,ST.,MT 1
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Trainer Personal Data
 Name : ALFIN HIKMATUROKHMAN,ST.,MT.
 Address : Jl Kober Gg Manggis No 31 Purwokerto
 Phone : 0815 965 9209 or 081 327 726 034
 PIN BB : 326F2AB2
 E-Mail : alfin@st3telkom.ac.id
 YM : afin21n
 FB : alfin_h21@yahoo.com
 Website : http://rfoptimisation.blogspot.com
 Linkedin : http://www.linkedin.com/in/alfin

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Work Experiences
 1 November 2003 – Now
TELCO TRAINER (PT Telkom, PT Inti, PT LEN Indonesia, PT Alita Praya Mitra , PT Moratelindo , PT Lexcorp, PT Bali
Tower , Balmon Kominfo Kendari, Pens ITS , UII Yogyakarta,Polines dll)
4G Lte RF Planning for 4 Big City (Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya and Semarang)
LECTURER at STT Telematika Telkom Purwokerto and Cisco Instructure
 May 2013 – Now Bus Development Manager at Berkah Sahabat For PT Smartfren Project and Telkomsel Project
 Juli 2013 – Nov 2013 ICT Counselor ( Depkominfo Project) ICT Pura 2013 Kab Purbalingga
 Juli 2012 – Nov 2012 ICT Counselor ( Depkominfo Project) ICT Pura 2012 Kab Banyumas
 1 February 2011 Wireless Huawei Single RAN GSM and UMTS Trainer for APAC
 2010 – Now Technical Consultant &Marketing Consultant for Drive Test and Optim Project
 June - Oktober 2003 RF Optimization Engineer at PT Infocom Transmedia Utama (Samsung)
 June 2002 – June 2003 PT INDOSAT BATAM working on Technical Support and Account Executive

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Formal Education
 2009 – 2011
Electrical Engineering Majoring in Telecommunication IT TELKOM Bandung, Master
Degree (S2)
 2000 – 2002
Electrical Engineering Majoring in Telecommunication Gadjah Mada University
(UGM) Yogyakarta, Bachelor Degree (S1)
 1997- 2000
Electrical Engineering Majoring in Telecommunication Gadjah Mada University
(UGM) Yogyakarta, Diploma (D3)
 1994 – 1997 SMAN I Purwokerto Banyumas
 1991 –1994 SMPN 2 Ajibarang Banyumas
 1985 –1991 SD MIMA Ajibarang Banyumas
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Contd..

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4G Handbook

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Participant Introduction

• Name
• Current Job Profile
• Previous Experience
• Expectations, etc.

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,MT 7
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Development of Mobile communication

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,MT 8
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BSS/UTRAN Network
MS/UE Um/Uu GBSS/UTRAN CN

BSC/RNC
Abis/Iub A/Iu-CS

BTS/NB
CS

Iur

BTS/NB

Abis/Iub

Gb/Iu-PS
BTS/NB
BSC/RNC PS

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Towards 4G

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Major requirements for LTE
identified during study item phase in 3GP
 Higher peak data rates: 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink)
 Improved latency:
– Radio access network latency (user plane UE – RNC - UE) below 10 ms
– Significantly reduced control plane latency
 Support of scalable bandwidth: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
 Support of paired and unpaired spectrum (FDD and TDD mode)
 Support for interworking with legacy networks
 Cost-efficiency:
– Reduced CApital and OPerational EXpenditures (CAPEX, OPEX) including
backhaul
– Cost-effective migration from legacy networks
 A detailed summary of requirements has been captured in 3GPP TR 25.913 „Requirements for Evolved
UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN)”

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LTE Network

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System Architecture Comparison

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Reduced Network Complexity

Flat Architecture: 2 nodes architecture


• Flat, scalable IP based architecture IP based Interfaces

Flat, IP based architecture

Access Core Control

MME IMS HLR/HSS

Internet

Evolved Node B Gateway

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Questions

Which network elements form part of the E-UTRAN?


a. UE.
b. eNB.
c. MME.
d. S-GW.
e. PDN-GW.

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Questions

Which interface links the eNB to the MME?


a.Uu.
b. S1.
c. X2
d. Iu-CS

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FREQUENCY & BANDWIDTH IN LTE

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Freq Band of LTE

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LTE Frequency Analysis

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Indonesia Frequency Usage on 700 MHz LOGO

CDMA-450 CDMA-450
Uplink Downlink TV Broadcast

457.5 467.5 798


MHz
450 460 478
800
Channel 22 - 61 UHF
7.5 MHz 7.5 MHz
Station Channel Frequency
(blank) 23 UHF 486 MHz – 494 MHz

(blank) 25 UHF 502 MHz – 510 MHz

Space Toon 27 UHF 518 MHz – 526 MHz

Trans 29 UHF 534 MHz – 542 MHz

TVRI 31 UHF 550 MHz – 558 MHz

O Channel 33 UHF 566 MHz – 574 MHz

Elshinta 35 UHF 582 MHz – 590 MHz

TPI 37 UHF 598 MHz – 606 MHz

(blank) 39 UHF 614 MHz – 622 MHz

Indosiar 41 UHF 630 MHz – 638 MHz

RCTI 43 UHF 646 MHz – 654 MHz

SCTV 45 UHF 662 MHz – 670 MHz

anTV 47 UHF 678 MHz – 686 MHz

Trans7 49 UHF 694 MHz – 702 MHz

GlobalTV 51 UHF 710 MHz – 718 MHz

TVOne 53 UHF 726 MHz – 734 MHz

JakTV 55 UHF 742 MHz – 750 MHz

MetroTV 57 UHF 758 MHz – 766 MHz


(*) Channel assignments varies for each region. The table shows assignment in Jakarta
DAAI TV 59 UHF 774 MHz – 782 MHz

(blank) 61 UHF 790 MHz – 798 MHz

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Contd..

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Alokasi frek LTE di Indonesia
Jelaskan Pemakaian Frek-frek Berikut ini (Operator dan
Teknologi yang sudah memakai frek tersebut) :
1. 700 Mhz
2. 850 Mhz
3. 900 Mhz
4. 1800 Mhz
5. 1900 Mhz
6. 2100 Mhz
7. 2300 Mhz
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OFDM Introduction

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Evolution of FDMA System LOGO

Single Carrier Multi-carrier

frequency frequency

OFDM

frequency

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OFDM
 Single Carrier Transmission (e.g. WCDMA)

 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing


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OFDM Basics
 Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated radio signals using orthogonal subcarriers
spread across a wideband channel

Total transmission bandwidth

15 kHz in LTE: fixed

Orthogonality:

The peak (centre


frequency) of one
subcarrier …

…intercepts the ‘nulls’ of


the neighbouring
subcarriers

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Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDMA
 The transmitted power is the sum of the powers of all
the subcarriers

 Due to large number of subcarriers, the peak to


average power ratio (PAPR) tends to have a large
range

 The higher the peaks, the greater the range of


power levels over which the power amplifier is
required to work

 Having a UE with such a PA that works over a big


range of powers would be expensive

 Not best suited for use with mobile (battery-


powered) devices

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Bentuk Sinyal SC-FDMA

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TDD & FDD

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Generic LTE Frame Structure type 1 (FDD)
Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms

Tslot = 15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms

• Untuk struktur generik, frame radio 10 ms dibagi dalam 20 slot yang sama berukuran 0.5 ms.
• Suatu sub-frame terdiri dari 2 slot berturut-turut, sehingga satu frame radio berisi 10 sub-frame.
• Ts menunjukkan unit waktu dasar yang sesuai dengan 30.72 MHz.
• Struktur frame tipe-1 dapat digunakan untuk transmisi FDD dan TDD.
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Generic LTE Frame Structure type 2 (TDD)

• Struktur frame tipe-2 hanya digunakan untuk transmisi TDD.


• Slot 0 dan DwPTS disediakan untuk transmisi DL, sedangkan slot 1 dan UpPTS disediakan untuk transmisi UL.

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LTE Frame Structure type 2 (TDD)

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LTE Radio Frame - Sub Frame - Slot LOGO

• Suatu RB (resource block) terdiri dari 12 subcarrier pada suatu durasi slot 0.5 ms.

• Satu subcarrier mempunyai BW 15 kHz, sehingga menjadi 180 kHz per RB.

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LTE Resource Block

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LTE Channel Bandwidth Flexibility

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LTE DL Peak Rate

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LTE DL Peak Rate

bit N symbol per subframe


PeakBitRat e[ Mbps]  xN subcarriers x
Hz 1ms
Modulation
Bandwidth (MHz)
QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM
1.4 2.016 Mbps 4.032 Mbps 6.048 Mbps
3
5
10
15
20 33.6 Mbps 67.2 Mbps 100.8 Mbps

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Questions
LTE doesn’t supports which BW sizes?
a. 1.4 MHz
b. 5 MHz
c. 20 Mhz
d. 4 Mhz

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Questions

LTE supports which RB sizes?


a. 6 e. 60
b. 12 f. 75
c. 15 g. 90
d. 25 h. 100
i. 50

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LTE Radio Planning Process

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Cellular System Planning Cycle
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Planning Process

 Area Types
 Propagation Model
 Network Element
 Capacity
 Network Layout
 Coverage
 Approximate Number of Site
 Configurations
 Parameter
 Interference

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Radio Planning Process Overview

Site Area Area Size Subscribers Traffic Model Site Capacity

Subscribers Subscriber Data


Density Volume in BH

Total Offered Traffic

# Coverage Sites # Capacity Sites

Max BH = Busy Hour

# Sites

• Outputs:
• Site count for capacity and coverage
• The final number of sites is the bigger number from capacity and coverage point of view
• The calculation could be done for each clutter type and for different phases (for example years)

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The Number of Sites due to Coverage

Site Area Area Size Subscribers Traffic Model Site Capacity

Subscribers Subscriber Data


Density Volume in BH

Total Offered Traffic

# Coverage Sites # Capacity Sites

Max

BH = Busy Hour
# Sites
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The Number of Sites due to Coverage
Area Size (Km²)
• this is the planned area
• typically defined for each clutter type
• the customer may provide this value
Site Area (Km²)
• this is the site area calculated from the link budget and using the propagation model
• depends on the number of cells per site (typical 3 cells per site)

Number of sites due to coverage:


# Sites due to Coverage = Roundup (Area Size / Site Area)

Example:
• Planned area is 100 Km²
• Site Area is 10 Km²
• The number of sites due to coverage is 100 Km²/ 10 Km² = 10

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COVERAGE PLANNING

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Link Budget

Perhitungan link budget digunakan untuk memperkirakan


maksimum redaman yang diperbolehkan antara perangkat
UE terhadap eNodeB.
Path loss maksimum memungkinkan kita melakukan
perhitungan radius sel suatu eNodeB untuk suatu lingkungan
radio tertentu dengan Model Propagasi tertentu.
Ukuran sel diperlukan untuk melakukan perhitungan jumlah
sel yang dibutuhkan untuk meng-cover suatu area layanan.
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Link budget
• Target of the Link Budget calculation: estimate the maximum allowed path loss on radio path from transmit antenna to
receive antenna
• The minimum SINR requirement is achieved with the maximum allowed path loss and transmit power both in UL
& DL
• The maximum allowed Path Loss can be used to calculate cell range

Tx Power
+ Gains Lmax_UL
– Losses/Margins Lmax_DL
– Path Loss
 minimum required Rx Power
 max. Path Loss Lmax

Range

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LINK BUDGET

Gain Margin
Radius Sel
Sistem Sistem
Daya Pancar Fading Margin Model Propagasi

Gain Antena Interference Margin Frekuensi Operasi

Sensitivitas Loss penetrasi Tinggi Antena


Penerima bangunan pemancar/ penerima

SNR threshold tiap Gain/loss sistem Jarak Referensi


modulasi lainnya
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Link Budget Model : Uplink

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Link Budget Model : Downlink

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Model Propagasi

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Propagasi
Propagasi sinyal perlu dipelajari untuk menentukan
kebutuhan power dan menentukan coverage.
Terdapat tiga jenis penentuan redaman propagasi pada
sistem selular:
 Fress space loss, merupakan redaman akibat penyebaran ke
ruang bebas.
 Prediksi propagasi sinyal secara teoritis, terdiri dari perambatan
sinyal pada bumi datar, perkiraan titik demi titik, dan redaman
akibat penghalang.
 Model empirik, suatu konsep propagasi hasil pengukuran di
lapangan dalam bentuk kurva atau formula.
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Okumura Hatta

 Keterangan :
f : frekuensi dari 150 MHz sampai 1500 Mhz
hte : tinggi efektif dari eNodeB dengan kisaran 30 m sampai 200 m
hre : tinggi efektif antenna UE dari 1 m hingga 10 m
d : jarak antara eNodeB dengan UE (km)
a (hre) : merupakan faktor koreksi untuk tinggi efektif antenna UE.

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Cost 231

f = 1500 MHz sampai 2000 MHz


hte = 30 m sampai 200 m
Hre = 1 m sampai 10 m
d = 1 km sampai 20 km

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SUI

Where :

Range frequency : 2500 – 2700 Mhz


d = distance between Tx and Rx (m)
do = 100 (m)
Xf = Corection for F above 2Ghz
Xh = Corection for Rx antenna heigh
S = Corection for shadowing
ϒ = Pathloss exponen

Terrain Parameter
Model Parameter Terrain A Terrain B Terrain C
a 4.6 4 3.6
b (m-1) 0.0075 0.0065 0.005
c (m) 12.6 17.1 20

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Transmitter: eNodeB
According to the 3GPP specifications there are 3 classes of base station.

Wide Area (macro cell) eNB will typically have a value of 20 – 60W (43 –
48dBm)

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MIMO

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OPEN LOOP

Dengan Open Loop MIMO, lebih memperhatikan kanal


propagasi.
Teknik yang dipakai oleh Open Loop MIMO seperti Space
Time Block Coding (STBC), Spatial Multiplexing (SM-
MIMO) dan Collaborative Uplink MIMO.
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Sistem MIMO Matriks A mereferensikan untuk teknik STBC


dan MIMO Matriks B mereferensikan teknik SM-MIMO

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Matriks A

Matriks A digunakan dengan tujuan menambah jangkauan.


Dengan MIMO Matriks A, sebuah single data stream
digandakan dan dipancarkan melalui masing-masing kanal
multiple antenna
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Matriks B
Matriks B digunakan dengan tujuan menambah kapasitas
MIMO Matriks B, sinyal yang dipancarkan dibagi dalam
banyak data stream dan masing-masing data stream
dipancarkan melalui masing-masing kanal pemancar multiple
antena dengan alokasi sumber frekuensi-waktu yang sama
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Antenna
– Antenna gain changes with the antenna type and frequency band
– Common value: 12 dBi - 20 dBi

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LTE eNodeB Example
Slots for BBU3900 boards and modules
Slot 0 Slot 4 Power
Slot 1 Slot 5 Slot18
FAN
Slot16 Slot 2 Slot 6 Power
Slot 3 Slot 7 Slot19

3 x 20MHz 2T2R typical configuration

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,MT
Page68
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LTE UE Categories
• All categories support 20 MHz Power
Class
Tx Power
(dBm)
Tolerance
(dB)
• 64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except Class 5) 1 [+30]
• 2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1
2 [+27]
3 +23 +/-2 dB
4 [+21]

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5

Peak rate DL/UL 10/5 Mbps 50/25 Mbps 100/50 Mbps 150/50 Mbps 300/75 Mbps

RF bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz

Modulation DL 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

Modulation UL 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM

Rx diversity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

BTS Tx diversity 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx 1-4 Tx

MIMO DL Optional 2x2 2x2 2x2 4x4


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Receiver: UE
UE Noise Figure
Depends on the receiver equipment design and represents the additive noise generated by various HW
components Typical 7dB for the UE

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Thermal Noise

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Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).
Nilai SNR dapat ditentukan dengan melihat jenis
modulasinya dan code rate yang dipilih untuk arah uplink
maupun downlink, seperti yang ditunjukkan pada tabel
berikut

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Downlink Uplink
MCS index
Modulation Coding Rate SNR,Db Modulation Coding rate SNR,dB

0 QPSK 0.1172 -6.475 QPSK 0.1000 -7.231


1 QPSK 0.1533 -5.182 QPSK 0.1250 -6.164
2 QPSK 0.1885 -4.131 QPSK 0.1550 -5.113
3 QPSK 0.2452 -2.774 QPSK 0.2050 -3.701
4 QPSK 0.3008 -1.649 QPSK 0.2500 -2.658
5 QPSK 0.3701 -0.469 QPSK 0.3100 -1.480
6 QPSK 0.4385 0.561 QPSK 0.3650 -0.544
7 QPSK 0.5137 1.564 QPSK 0.4300 0.440
8 QPSK 0.5879 2.479 QPSK 0.4900 1.263
9 QPSK 0.6631 3.335 QPSK 0.5550 2.085
10 16QAM 0.3320 3.335 QPSK 0.6150 2.794
11 16QAM 0.3691 4.140 16QAM 0.3075 2.794
12 16QAM 0.4238 5.243 16QAM 0.3525 3.789
13 16QAM 0.4785 6.285 16QAM 0.4000 4.771
14 16QAM 0.5400 7.403 16QAM 0.4500 5.748
15 16QAM 0.6016 8.478 16QAM 0.5025 6.727
16 16QAM 0.6426 9.168 16QAM 0.5350 7.313
17 64QAM 0.4277 9.168 16QAM 0.5700 7.931
18 64QAM 0.4551 9.846 16QAM 0.6300 8.963
19 64QAM 0.5049 11.060 16QAM 0.6925 10.010
20 64QAM 0.5537 12.250 16QAM 0.7525 10.994
21 64QAM 0.6016 13.398 64QAM 0.5017 10.994
22 64QAM 0.6504 14.534 64QAM 0.5417 11.961
23 64QAM 0.7021 15.738 64QAM 0.5850 12.995
24 64 QAM 0.7539 16.934 64QAM 0.6283 14.017
25 64 QAM 0.8027 18.067 64QAM 0.6700 14.991
26 64QAM 0.8525 19.196 64QAM 0.7100 15.920
27 64QAM 0.8887 20.032 64QAM 0.7417 16.652
28 64QAM 0.9258 20.866 64QAM 0.7717 17.343

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Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)

AMC adalah teknologi pendukung LTE dalam bentuk link


adaption dimana umpan balik dari user digunakan untuk
menentukan skema coding dan modulasi yang akan
digunakan.
Sehingga akan dapat diatur kebutuhan bandwidth dan
kualitas sambungannya yang biasa diukur melalui nilai
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

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AMC

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Skema Modulasi AMC

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)


16QAM
64QAM

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Skema Code Rate
 Pemilihan code rate akan menentukan besar kecilnya bit redundancy, bit redundancy
adalah bit bawaan yang tidak berisi informasi didalamnya tetapi ditambahkan didalam
bit informasi.

 Misalnya saja modulasi QPSK dengan code rate ½ maka didalam tiap bit informasi
mempunyai 1 bit redundancy.

 Pemilihan code rate sendiri dilihat berdasarkan kondisi dari kanal, apabila kondisi
kanal dalam keadaan buruk maka code rate yang dipilih kecil, dan pada saat kondisi
kanal baik maka dapat dipilih nilai code rate yang lebih besar.

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AMC

Untuk orde modulasi dan coding rate yang lebih besar akan
berpengaruh pada kapasitas bit rate yang akan menjadi lebih
besar, hal ini dikarenakan oleh kualitas channel yang baik

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Body Loss

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MAPL (Maximum Allowed Path Loss)

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MAPL Arah Uplink

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Quiz MAPL

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Radius Sel

Frekuensi
Model Path loss
Operasi

Tipe
System Gain Modulasi
Radius dan Coding
Sel
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Radius Calculation

L  1.95 x 2.6 x (2) 2

L  20.28 Km 2

L = 2,6 d2 L = 1,3 . 2,6 . d2

L  2.6 x (2)2 L  1.3 x 2.6 x (2) 2


L  10.4 Km2 L  13.52 Km 2

L = 1,95 . 2,6 . d2

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CAPACITY PLANNING

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,MT 85
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The Number of Sites due to Capacity

Site Area Area Size Subscribers Traffic Model Site Capacity

Subscribers Subscriber
Density Data Volume in
BH

Total Offered
Traffic

# Coverage # Capacity
Sites Sites
Max

BH = Busy Hour
# Sites 86
LOGO
Calculation steps:

1. Number of user
2. User density
3. Services and Type
4. Penetration : building, vehicular, pedestrian
5. BHCA and call duration
6. OBQ
7. Site calculation

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,MT 87
Estimasi Jumlah Pelanggan LOGO

 Pada implementasi real, jumlah pelanggan harus berdasarkan survey


demand baik mikro (lingkup kota, data primer, survey demand) maupun
makro (national, data sekunder mis. Dari BPS)

 Jumlah pelanggan ditentukan oleh ukuran pasar (market size), target


market share dan penetrasi service yang diinginkan,

 Market Size menunjukkan seberapa besar pasar broadband yang ada


di kota tersebut :
• Jumlah dan trend pengguna komputer
• Jumlah dan trend pengguna broadband wireline maupun broadband
wireless existing
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Contd..
 Penetrasi layanan yang diinginkan
• Jenis layanannya (product)
• Segmentasi pelanggan yang disasar (umur, belanja
telekomunikasi, dlsb)

 Target market share ditentukan oleh


• Kompetitor dan level kompetisi
• Rata-rata pelanggan yang pindah (churn rate)
• Operator lama atau operator baru

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,ST.,MT 89
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Estimasi Jumlah Pelanggan

Un : Jumlah pelanggan pada tahun ke-n Populasi (penduduk ber-KTP) 1.168.846 orang
Uo : Jumlah pelanggan pada tahun perencanaan
fp : faktor pertumbuhan pelanggan (%) Pengguna seluler (80%) 935.076 pengguna
n : Jumlah tahun prediksi
Pengguna LTE (10%) 93.507 pengguna

Pengguna LTE sebuah provider (45,26%) 42.321 pengguna

Faktor pertumbuhan penduduk Banyumas (fp) 0,715 %

Tahun prediksi (n) 5

Alfin Hikmaturokhman.,MT 90
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Customer Prediction
Ex :
 Populasi : 1.168.846 orang
 Cellular penetration : asumsi 80%
 LTE penetration : asumsi 10 %
 LTE provider A penetration : asumsi 45.26 %

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Contd..
Ex :
 Urban penetration = assumption 60 %
 Suburban penetration = assumption 40 %
 Urban user = 43.886 x 60 % = 26. 331 pelanggan
 Suburban user = 43.886 x 40 % ≈ 17.554 pelanggan

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User Density

Lu = L x u Lsub = L x sub

 Lu : urban area wide


 Lsub : sub-urban area wide
 L : object area wide

Cu = Un/ Lu Csub = Un/Lsub

 Cu : Urban area density


 Csub : sub-urban area density

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Example User Density :

Ex :
urban area penetration = asumsi 60 %
suburban area penetration = asumsi 40 %

Cu = 26. 331 / 1.327,6 = 19.82 user/km2 ≈ 20 user/km2

Csub = 17.554 / 1.327,6 = 13,22 user/km2 ≈ 14 user/km2

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Kategori Pelanggan
Untuk perencanaan kapasitas, pelanggan dibagi menjadi 3 kategori
Professional User : Pelanggan yang membutuhkan Mobile Broadband Access untuk tujuan bisnis
dan juga personal.
• E-mail, video conferencing, file downloads, etc.
• Akses mobile dan nomadic broadband dibutuhkan untuk mempertahankan komunikasi
ketika commuting, meeting with clients, inspecting remote job sites, dll.

High-End Consumer : Pelanggan dengan high usage, dengan penggunaan aplikasi untuk keperluan
personal lebih tinggi dibanding bisnis.
• Web browsing, gaming, music downloads, dll.

Casual User: Pelanggan yang menginginkan akses secara periodik, hanya beberapa jam per hari.
• Web browsing
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Services and Type
Services (Rb)
Layanan Bit rate (kbps)
Voice 64
Video 384
FTP 1000
Type (c), persebaran user
Type Pengguna Presentasi

Building 50 %

Pedestrian 30%

Vehicular 20%
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Asumsi call duration, BHCA, dan penetrasi user

Call duration (h)


Type
VoIP Video FTP
Building 60 40 50
Vehicular 60 50 70
Pedestrian 60 40 80
BHCA (B)
Layanan
Building Pedestrian Vehicular
Penetrasi user
Voice 0.008 0.008 0.009
Layanan
Building Pedestrian Vehicular Video 0.007 0.008 0.009
Voice 0.5 0.5 0.2 FTP 0.009 0.008 0.008
Video 0.3 0.3 0.2
FTP 0.4 0.4 0.3 97
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OBQ (Offered Bit Quantity)

 VoIP
OBQT = cT x Cu; T x pT x RbVoIP x BT x hT

 FTP
OBQT = cT x Cu; T x pT x RbFTP x BT x hT

 Video
OBQT = cT x Cu; T x pT x RbVid x BT x hT

T : Type (Building; Vehicular; Pedestrian)

Note: if T= pedestrian, then “OBQT “ is pedestrian OBQ, “BT “ is pedestrian BHCA, etc.

Kepadatan trafik LTE dapat diperkirakan dengan menggunakan Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ), OBQ adalah total bit
throughput per km2 pada jam sibuk.

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OBQ cont’d

OBQ total = OBQVoIP + OBQFTP + OBQVideo

Where:

OBQVoIP = OBQvehicular + OBQbuilding + OBQ pedestrian

OBQFTP = OBQvehicular + OBQbuilding + OBQ pedestrian

OBQVideo = OBQvehicular + OBQbuilding + OBQ pedestrian

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OBQ cont’d

OBQ
Service Building Pedestrian Vehicular
Voip 107,52 43,008 29,03
Video 225,792 129,024 116,122
FTP 1.260 627,2 806,4
∑ 1593.312 799.232 951.552

OBQtotal=3.344,096 kbps/km^2

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Site Calculation
25.2 Mbps ---> (asumsi: menggunakan QPSK , BW = 15 MHz)

Site (L)
L = (25.200 x 3) / OBQtotal
= (25.200 x 3) / 3.344,096 = 22,607 km2

Radius (d)
d = (L / 2.6 / 1.95) ^ 0.5
= (22,607 / 2.6 / 1.95) ^ 0.5 = 2,11 km
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Con’t

Number of eNodeB (M)


M = Lu / L
= 1327,6 km2 / 22,607 km2
= 59 eNode B

IN CASE we count urban capacity only

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OFDM Concept

 Multicarrier modulation/multiplexing technique


 Available bandwidth is divided into several sub-channels
 Data is serial-to-parallel converted
 Symbols are transmitted on different sub-channels
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OFDMA vs. SCFDMA
 Definition
 OFDMA is a multiple access technique based on OFDM as the modulation technique. It is
used for DL transmission in LTE
 SC-FDMA is a hybrid UL transmission scheme in LTE which has single-carrier transmission
systems with the long symbol time and flexible frequency allocation of OFDM.

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SC-FDMA and OFDMA Comparison
 OFDMA transmits data in parallel across multiple subcarriers
 SC-FDMA transmits data in series employing multiple subcarriers
 In the example:
• OFDMA: 6 modulation symbols (01,10,11,01,10 and 10) are transmitted per OFDMA symbol, one on each
subcarrier
• SC-FDMA: 6 modulation symbols are transmitted per SC-FDMA symbol using all subcarriers per modulation
symbol. The duration of each modulation symbol is 1/6th of the modulation symbol in OFDMA

OFDMA SC-FDMA

106
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LTE Key Parameters

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