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Constitution of the State of Kansas

―—―—―—
ORDINANCE. §§ 1 to 8.
PREAMBLE.
BILL OF RIGHTS. §§ 1 to 20.
Articles
1. EXECUTIVE. §§ 1 to 16.
2. LEGISLATIVE. §§ 1 to 30.
3. JUDICIAL. §§ 1 to 20.
4. ELECTIONS. §§ 1 to 5.
5. SUFFRAGE. §§ 1 to 8.
6. EDUCATION. §§ 1 to 7.
7. PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND WELFARE. §§ 1 to 6.
8. MILITIA. §§ 1 to 4.
9. COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION. §§ 1 to 5.
10. APPORTIONMENT OF THE LEGISLATURE. §§ 1 to 3.
11. FINANCE AND TAXATION. §§ 1 to 13.
12. CORPORATIONS. §§ 1 to 6.
13. BANKS. §§ 1 to 9.
14. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT AND REVISION. §§ 1, 2.
15. MISCELLANEOUS. §§ 1 to 16.
SCHEDULE. §§ 1 to 25.
RESOLUTIONS.
LIST OF AMENDMENTS AND PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE KANSAS
CONSTITUTION.

ACCEPTANCE OF GRANT FROM § 1. School sections. Sections numbered six-


CONGRESS; ORDINANCE; PREAMBLE teen and thirty-six in each township in the state,
including Indian reservations and trust lands, shall
ORDINANCE
be granted to the state for the exclusive use of
WHEREAS, The government of the United States is common schools; and when either of said sections,
the proprietor of a large portion of the lands or any part thereof, has been disposed of, other
included in the limits of the state of Kansas as lands of equal value, as nearly contiguous thereto
defined by this constitution; and, as possible, shall be substituted therefor.
WHEREAS, The state of Kansas will possess the
right to tax said lands for purposes of § 2. University lands. That seventy-two sec-
government, and for other purposes; now, tions of land shall be granted to the state for the
therefore, erection and maintenance of a state university.
Be it ordained by the people of Kansas:
That the right of the state of Kansas to tax such § 3. Lands for public buildings. That thirty-
lands is relinquished forever, and the state of six sections shall be granted to the state for the
Kansas will not interfere with the title of the erection of public buildings.
United States to such lands, nor with any
regulation of congress in relation thereto, nor tax § 4. Lands for benevolent institutions. That
nonresidents higher than residents: Provided seventy-two sections shall be granted to the state
always, That the following conditions be agreed to for the erection and maintenance of charitable and
by congress: benevolent institutions.

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§ 5. Salt springs and mines. That all salt History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
springs, not exceeding twelve in number, with six 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
sections of land adjacent to each, together with all 47.
mines, with the lands necessary for their full use,
shall be granted to the state for works of public § 2. Political power; privileges. All political
improvement. power is inherent in the people, and all free
governments are founded on their authority, and
§ 6. Proceeds to schools. That five per- are instituted for their equal protection and benefit.
centum of the proceeds of the public lands in Kan- No special privileges or immunities shall ever be
sas, disposed of after the admission of the state granted by the legislature, which may not be
into the union, shall be paid to the state for a fund, altered, revoked or repealed by the same body;
the income of which shall be used for the support and this power shall be exercised by no other
of common schools. tribunal or agency.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
§ 7. School lands. That the five hundred 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
thousand acres of land to which the state is 47.
entitled under the act of congress entitled "An act §  3. Right of peaceable assembly; petition.
to appropriate the proceeds of the sales of public
The people have the right to assemble, in a peace-
lands and grant preemption rights," approved
able manner, to consult for their common good, to
September 4th, 1841, shall be granted to the state
instruct their representatives, and to petition the
for the support of common schools.
government, or any department thereof, for the
§ 8. Selection of lands. That the lands here- redress of grievances.
inbefore mentioned shall be selected in such man- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
ner as may be prescribed by law; such selections 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
to be subject to the approval of the commissioner 48.
of the general land office of the United States. §  4. Individual right to bear arms; armies.
A person has the right to keep and bear arms for
PREAMBLE the defense of self, family, home and state, for
We, the people of Kansas, grateful to Almighty lawful hunting and recreational use, and for any
God for our civil and religious privileges, in order other lawful purpose; but standing armies, in time
to insure the full enjoyment of our rights as of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be
American citizens, do ordain and establish this tolerated, and the military shall be in strict subor-
constitution of the state of Kansas, with the dination to the civil power.
following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at a point History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
on the western boundary of the state of Missouri, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude 48; L. 2009, ch. 152, § 1; Nov. 2, 2010.
crosses the same; thence running west on said § 5. Trial by jury. The right of trial by jury
parallel to the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude shall be inviolate.
west from Washington; thence north on said History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
meridian to the fortieth parallel of north latitude; 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
thence east on said parallel to the western 48.
boundary of the state of Missouri; thence south
with the western boundary of said state to the § 6. Slavery prohibited; servitude for con-
place of beginning. viction of crime. There shall be no slavery in this
state; and no involuntary servitude, except for the
BILL OF RIGHTS punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have
been duly convicted.
§ 1. Equal rights. All men are possessed of History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
equal and inalienable natural rights, among which 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 48.

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§ 7. Religious liberty; property qualifica- § 11. Liberty of press and speech; libel.
tion for public office. The right to worship God The liberty of the press shall be inviolate; and all
according to the dictates of conscience shall never persons may freely speak, write or publish their
be infringed; nor shall any person be compelled to sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for
attend or support any form of worship; nor shall the abuse of such rights; and in all civil or criminal
any control of or interference with the rights of actions for libel, the truth may be given in evid-
conscience be permitted, nor any preference be ence to the jury, and if it shall appear that the
given by law to any religious establishment or alleged libelous matter was published for justifi-
mode of worship. No religious test or property able ends, the accused party shall be acquitted.
qualification shall be required for any office of History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
public trust, nor for any vote at any election, nor 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
shall any person be incompetent to testify on 48.
account of religious belief.
§ 12. No forfeiture of estate for crimes. No
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
conviction within the state shall work a forfeiture
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
of estate.
48.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
§ 8. Habeas corpus. The right to the writ of 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless the 49; L. 1972, ch. 389, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
public safety requires it in case of invasion or § 13. Treason. Treason shall consist only in
rebellion. levying war against the state, adhering to its
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No per-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. son shall be convicted of treason unless on the
48. evidence of two witnesses to the overt act, or con-
fession in open court.
§ 9. Bail; fines; cruel and unusual punish- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
ment. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
sureties except for capital offenses, where proof is 49.
evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail
shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, § 14. Soldiers' quarters. No soldier shall, in
nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted. time of peace, be quartered in any house without
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, the consent of the occupant, nor in time of war,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. except as prescribed by law.
48. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 10. Trial; defense of accused; witness 49.
against self; double jeopardy. In all prosecutions,
§ 15. Search and seizure. The right of the
the accused shall be allowed to appear and defend
people to be secure in their persons and property
in person, or by counsel; to demand the nature and
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall
cause of the accusation against him; to meet the
be inviolate; and no warrant shall issue but on
witness face to face, and to have compulsory pro-
probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation,
cess to compel the attendance of the witnesses in
particularly describing the place to be searched
his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impar-
and the persons or property to be seized.
tial jury of the county or district in which the
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
offense is alleged to have been committed. No per-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
son shall be a witness against himself, or be twice
49.
put in jeopardy for the same offense.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, § 16. Imprisonment for debt. No person
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. shall be imprisoned for debt, except in cases of
48. fraud.

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History: Adopted by convention, July 29, thereafter shall have terms of four years which
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. shall begin on the second Monday of January next
49. after their election, and until their successors are
elected and qualified. In the year 1974 and there-
§ 17. Property rights of citizens and ali- after, at all elections of governor and lieutenant
ens. No distinction shall ever be made between governor the candidates for such offices shall be
citizens of the state of Kansas and the citizens of nominated and elected jointly in such manner as is
other states and territories of the United States in prescribed by law so that a single vote shall be
reference to the purchase, enjoyment or descent of cast for a candidate for governor and a candidate
property. The rights of aliens in reference to the for lieutenant governor running together, and if
purchase, enjoyment or descent of property may such candidates are nominated by petition or con-
be regulated by law. vention each petition signature and each conven-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, tion vote shall be made for a candidate for gov-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. ernor and a candidate for lieutenant governor run-
49; L. 1887, p. 340, S.J.R. no. 6 § 1; Nov. 6, 1888. ning together. No person may be elected to more
§ 18. Justice without delay. All persons, for than two successive terms as governor nor to more
injuries suffered in person, reputation or property, than two successive terms as lieutenant governor.
shall have remedy by due course of law, and History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
justice administered without delay. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 49; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. § 2. 
49.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
§ 19. Emoluments or privileges prohib- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
ited. No hereditary emoluments, honors, or priv- 49; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 390; Nov.
ileges shall ever be granted or conferred by the 7, 1972.
state.
§ 3. Executive power of governor. The
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. supreme executive power of this state shall be ves-
49. ted in a governor, who shall be responsible for the
enforcement of the laws of this state.
§ 20. Powers retained by people. This enu- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
meration of rights shall not be construed to impair 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
or deny others retained by the people; and all 50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
powers not herein delegated remain with the
people. § 4. Reports to governor. The governor may
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, require information in writing from the officers of
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. the executive department, upon any subject relat-
49. ing to their respective duties. The officers of the
executive department, and of all public state insti-
Article 1.—EXECUTIVE tutions, shall, at least ten days preceding each reg-
ular session of the legislature, severally report to
§ 1. Executive officers; selection; terms. the governor, who shall transmit such reports to
The constitutional officers of the executive depart- the legislature.
ment shall be the governor, lieutenant governor, History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
secretary of state, and attorney general, who shall 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
have such qualifications as are provided by law. 50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
Such officers shall be chosen by the electors of
this state at the time of voting for members of the § 5. Governor's duties for legislature; mes-
legislature in the year 1974 and every four years sages; special sessions; adjournment. The gov-
thereafter, and such officers elected in 1974 and ernor may, on extraordinary occasions, call the

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legislature into special session by proclamation; (c) Each executive reorganization order
and shall call the legislature into special session, transmitted to the legislature as provided in this
upon petition signed by at least two-thirds of the section shall take effect and have the force of
members elected to each house. At every session general law on the July 1 following its transmittal
of the legislature the governor shall communicate to the legislature, unless within sixty calendar days
in writing information in reference to the condi- and before the adjournment of the legislative
tion of the state, and recommend such measures as session either the senate or the house of
he deems expedient. In case of disagreement representatives adopts by a majority vote of the
between the two houses in respect of the time of members elected thereto a resolution disapproving
adjournment, the governor may adjourn the legis- such executive reorganization order. Under the
lature to such time as he deems proper, not beyond provisions of an executive reorganization order a
its next regular session. portion of the order may be effective at a time
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, later than the date on which the order is otherwise
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. effective.
50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. (d) An executive reorganization order which
is effective shall be published as and with the acts
§ 6. Reorganization of state agencies of of the legislature and the statutes of the state. Any
executive branch. (a) For the purpose of transfer- executive reorganization order which is or is to
ring, abolishing, consolidating or coordinating the become effective may be amended or repealed as
whole or any part of any state agency, or the func- statutes of the state are amended or repealed.
tions thereof, within the executive branch of state History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
government, when the governor considers the 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
same necessary for efficient administration, he 50; original subject matter stricken by revision and
may issue one or more executive reorganization new subject substituted, L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1;
orders, each bearing an identifying number, and Nov. 7, 1972.
transmit the same to the legislature within the first
thirty calendar days of any regular session. Agen- § 7. Pardons. The pardoning power shall be
cies and functions of the legislative and judicial vested in the governor, under regulations and
branches, and constitutionally delegated functions restrictions prescribed by law.
of state officers and state boards shall be exempt History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
from executive reorganization orders. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
(b) The governor shall transmit each 50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
executive reorganization order to both houses of
the legislature on the same day, and each such § 8.
order shall be accompanied by a governor's History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
message which shall specify with respect to each 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
abolition of a function included in the order the 50; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 390; Nov.
statutory authority for the exercise of the function. 7, 1972.
Every executive reorganization order shall provide
for the transfer or other disposition of the records, § 9. State seal and commissions. There
property and personnel affected by the order. shall be a seal of the state, which shall be kept by
Every executive reorganization order shall provide the governor, and used by him officially, and
for all necessary transfers of unexpended balances which shall be the great seal of Kansas. All com-
of appropriations of agencies affected by such missions shall be issued in the name of the state of
order, and such changes in responsibility for and Kansas; and shall be signed by the governor, coun-
handling of special funds as may be necessary to tersigned by the secretary of state, and sealed with
accomplish the purpose of such order. Transferred the great seal.
balances of appropriations may be used only for History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
the purposes for which the appropriation was 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
originally made. 50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.

17
§ 10. receive for their services a such compensation as
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, is established by law, which shall not be dimin-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. ished during their terms of office, unless by gen-
50; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 390; Nov. eral law applicable to all salaried officers of the
7, 1972. state. Any person exercising the powers and duties
of an office mentioned in this article shall receive
§ 11. Vacancies in executive offices. When the compensation established by law for that
the office of governor is vacant, the lieutenant office.
governor shall become governor. In the event of History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
the disability of the governor, the lieutenant gov- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
ernor shall assume the powers and duties of gov- 51; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
ernor until the disability is removed. The legis-
lature shall provide by law for the succession to § 16.
the office of governor should the offices of gov- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
ernor and lieutenant governor be vacant, and for 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
the assumption of the powers and duties of gov- 51; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 390; Nov.
ernor during the disability of the governor, should 7, 1972.
the office of lieutenant governor be vacant or the
lieutenant governor be disabled. When the office Article 2.—LEGISLATIVE
of secretary of state or attorney general is vacant, § 1. Legislative power. The legislative
the governor shall fill the vacancy by appointment power of this state shall be vested in a house of
for the remainder of the term. If the secretary of representatives and senate.
state or attorney general is disabled, the governor History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
shall name a person to assume the powers and 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
duties of the office until the disability is removed. 51; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
The procedure for determining disability and the
removal thereof shall be provided by law. § 2. Senators and representatives. The
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, number of representatives and senators shall be
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. regulated by law, but shall not exceed one hundred
50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. twenty-five representatives and forty senators.
Representatives and senators shall be elected from
§ 12. Lieutenant governor. The lieutenant single-member districts prescribed by law. Repres-
governor shall assist the governor and have such entatives shall be elected for two year terms. Sen-
other powers and duties as are prescribed by law. ators shall be elected for four year terms. The
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, terms of representatives and senators shall com-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. mence on the second Monday of January of the
50; L. 1972, ch. 390, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. year following election.
§ 13. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 51; L. 1873, ch. 134, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1;
51; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 390; Nov. Nov. 5, 1974.
7, 1972. § 3. Compensation of members of legis-
§ 14. lature. The members of the legislature shall
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, receive such compensation as may be provided by
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. law or such compensation as is determined
51; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 390; Nov. according to law.
7, 1972. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 15. Compensation of officers. The offi- 51; L. 1947, ch. 250, § 1; L. 1961, ch. 196, § 1; L.
cers mentioned in this article shall at stated times 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.

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§ 4. Qualifications of members. During the with the terms of representatives except that the
time that any person is a candidate for nomination senate shall remain organized during the terms of
or election to the legislature and during the term of senators. The president of the senate shall preside
each legislator, such candidate or legislator shall over the senate, and the speaker of the house of
be and remain a qualified elector who resides in representatives shall preside over the house of
his or her district. representatives. A majority of the members then
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, elected (or appointed) and qualified of the house
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. of representatives or the senate shall constitute a
52; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. quorum of that house. Neither house, without the
consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than
§ 5. Eligibility and disqualification of two days, Sundays excepted. Each house shall
members. No member of congress and no civil elect its presiding officer and determine the rules
officer or employee of the United States or of any of its proceedings, except that the two houses may
department, agency, or instrumentality thereof adopt joint rules on certain matters and provide for
shall be eligible to be a member of the legislature. the manner of change thereof. Each house shall
Any member of the legislature who accepts any provide for the expulsion or censure of members
appointment or election contrary to the foregoing in appropriate cases. Each house shall be the judge
shall be disqualified as a member of the legis- of elections, returns and qualifications of its own
lature. members.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
52; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. 52; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
§ 6. 
§ 9. Vacancies in legislature. All vacancies
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
occurring in either house shall be filled as
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
provided by law.
52; eliminated by revision, L. 1974, ch. 458; Nov.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
5, 1974.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 7.  52; L. 1945, ch. 200, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1;
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, Nov. 5, 1974.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
52; eliminated by revision, L. 1974, ch. 458; Nov. § 10. Journals. Each house shall publish a
5, 1974. journal of its proceedings. The affirmative and
negative votes upon the final passage of every bill
§ 8. Organization and sessions. The legis- and every concurrent resolution for amendment of
lature shall meet in regular session annually com- this constitution or ratification of an amendment to
mencing on the second Monday in January, and all the Constitution of the United States shall be
sessions shall be held at the state capital. The dur- entered in the journal. Any member of either
ation of regular sessions held in even-numbered house may make written protest against any act or
years shall not exceed ninety calendar days. Such resolution, and the same shall be entered in the
sessions may be extended beyond ninety calendar journal without delay or alteration.
days by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
member selected to each house. Bills and concur- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
rent resolutions under consideration by the legis- 52; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
lature upon adjournment of a regular session held
in an odd-numbered year may be considered at the § 11. 
next succeeding regular session held in an even- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
numbered year, as if there had been no such 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
adjournment. 52; eliminated by revision, L. 1974, ch. 458; Nov.
The legislature shall be organized concurrently 5, 1974.

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§ 12. Origination by either house. Bills or more of such items may be disapproved by the
and concurrent resolutions may originate in either governor while the other portion of the bill is
house, but may be amended or rejected by the approved by the governor. In case the governor
other. does so disapprove, a veto message of the gov-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, ernor stating the item or items disapproved, and
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. the reasons therefor, shall be appended to the bill
52; L. 1864, ch. 46, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; at the time it is signed, and the bill shall be
Nov. 5, 1974. returned with the veto message to the house of ori-
gin of the bill. Whenever a veto message is so
§ 13. Majority for passage of bills. A received, the message shall be entered in the
majority of the members then elected (or appoin- journal and, in not more than thirty calendar days,
ted) and qualified of each house, voting in the the house of origin shall reconsider the items of
affirmative, shall be necessary to pass any bill. the bill which have been disapproved. If two-
Two-thirds (2/3) of the members then elected (or thirds of the members then elected (or appointed)
appointed) and qualified in each house, voting in and qualified shall vote to approve any item disap-
the affirmative, shall be necessary to ratify any proved by the governor, the bill, with the veto
amendment to the Constitution of the United message, shall be sent to the other house, which
States or to make any application for congress to shall in not more than thirty calendar days also
call a convention for proposing amendments to the reconsider each such item so approved by the
Constitution of the United States. house of origin, and if approved by two-thirds of
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, all the members then elected (or appointed) and
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. qualified, any such item shall take effect and
52; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. become a part of the bill.
§ 14. Approval of bills; vetoes. (a) Within History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
ten days after passage, every bill shall be signed 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
by the presiding officers and presented to the gov- 52; L. 1903, ch. 545, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1;
ernor. If the governor approves a bill, he shall sign Nov. 5, 1974.
it. If the governor does not approve a bill, the gov- § 15. Requirements before bill passed. No
ernor shall veto it by returning the bill, with a veto bill shall be passed on the day that it is introduced,
message of the objections, to the house of origin unless in case of emergency declared by two-
of the bill. Whenever a veto message is so thirds of the members present in the house where a
received, the message shall be entered in the bill is pending.
journal and in not more than thirty calendar days History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
(excluding the day received), the house of origin 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
shall reconsider the bill. If two-thirds of the mem- 53; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
bers then elected (or appointed) and qualified shall
vote to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the veto § 16. Subject and title of bills; amendment
message, to the other house, which shall in not or revival of statutes. No bill shall contain more
more than thirty calendar days (excluding the day than one subject, except appropriation bills and
received) also reconsider the bill, and if approved bills for revision or codification of statutes. The
by two-thirds of the members then elected (or subject of each bill shall be expressed in its title.
appointed) and qualified, it shall become a law, No law shall be revived or amended, unless the
notwithstanding the governor's veto. new act contain the entire act revived or the sec-
If any bill shall not be returned within ten calen- tion or sections amended, and the section or sec-
dar days (excluding the day presented) after it tions so amended shall be repealed. The provisions
shall have been presented to the governor, it shall of this section shall be liberally construed to effec-
become a law in like manner as if it had been tuate the acts of the legislature.
signed by the governor. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
(b) If any bill presented to the governor con- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
tains several items of appropriation of money, one 53; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.

20
§ 17. Uniform operation of laws of a gen- member of the legislature shall be subject to arrest
eral nature. All laws of a general nature shall —except for treason, felony or breach of the peace
have a uniform operation throughout the state: —in going to, or returning from, the place of
Provided, The legislature may designate areas in meeting, or during the continuance of the session;
counties that have become urban in character as neither shall he be subject to the service of any
"urban areas" and enact special laws giving to any civil process during the session, nor for fifteen
one or more of such counties or urban areas such days previous to its commencement.
powers of local government and consolidation of History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
local government as the legislature may deem 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
proper. 54; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. § 23. 
53; L. 1905, ch. 543, § 1; 1953 S.C.R. 13, § 1; L. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
54; eliminated by revision, L. 1974, ch. 458; Nov.
§ 18. Election or appointment of officers; 5, 1974.
filling vacancies. The legislature may provide for
the election or appointment of all officers and the § 24. Appropriations. No money shall be
filling of all vacancies not otherwise provided for drawn from the treasury except in pursuance of a
in this constitution. specific appropriation made by law.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
53; original subject matter stricken and new 54; L. 1876, ch. 129, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1;
subject substituted, L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, Nov. 5, 1974.
1974.
§ 25. 
§ 19. Publication of acts. No act shall take History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
effect until the enacting bill is published as 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
provided by law. 54; L. 1875, ch. 140, § 1; 1953 S.C.R. no. 1; L.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 1966, ch. 7, § 1, Special Sess.; eliminated by
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. revision, L. 1974, ch. 458; Nov. 5, 1974.
53; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
§ 26. 
§ 20. Enacting clause of bills; laws
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
enacted only by bill. The enacting clause of all
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
bills shall be "Be it enacted by the Legislature of
54; Repealed, L. 1972, ch. 391, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972.
the State of Kansas:". No law shall be enacted
except by bill. § 27. Impeachment. The house of repres-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 18 entatives shall have the sole power to impeach. All
59;ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. impeachments shall be tried by the senate; and
53; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. when sitting for that purpose, the senators shall
§ 21. Delegation of powers of local legisla- take an oath to do justice according to the law and
tion and administration. The legislature may the evidence. No person shall be convicted
confer powers of local legislation and administra- without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senat-
tion upon political subdivisions. ors then elected (or appointed) and qualified.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
53; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. 54; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
§ 22. Legislative immunity. For any speech, § 28. Officers impeachable; grounds; pun-
written document or debate in either house, the ishment. The governor and all other officers under
members shall not be questioned elsewhere. No this constitution, shall be removed from office on

21
impeachment for, and conviction of treason, resignation, the justice who is next senior in con-
bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. tinuous term of service shall become chief justice.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, During incapacity of a chief justice, the duties,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. powers and emoluments of the office shall devolve
54; L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. upon the justice who is next senior in continuous
service.
§ 29.  History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
History: L. 1875, ch. 140, § 1; eliminated by 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
revision, L. 1974, ch. 458; Nov. 5, 1974. 54; L. 1899, ch. 314, § 1; L. 1957, ch. 234, § 1; L.
1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
§ 30. Delegation of powers to interstate
bodies. The legislature may confer legislative § 3. Jurisdiction and terms. The supreme
powers upon interstate bodies, comprised of court shall have original jurisdiction in proceed-
officers of this state or its political subdivisions ings in quo warranto, mandamus, and habeas cor-
acting in conjunction with officers of other juris- pus; and such appellate jurisdiction as may be
dictions, relating to the functions thereof. Any provided by law. It shall hold one term each year
such delegation, and any agreement made thereun- at the seat of government and such other terms at
der shall be subject to limitation, change or ter- such places as may be provided by law, and its jur-
mination by the legislature, unless contained in a isdiction shall be co-extensive with the state.
compact approved by the congress. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
History: L. 1974, ch. 458, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
55; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
Article 3.—JUDICIAL
§ 4. Reporter; clerk. There shall be appoin-
§ 1. Judicial power; seals; rules. The judi- ted, by the justices of the supreme court, a reporter
cial power of this state shall be vested exclusively and clerk of said court, who shall hold their offices
in one court of justice, which shall be divided into two years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by
one supreme court, district courts, and such other law.
courts as are provided by law; and all courts of History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
record shall have a seal. The supreme court shall 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
have general administrative authority over all 55; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
courts in this state.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, § 5. Selection of justices of the supreme
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. court. (a) Any vacancy occurring in the office of
54; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. any justice of the supreme court and any position
to be open thereon as a result of enlargement of
§ 2. Supreme court. The supreme court the court, or the retirement or failure of an incum-
shall consist of not less than seven justices who bent to file his declaration of candidacy to succeed
shall be selected as provided by this article. All himself as hereinafter required, or failure of a
cases shall be heard with not fewer than four justice to be elected to succeed himself, shall be
justices sitting and the concurrence of a majority filled by appointment by the governor of one of
of the justices sitting and of not fewer than four three persons possessing the qualifications of
justices shall be necessary for a decision. The term office who shall be nominated and whose names
of office of the justices shall be six years except as shall be submitted to the governor by the supreme
hereinafter provided. The justice who is senior in court nominating commission established as here-
continuous term of service shall be chief justice, inafter provided.
and in case two or more have continuously served (b) In event of the failure of the governor to
during the same period the senior in age of these make the appointment within sixty days from the
shall be chief justice. A justice may decline or time the names of the nominees are submitted to
resign from the office of chief justice without him, the chief justice of the supreme court shall
resigning from the court. Upon such declination or make the appointment from such nominees.

22
(c) Each justice of the supreme court appoin- ted by the governor from among the residents of
ted pursuant to provisions of subsection (a) of this each such district.
section shall hold office for an initial term ending (f) The terms of office, the procedure for
on the second Monday in January following the selection and certification of the members of the
first general election that occurs after the expira- commission and provision for their compensation
tion of twelve months in office. Not less than sixty or expenses shall be as provided by the legislature.
days prior to the holding of the general election (g) No member of the supreme court nominat-
next preceding the expiration of his term of office, ing commission shall, while he is a member, hold
any justice of the supreme court may file in the any other public office by appointment or any offi-
office of the secretary of state a declaration of can- cial position in a political party or for six months
didacy for election to succeed himself. If a declar- thereafter be eligible for nomination for the office
ation is not so filed, the position held by such of justice of the supreme court. The commission
justice shall be open from the expiration of his may act only by the concurrence of a majority of
term of office. If such declaration is filed, his its members.
name shall be submitted at the next general elec- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
tion to the electors of the state on a separate judi- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; original
cial ballot, without party designation, reading sub- subject matter stricken, L. 1957, ch. 234, § 1; new
stantially as follows: subject matter substituted, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1;
"Shall __________________________________ Nov. 7, 1972.
(Here insert name of justice.)
_______________________________________
(Here insert the title of the court.) § 6. District courts. (a) The state shall be
be retained in office?" divided into judicial districts as provided by law.
If a majority of those voting on the question vote Each judicial district shall have at least one district
against retaining him in office, the position or judge. The term of office of each judge of the dis-
office which he holds shall be open upon the trict court shall be four years. District court shall
expiration of his term of office; otherwise he shall, be held at such times and places as may be
unless removed for cause, remain in office for the provided by law. The district judges shall be elec-
regular term of six years from the second Monday ted by the electors of the respective judicial dis-
in January following such election. At the expira- tricts unless the electors of a judicial district have
tion of each term he shall, unless by law he is adopted and not subsequently rejected a method of
compelled to retire, be eligible for retention in nonpartisan selection. The legislature shall provide
office by election in the manner prescribed in this a method of nonpartisan selection of district
section. judges and for the manner of submission and
(d) A nonpartisan nominating commission resubmission thereof to the electors of a judicial
whose duty it shall be to nominate and submit to district. A nonpartisan method of selection of dis-
the governor the names of persons for appoint- trict judges may be adopted, and once adopted
ment to fill vacancies in the office of any justice of may be rejected, only by a majority of electors of
the supreme court is hereby established, and shall a judicial district voting on the question at an elec-
be known as the "supreme court nominating com- tion in which the proposition is submitted.
mission." Said commission shall be organized as Whenever a vacancy occurs in the office of district
hereinafter provided. judge, it shall be filled by appointment by the gov-
(e) The supreme court nominating commis- ernor until the next general election that occurs
sion shall be composed as follows: One member, more than thirty days after such vacancy, or as
who shall be chairman, chosen from among their may be provided by such nonpartisan method of
number by the members of the bar who are resid- selection.
ents of and licensed in Kansas; one member from (b) The district courts shall have such jurisdic-
each congressional district chosen from among tion in their respective districts as may be
their number by the resident members of the bar in provided by law.
each such district; and one member, who is not a (c) The legislature shall provide for clerks of
lawyer, from each congressional district, appoin- the district courts.

23
(d) Provision may be made by law for judges § 11. 
pro tem of the district court. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
(e) The supreme court or any justice thereof 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
shall have the power to assign judges of district 55; stricken from article, L. 1957, ch. 234, § 1;
courts temporarily to other districts. Nov. 4, 1958.
(f) The supreme court may assign a district
judge to serve temporarily on the supreme court. § 12. Extension of terms until successor
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, qualified. All judicial officers shall hold their
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. offices until their successors shall have qualified.
55; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 7. Qualifications of justices and judges. 56; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
Justices of the supreme court and judges of the
district courts shall be at least thirty years of age § 13. Compensation of justices and
and shall be duly authorized by the supreme court judges; certain limitation. The justices of the
of Kansas to practice law in the courts of this state supreme court and judges of the district courts
and shall possess such other qualifications as may shall receive for their services such compensation
be prescribed by law. as may be provided by law, which shall not be
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, diminished during their terms of office, unless by
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. general law applicable to all salaried officers of
55; original subject matter eliminated and present the state. Such justices or judges shall receive no
substituted, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. fees or perquisites nor hold any other office of
profit or trust under the authority of the state, or
§ 8. Prohibition of political activity by the United States except as may be provided by
justices and certain judges. No justice of the law, or practice law during their continuance in
supreme court who is appointed or retained under office.
the procedure of section 5 of this article, nor any History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
judge of the district court holding office under a 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
nonpartisan method authorized in subsection (a) of 56; L. 1947, ch. 249, § 1; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1;
section 6 of this article, shall directly or indirectly Nov. 7, 1972.
make any contribution to or hold any office in a
political party or organization or take part in any § 14. 
political campaign. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 56; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1;
55; L. 1905, ch. 544, § 1; original subject matter Nov. 7, 1972.
eliminated and present substituted, L. 1972, ch. § 15. Removal of justices and judges.
392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972. Justices of the supreme court may be removed
§ 9.  from office by impeachment and conviction as
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, prescribed in article 2 of this constitution. In addi-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. tion to removal by impeachment and conviction,
55; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; justices may be retired after appropriate hearing,
Nov. 7, 1972. upon certification to the governor, by the supreme
court nominating commission that such justice is
§ 10.  so incapacitated as to be unable to perform
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, adequately his duties. Other judges shall be sub-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. ject to retirement for incapacity, and to discipline,
55; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; suspension and removal for cause by the supreme
Nov. 7, 1972. court after appropriate hearing.

24
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 57; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1;
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. Nov. 7, 1972.
56; L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; Nov. 7, 1972.
Article 4.—ELECTIONS
§ 16. Savings clause. Nothing contained in
this amendment to the constitution shall: (a) § 1. Mode of voting. All elections by the
Shorten the term of office or abolish the office of people shall be by ballot or voting device, or both,
any justice of the supreme court, any judge of the as the legislature shall by law provide.
district court, or any other judge of any other court History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
who is holding office at the time this amendment 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
becomes effective, or who is holding office at the 57; L. 1974, ch. 463, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
time of adoption, rejection, or resubmission of a § 2. General elections. General elections
nonpartisan method of selection of district judges shall be held biennially on the Tuesday succeeding
as provided in subsection (a) of section 6 hereof, the first Monday in November in even-numbered
and all such justices and judges shall hold their years. Not less than three county commissioners
respective offices for the terms for which elected shall be elected in each organized county in the
or appointed unless sooner removed in the manner state, as provided by law.
provided by law; (b) repeal any statute of this state History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
relating to the supreme court, the supreme court 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
nominating commission, district courts, or any 57; L. 1901, ch. 424, § 1; L. 1964, ch. 24—Bud.
other court, or relating to the justices or judges of Session; L. 1968, ch. 97, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 463, §
such courts, and such statutes shall remain in force 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
and effect until amended or repealed by the legis-
lature. § 3. Recall of elected officials. All elected
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, public officials in the state, except judicial
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. officers, shall be subject to recall by voters of the
56; original subject matter stricken and new state or political subdivision from which elected.
subject substituted by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § Procedures and grounds for recall shall be pre-
1; Nov. 7, 1972. scribed by law.
History: L. 1913, ch. 336, § 1; L. 1974, ch.
§ 17.  463, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. § 4. 
56; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; History: L. 1913, ch. 336, § 1; eliminated by
Nov. 7, 1972. revision, L. 1974, ch. 463; Nov. 5, 1974.
§ 18.  § 5. 
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, History: L. 1913, ch. 336, § 1; eliminated by
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. revision, L. 1974, ch. 463; Nov. 5, 1974.
56; stricken from article, L. 1957, ch. 234, § 1;
Nov. 4, 1958. Article 5.—SUFFRAGE

§ 19.  § 1. Qualifications of electors. Every citizen


History: Adopted by convention, July 29, of the United States who has attained the age of
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. eighteen years and who resides in the voting area
57; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 392, § 1; in which he or she seeks to vote shall be deemed a
Nov. 7, 1972. qualified elector. Laws of this state relating to vot-
ing for presidential electors and candidates for the
§ 20.  office of president and vice-president of the
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, United States shall comply with the laws of the
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. United States relating thereto. A citizen of the

25
United States, who is otherwise qualified to vote 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
in Kansas for presidential electors and candidates 58; Repealed, L. 1972, ch. 393, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972.
for the offices of president and vice-president of
the United States may vote for such officers either § 6.
in person or by absentee ballot notwithstanding History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
the fact that such person may have become a non- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
resident of this state if his or her removal from this 58; eliminated by revision, L. 1974, ch. 462, § 1;
state occurs during a period in accordance with Aug. 6, 1974.
federal law next preceding such election. A person § 7. Privileges of elector. Electors, during
who is otherwise a qualified elector may vote in their attendance at elections, and in going to and
the voting area of his or her former residence returning therefrom, shall be privileged from
either in person or by absentee ballot notwith- arrest in all cases except felony or breach of the
standing the fact that such person may have peace.
become a nonresident of such voting area during a History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
period prescribed by law next preceding the elec- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
tion at which he or she seeks to vote, if his new 58; L. 1974, ch. 462, § 1; Aug. 6, 1974.
residence is in another voting area in the state of
Kansas. § 8.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, History: L. 1911, ch. 337, § 1; eliminated by
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, revision, L. 1974, ch. 462, § 1; Aug. 6, 1974.
p.57; L. 1917, ch. 353, § 1; L. 1962, ch. 33, § 1; L.
1971, ch. 351, § 1; L. 1974, ch. 462, § 1; Aug. 6, Article 6.—EDUCATION
1974.
§ 1. Schools and related institutions and
§ 2. Disqualification to vote. The legislature activities. The legislature shall provide for intel-
may, by law, exclude persons from voting because lectual, educational, vocational and scientific
of commitment to a jail or penal institution. No improvement by establishing and maintaining
person convicted of a felony under the laws of any public schools, educational institutions and related
state or of the United States, unless pardoned or activities which may be organized and changed in
restored to his civil rights, shall be qualified to such manner as may be provided by law.
vote. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 58; original subject matter stricken and new
57; Senate Journal of 1867, p. 550; L. 1974, ch. subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.;
462, § 1; L. 2010, ch 174, § 1; Nov. 2, 2010. Nov. 8, 1966.

§ 3.  § 2. State board of education and state


History: Adopted by convention, July 29, board of regents. (a) The legislature shall provide
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. for a state board of education which shall have
57; L. 1864, ch. 45, § 1; eliminated by revision, L. general supervision of public schools, educational
1974, ch. 462, § 1; Aug. 6, 1974. institutions and all the educational interests of the
state, except educational functions delegated by
§ 4. Proof of right to vote. The legislature law to the state board of regents. The state board
shall provide by law for proper proofs of the right of education shall perform such other duties as
of suffrage. may be provided by law.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, (b) The legislature shall provide for a state
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. board of regents and for its control and supervi-
58; L. 1974, ch. 462, § 1; Aug. 6, 1974. sion of public institutions of higher education.
Public institutions of higher education shall
§ 5. include universities and colleges granting bacca-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, laureate or postbaccalaureate degrees and such

26
other institutions and educational interests as may 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
be provided by law. The state board of regents 58; original subject matter stricken and new
shall perform such other duties as may be pre- subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.;
scribed by law. Nov. 8, 1966.
(c) Any municipal university shall be oper-
ated, supervised and controlled as provided by § 5. Local public schools. Local public
law. schools under the general supervision of the state
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, board of education shall be maintained, developed
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. and operated by locally elected boards. When
58; original subject matter stricken and new authorized by law, such boards may make and
subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.; carry out agreements for cooperative operation
Nov. 8, 1966. and administration of educational programs under
the general supervision of the state board of edu-
§ 3. Members of state board of education cation, but such agreements shall be subject to
and state board of regents. (a) There shall be ten limitation, change or termination by the legis-
members of the state board of education with lature.
overlapping terms as the legislature may prescribe. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
The legislature shall make provision for ten mem- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
ber districts, each comprised of four contiguous 59; original subject matter stricken and new
senatorial districts. The electors of each member subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.;
district shall elect one person residing in the dis- Nov. 8, 1966.
trict as a member of the board. The legislature
shall prescribe the manner in which vacancies § 6. Finance. (a) The legislature may levy a
occurring on the board shall be filled. permanent tax for the use and benefit of state insti-
(b) The state board of regents shall have nine tutions of higher education and apportion among
members with overlapping terms as the legislature and appropriate the same to the several institu-
may prescribe. Members shall be appointed by the tions, which levy, apportionment and appropri-
governor, subject to confirmation by the senate. ation shall continue until changed by statute. Fur-
One member shall be appointed from each con- ther appropriation and other provision for finance
gressional district with the remaining members of institutions of higher education may be made by
appointed at large, however, no two members shall the legislature.
reside in the same county at the time of their (b) The legislature shall make suitable provi-
appointment. Vacancies occurring on the board sion for finance of the educational interests of the
shall be filled by appointment by the governor as state. No tuition shall be charged for attendance at
provided by law. any public school to pupils required by law to
(c) Subsequent redistricting shall not disqual- attend such school, except such fees or supple-
ify any member of either board from service for mental charges as may be authorized by law. The
the remainder of his term. Any member of either legislature may authorize the state board of
board may be removed from office for cause as regents to establish tuition, fees and charges at
may be provided by law. institutions under its supervision.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, (c) No religious sect or sects shall control any
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. part of the public educational funds.
58; original subject matter stricken and new History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.; 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
Nov. 8, 1966. 59; original subject matter stricken and new
subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.;
§ 4. Commissioner of education. The state Nov. 8, 1966.
board of education shall appoint a commissioner
of education who shall serve at the pleasure of the § 7. Savings clause. (a) All laws in force at
board as its executive officer. the time of the adoption of this amendment and
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, consistent therewith shall remain in full force and

27
effect until amended or repealed by the legislature. § 2. 
All laws inconsistent with this amendment, unless History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
sooner repealed or amended to conform with this 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
amendment, shall remain in full force and effect 60; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 394, § 1;
until July 1, 1969. Aug. 1, 1972.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of
the constitution to the contrary, no state superin- § 3. 
tendent of public instruction or county superin- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
tendent of public instruction shall be elected after 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
January 1, 1967. 60; eliminated by revision, L. 1972, ch. 394, § 1;
(c) The state perpetual school fund or any part Aug. 1, 1972.
thereof may be managed and invested as provided
§ 4. Aged and infirm persons; financial
by law or all or any part thereof may be appropri-
aid; state participation. The respective counties
ated, both as to principal and income, to the sup-
of the state shall provide, as may be prescribed by
port of the public schools supervised by the state
law, for those inhabitants who, by reason of age,
board of education.
infirmity or other misfortune, may have claims
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
upon the aid of society. The state may participate
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
financially in such aid and supervise and control
59; original subject matter stricken and new
the administration thereof.
subject substituted, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.;
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
Nov. 8, 1966.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1936,
§ 8.  ch. 4; L. 1972, ch. 394, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. § 5. Unemployment compensation; old-age
59; eliminated by amendment, L. 1966, ch. 10— benefits; taxation. The state may provide by law
Spec. Sess.; Nov. 8, 1966. for unemployment compensation and contributory
old-age benefits and may tax employers and
§ 9.  employees therefor; and the restrictions and limit-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, ations of section 24 of article 2, and section 1 of
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. article 11 of the constitution shall not be construed
59; eliminated by amendment, L. 1966, ch. 10— to limit the authority conferred by this amend-
Spec. Sess.; Nov. 8, 1966. ment. No direct ad valorem tax shall be laid on
real or personal property for such purposes.
§ 10. 
History: L. 1936, ch. 5; L. 1972, ch. 394, § 1;
History: L. 1917, ch. 352, § 1; eliminated by Aug. 1, 1972.
amendment, L. 1966, ch. 10—Spec. Sess.; Nov. 8,
1966. § 6. Tax levy for certain institutions. The
Article 7.—PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND legislature may levy a permanent tax for the cre-
WELFARE ation of a building fund for institutions caring for
those who are mentally ill, retarded, visually han-
§ 1. Benevolent institutions. Institutions for dicapped, with a handicapping hearing loss, tuber-
the benefit of mentally or physically incapacitated cular or for children who are dependent, neglected
or handicapped persons, and such other benevol- or delinquent and in need of residential institu-
ent institutions as the public good may require, tional care or treatment and for institutions primar-
shall be fostered and supported by the state, sub- ily designed to provide vocational rehabilitation
ject to such regulations as may be prescribed by for handicapped persons, and the legislature shall
law. apportion among and appropriate the same to the
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, several institutions, which levy, apportionment
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. and appropriation shall continue until changed by
59; L. 1972, ch. 394, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972. statute. Nothing herein contained shall prevent

28
such further appropriation by the legislature as Article 9.—COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP
may be deemed necessary from time to time for ORGANIZATION
the needs of said charitable and benevolent institu-
tions. Nothing in this amendment shall repeal any § 1. Counties. The legislature shall provide
statute of this state enacted prior to this amend- for organizing new counties, locating county seats,
ment, and any levy, apportionment or appropri- and changing county lines; but no county seat
ation made under authority of this section before shall be changed without the consent of a majority
its amendment, and any statute making the same, of the electors of the county; nor any county
shall remain in full force and effect until amended organized, nor the lines of any county changed so
or repealed by the legislature. as to include an area of less than four hundred and
History: L. 1951, ch. 267, § 1; L. 1972, ch. thirty-two square miles.
394, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
Article 8.—MILITIA 60; Jan. 29, 1861.

§ 1. Composition; exemption. The militia § 2. County and township officers. The


shall be composed of all able-bodied male citizens legislature shall provide for such county and town-
between the ages of twenty-one and forty-five ship officers as may be necessary.
years, except such as are exempted by the laws of History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
the United States or of this state; but all citizens of 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
any religious denomination whatever who from 60; Jan. 29, 1861.
scruples of conscience may be adverse to bearing
§ 3. 
arms shall be exempted therefrom, upon such con-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
ditions as may be prescribed by law.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
61; L. 1876, ch. 129, § 1; stricken from
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
constitution, L. 1901, ch. 424, § 1; Nov. 4, 1902.
60; L. 1887, p. 339; Nov. 6, 1888.
§ 4. 
§ 2. Organization. The legislature shall
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
provide for organizing, equipping and disciplining
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
the militia in such manner as it shall deem expedi-
61; stricken from constitution, L. 1901, ch. 424, §
ent, not incompatible with the laws of the United
1; Nov. 4, 1902.
States.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, § 5. Removal of officers. All county and
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. township officers may be removed from office, in
60; Jan. 29, 1861. such manner and for such cause, as shall be pre-
scribed by law.
§ 3. Officers. Officers of the militia shall be
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
elected or appointed, and commissioned in such
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
manner as may be provided by law.
61; Jan. 29, 1861.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. Article 10.—APPORTIONMENT OF THE
60; Jan. 29, 1861. LEGISLATURE
§ 4. Commander in chief. The governor § 1. Reapportionment of senatorial and
shall be commander in chief, and shall have power representative districts. (a) At its regular session
to call out the militia to execute the laws, to sup- in 1989, the legislature shall by law reapportion
press insurrection, and to repel invasion. the state representative districts, the state senat-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, orial districts or both the state representative and
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. senatorial districts upon the basis of the latest
60; Jan. 29, 1861. census of the inhabitants of the state taken by

29
authority of chapter 61 of the 1987 Session Laws (e) A judgment of the supreme court of the
of Kansas. At its regular session in 1992, and at its state determining a reapportionment to be valid
regular session every tenth year thereafter, the shall be final until the legislative districts are again
legislature shall by law reapportion the state senat- reapportioned in accordance herewith.
orial districts and representative districts on the History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
basis of the population of the state as established 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
by the most recent census of population taken and 61; L. 1974, Ch. 457, § 1; L. 1988, ch. 405, Nov.
published by the United States bureau of the 8, 1988.
census. Senatorial and representative districts shall
be reapportioned upon the basis of the population § 2. 
of the state adjusted: (1) To exclude nonresident History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
military personnel stationed within the state and 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
nonresident students attending colleges and uni- 61; eliminated by revision, L. 1974, Ch. 457, § 1;
versities within the state; and (2) to include milit- Aug. 6, 1974.
ary personnel stationed within the state who are § 3. 
residents of the state and students attending col- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
leges and universities within the state who are res- 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
idents of the state in the district of their permanent 61; repealed, L. 1972, Ch. 395, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972.
residence. Bills reapportioning legislative districts
shall be published in the Kansas register immedi- Article 11.—FINANCE AND TAXATION
ately upon final passage and shall be effective for
the next following election of legislators and § 1. System of taxation; classification; ex-
thereafter until again reapportioned. emption. (a) The provisions of this subsection
(b) Within 15 days after the publication of an shall govern the assessment and taxation of prop-
act reapportioning the legislative districts within erty on and after January 1, 2013, and each year
the time specified in (a), the attorney general shall thereafter. Except as otherwise hereinafter spe-
petition the supreme court of the state to determine cifically provided, the legislature shall provide for
the validity thereof. The supreme court, within 30 a uniform and equal basis of valuation and rate of
days from the filing of the petition, shall enter its taxation of all property subject to taxation. The
judgment. Should the supreme court determine legislature may provide for the classification and
that the reapportionment statute is invalid, the the taxation uniformly as to class of recreational
legislature shall enact a statute of reapportionment vehicles and watercraft, as defined by the legis-
conforming to the judgment of the supreme court lature, or may exempt such class from property
within 15 days. taxation and impose taxes upon another basis in
(c) Upon enactment of a reapportionment to lieu thereof. The provisions of this subsection
conform with a judgment under (b), the attorney shall not be applicable to the taxation of motor
general shall apply to the supreme court of the vehicles, except as otherwise hereinafter specific-
state to determine the validity thereof. The ally provided, mineral products, money, mort-
supreme court, within 10 days from the filing of gages, notes and other evidence of debt and grain.
such application, shall enter its judgment. Should Property shall be classified into the following
the supreme court determine that the reapportion- classes for the purpose of assessment and assessed
ment statute is invalid, the legislature shall again at the percentage of value prescribed therefor:
enact a statute reapportioning the legislative dis- Class 1 shall consist of real property. Real prop-
tricts in compliance with the direction of and con- erty shall be further classified into seven sub-
forming to the mandate of the supreme court classes. Such property shall be defined by law for
within 15 days after entry thereof. the purpose of subclassification and assessed uni-
(d) Whenever a petition or application is filed formly as to subclass at the following percentages
under this section, the supreme court, in accord- of value:
(1) Real property used for residential purposes including
ance with its rules, shall permit interested persons multi-family residential real property and real property
to present their views. necessary to accommodate a residential community of

30
mobile or manufactured homes including the real livestock, and all household goods and personal
property upon which such homes are located .... 11½% effects not used for the production of income, shall
(2) Land devoted to agricultural use which shall be valued
upon the basis of its agricultural income or agricultural be exempted from property taxation.
productivity pursuant to section 12 of article 11 of the
constitution ........................................................... 30% History: Adopted by Convention, July 29,
(3) Vacant lots ............................................................. 12% 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
(4) Real property which is owned and operated by a not- 62; L. 1923, ch. 255, § 1; L. 1963, ch. 459, § 1; L.
for-profit organization not subject to federal income
taxation pursuant to section 501 of the federal internal
1974, ch. 460, § 1; L. 1985, ch. 364, § 1; L. 1992,
revenue code, and which is included in this subclass ch. 342, § 1; L. 2012, ch. 180, § 1; Nov. 6, 2012.
by law ................................................................... 12%
(5) Public utility real property, except railroad real § 2. Taxation of incomes. The state shall
property which shall be assessed at the average rate have power to levy and collect taxes on incomes
that all other commercial and industrial property is from whatever source derived, which taxes may be
assessed ................................................................. 33%
(6) Real property used for commercial and industrial graduated and progressive.
purposes and buildings and other improvements History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
located upon land devoted to agricultural use ...... 25% 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
(7) All other urban and rural real property not otherwise 62; combined into § 1 by revision, L. 1923, ch.
specifically subclassified ...................................... 30%
255, § 1; new section adopted, L. 1931, ch. 300, §
Class 2 shall consist of tangible personal prop-
1; Nov. 8, 1932.
erty. Such tangible personal property shall be fur-
ther classified into six subclasses, shall be defined § 3. 
by law for the purpose of subclassification and History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
assessed uniformly as to subclass at the following 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
percentages of value: 62; L. 1875, ch. 140, § 1; transferred and
(1) Mobile homes used for residential purposes ...... 11½%
(2) Mineral leasehold interests except oil leasehold renumbered as § 4, L. 1931, ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 8,
interests the average daily production from which is 1932.
five barrels or less, and natural gas leasehold interests
the average daily production from which is 100 mcf or § 4. Revenue for current expenses. The
less, which shall be assessed at 25% .................... 30% legislature shall provide, at each regular session,
(3) Public utility tangible personal property including
inventories thereof, except railroad personal property
for raising sufficient revenue to defray the current
including inventories thereof, which shall be assessed expenses of the state for two years.
at the average rate all other commercial and industrial History: Originally adopted by convention as
property is assessed .............................................. 33% § 3, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4,
(4) All categories of motor vehicles not defined and
specifically valued and taxed pursuant to law enacted
1859; L. 1861, p. 62; L. 1875, ch. 140, § 1;
prior to January 1, 1985 ........................................ 30% renumbered as § 4, L. 1931, ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 8,
(5) Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment 1932.
which, if its economic life is seven years or more,
shall be valued at its retail cost when new less seven- § 5. Object of tax. No tax shall be levied
year straight-line depreciation, or which, if its except in pursuance of a law, which shall dis-
economic life is less than seven years, shall be valued
at its retail cost when new less straight-line tinctly state the object of the same; to which object
depreciation over its economic life, except that, the only such tax shall be applied.
value so obtained for such property, notwithstanding History: Originally adopted by convention as
its economic life and as long as such property is being § 4, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4,
used, shall not be less than 20% of the retail cost when
new of such property ............................................ 25% 1859; L. 1861, p. 62; renumbered as § 5, L. 1931,
(6) All other tangible personal property not otherwise ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 8, 1932.
specifically classified ............................................ 30%
(b) All property used exclusively for state, § 6. State debts; annual tax; proceeds. For
county, municipal, literary, educational, scientific, the purpose of defraying extraordinary expenses
religious, benevolent and charitable purposes, and making public improvements, the state may
farm machinery and equipment, merchants' and contract public debts; but such debts shall never,
manufacturers' inventories, other than public util- in the aggregate, exceed one million dollars,
ity inventories included in subclass (3) of class 2, except as hereinafter provided. Every such debt

31
shall be authorized by law for some purpose spe- struct, reconstruct and maintain a state system of
cified therein, and the vote of a majority of all the highways, but no general property tax shall ever
members elected to each house, to be taken by the be laid nor general obligation bonds issued by the
yeas and nays, shall be necessary to the passage of state for such highways; (2) it may be a party to
such law; and every such law shall provide for flood control works and works for the conserva-
levying an annual tax sufficient to pay the annual tion or development of water resources; (3) it may,
interest of such debt, and the principal thereof, for the purpose of stimulating economic develop-
when it shall become due; and shall specifically ment and private sector job creation in all areas of
appropriate the proceeds of such taxes to the pay- the state, participate in the development of a capital
ment of such principal and interest; and such formation system and have a limited role in such
appropriation shall not be repealed nor the taxes system through investment of state funds author-
postponed or diminished, until the interest and ized in accordance with law; (4) it may be a party
principal of such debt shall have been wholly paid. to any work of internal improvement, whenever
History: Originally adopted by convention as any work of internal improvement not authorized
§ 5, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, by (1), (2) or (3) is once authorized by a separate
1859; L. 1861, p. 62; renumbered as § 6, L. 1931, bill passed by the affirmative vote of not less than
ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 8, 1932. two-thirds of all members then elected (or appoin-
ted) and qualified to each house, but no general
§ 7. Election on indebtedness. No debt shall property tax shall ever be laid nor general obliga-
be contracted by the state except as herein tion bonds be issued by the state therefor; and (5) it
provided, unless the proposed law for creating may expend funds received from the federal gov-
such debt shall first be submitted to a direct vote ernment for any public purpose in accordance with
of the electors of the state at some general elec- the federal law authorizing the same.
tion; and if such proposed law shall be ratified by History: Originally adopted by convention as
a majority of all the votes cast at such general § 8, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4,
election, then it shall be the duty of the legislature 1859; L. 1861, p. 63; L. 1919, ch. 331, § 2; L.
next after such election to enact such law and cre- 1928, ch. 3—Spec. Sess.; renumbered as § 9, L.
ate such debt, subject to all the provisions and 1931, ch. 300, § 2; L. 1957, ch. 236, § 1; L. 1980,
restrictions provided in the preceding section of ch. 350, § 1; L. 1986, ch. 432, § 1; Aug. 5, 1986.
this article.
History: Originally adopted by convention as § 10. Special taxes for highway purposes.
§ 6, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, The state shall have power to levy special taxes,
1859; L. 1861, p. 63; renumbered as § 7, L. 1931, for road and highway purposes, on motor vehicles
ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 8, 1932 and on motor fuels.
History: Originally adopted as § 9, L. 1928,
§ 8. Borrowing money by state. The state ch. 4—Spec. Sess.; renumbered as § 10, L. 1931,
may borrow money to repel invasion, suppress ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 6, 1928.
insurrection, or defend the state in time of war; but
the money thus raised, shall be applied exclusively § 11. Taxation of incomes; adoption of
to the object for which the loan was authorized, or federal laws by reference. In enacting any law
to the repayment of the debt thereby created. under section 2 of this article 11, the legislature
History: Originally adopted by convention as may at any regular, budget or special session
§ 7, July 29, 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, define income by reference to or otherwise adopt
1859; L. 1861, p. 63; renumbered as § 8, L. 1931, by reference all or any part of the laws of the
ch. 300, § 2; Nov. 8, 1932. United States as they then exist, and, prospect-
ively, as they may thereafter be amended or
§ 9. Internal improvements; state highway enacted, with such exceptions, additions or modi-
system; flood control; conservation or develop- fications as the legislature may determine then or
ment of water resources. The state shall never be thereafter at any such legislative sessions.
a party in carrying on any work of internal History: L. 1966, ch. 14—Spec. Sess.; Nov.
improvement except that: (1) It may adopt, con- 8, 1966.

32
§ 12. Assessment and taxation of land expansion of any such existing business if, as a
devoted to agricultural use. Land devoted to result of such expansion, new employment is cre-
agricultural use may be defined by law and valued ated.
for ad valorem tax purposes upon the basis of its (b) Any ad valorem tax exemption granted
agricultural income or agricultural productivity, pursuant to subsection (a) shall be in effect for not
actual or potential, and when so valued such land more than 10 calendar years after the calendar
shall be assessed at the same percent of value and year in which the business commences its opera-
taxed at the same rate as real property subject to tions or the calendar year in which expansion of
the provisions of section 1 of this article. The an existing business is completed, as the case
legislature may, if land devoted to agricultural use requires.
changes from such use, provide for the recoup- (c) The legislature may limit or prohibit the
ment of a part or all of the difference between the application of this section by enactment uniformly
amount of the ad valorem taxes levied upon such applicable to all cities or counties.
land during a part or all of the period in which it (d) The provisions of this section shall not be
was valued in accordance with the provisions of construed to affect exemptions of property from ad
this section and the amount of ad valorem taxes valorem taxation granted by this constitution or by
which would have been levied upon such land dur- enactment of the legislature, or to affect the
ing such period had it not been in agricultural use authority of the legislature to enact additional
and had it been valued, assessed and taxed in exemptions of property from ad valorem taxation
accordance with section 1 of this article. found to have a public purpose and promote the
History: L. 1975, ch. 516, § 1; Nov. 2, 1976. general welfare.
History: L. 1986, ch. 423; Aug. 5, 1986.
§ 13. Exemption of property for economic
development purposes; procedure; limitations. Article 12.—CORPORATIONS
(a) The board of county commissioners of any
county or the governing body of any city may, by § 1. Corporate powers. The legislature shall
resolution or ordinance, as the case requires, pass no special act conferring corporate powers.
exempt from all ad valorem taxation all or any Corporations may be created under general laws;
portion of the appraised valuation of: (1) All build- but all such laws may be amended or repealed.
ings, together with the land upon which such History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
buildings are located, and all tangible personal 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
property associated therewith used exclusively by 63; Jan. 29, 1861.
a business for the purpose of: (A) Manufacturing
articles of commerce; (B) conducting research and § 2. Liability of stockholders. Dues from
development; or (C) storing goods or commodities corporations shall be secured by the individual
which are sold or traded in interstate commerce, liability of the stockholders to the amount of stock
which commences operations after the date on owned by each stockholder, and such other means
which this amendment is approved by the electors as shall be provided by law; but such individual
of this state; or (2) all buildings, or added liability shall not apply to railroad corporations
improvements to buildings constructed after the nor corporations for religious or charitable pur-
date on which this amendment is approved by the poses.
electors of this state, together with the land upon History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
which such buildings or added improvements are 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
located, and all tangible personal property pur- 63; L. 1905, ch. 542, § 1; Nov. 6, 1906.
chased after such date and associated therewith, § 3. 
used exclusively for the purpose of: (A) Manufac- History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
turing articles of commerce; (B) conducting 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
research and development; or (C) storing goods or 63; repealed, L. 1974, ch. 456, § 1; Aug. 6, 1974.
commodities which are sold or traded in interstate
commerce, which is necessary to facilitate the § 4. Rights of way; eminent domain. No

33
right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any the whole or any part of any enactment of the
corporation, until full compensation therefor be legislature applying to such city, other than enact-
first made in money, or secured by a deposit of ments of statewide concern applicable uniformly
money, to the owner, irrespective of any benefit to all cities, other enactments applicable uniformly
from any improvement proposed by such corpora- to all cities, and enactments prescribing limits of
tion. indebtedness, shall not apply to such city.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, (2) A charter ordinance is an ordinance which
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. exempts a city from the whole or any part of any
63; Jan. 29, 1861. enactment of the legislature as referred to in this
section and which may provide substitute and
§ 5. Cities' powers of home rule. (a) The additional provisions on the same subject. Such
legislature shall provide by general law, applicable charter ordinance shall be so titled, shall designate
to all cities, for the incorporation of cities and the specifically the enactment of the legislature or part
methods by which city boundaries may be altered, thereof made inapplicable to such city by the
cities may be merged or consolidated and cities adoption of such ordinance and contain the substi-
may be dissolved: Provided, That existing laws on tute and additional provisions, if any, and shall
such subjects not applicable to all cities on the require a two-thirds vote of the members-elect of
effective date of this amendment shall remain in the governing body of such city. Every charter
effect until superseded by general law and such ordinance shall be published once each week for
existing laws shall not be subject to charter ordin- two consecutive weeks in the official city newspa-
ance. per or, if there is none, in a newspaper of general
(b) Cities are hereby empowered to determine circulation in the city.
their local affairs and government including the (3) No charter ordinance shall take effect until
levying of taxes, excises, fees, charges and other sixty days after its final publication. If within sixty
exactions except when and as the levying of any days of its final publication a petition signed by a
tax, excise, fee, charge or other exaction is limited number of electors of the city equal to not less
or prohibited by enactment of the legislature than ten percent of the number of electors who
applicable uniformly to all cities of the same class: voted at the last preceding regular city election
Provided, That the legislature may establish not to shall be filed in the office of the clerk of such city
exceed four classes of cities for the purpose of demanding that such ordinance be submitted to a
imposing all such limitations or prohibitions. Cit- vote of the electors, it shall not take effect until
ies shall exercise such determination by ordinance submitted to a referendum and approved by a
passed by the governing body with referendums majority of the electors voting thereon. An elec-
only in such cases as prescribed by the legislature, tion, if called, shall be called within thirty days
subject only to enactments of the legislature of and held within ninety days after the filing of the
statewide concern applicable uniformly to all cit- petition. The governing body shall pass an ordin-
ies, to other enactments of the legislature applic- ance calling the election and fixing the date, which
able uniformly to all cities, to enactments of the ordinance shall be published once each week for
legislature applicable uniformly to all cities of the three consecutive weeks in the official city news-
same class limiting or prohibiting the levying of paper or, if there be none, in a newspaper of gen-
any tax, excise, fee, charge or other exaction and eral circulation in the city, and the election shall be
to enactments of the legislature prescribing limits conducted as elections for officers and by the
of indebtedness. All enactments relating to cities officers handling such elections. The proposition
now in effect or hereafter enacted and as later shall be: "Shall charter ordinance No.
amended and until repealed shall govern cities __________, entitled (title of ordinance) take
except as cities shall exempt themselves by charter effect?" The governing body may submit any
ordinances as herein provided for in subsection charter ordinance to a referendum without petition
(c). by the same publication of the charter ordinance
(c) (1) Any city may by charter ordinance and the same publication of the ordinance calling
elect in the manner prescribed in this section that the election as for ordinances upon petition and

34
such charter ordinance shall then become effective 62; L. 1923, ch. 255, § 1; L. 1963, ch. 459, § 1; L.
when approved by a majority of the electors vot- 1974, ch. 460, § 1; L. 1985, ch. 364, § 1; L. 1992,
ing thereon. Each charter ordinance becoming ch. 342, § 1; Nov. 3, 1992.
effective shall be recorded by the clerk in a book
maintained for that purpose with a statement of the § 3. 
manner of adoption and a certified copy shall be History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
filed with the secretary of state, who shall keep an 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
index of the same. 64; eliminated by revision, L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov.
(4) Each charter ordinance enacted shall con- 4, 1980.
trol and prevail over any prior or subsequent act of § 4. 
the governing body of the city and may be History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
repealed or amended only by charter ordinance or 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
by enactments of the legislature applicable to all 64; eliminated by revision, L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov.
cities. 4, 1980.
(d) Powers and authority granted cities pursu-
ant to this section shall be liberally construed for § 5. 
the purpose of giving to cities the largest measure History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
of self-government. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
(e) This amendment shall be effective on and 64; transferred and renumbered as § 2 by revision,
after July 1, 1961. L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov. 4, 1980.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. § 6. 
64; L. 1959, ch. 182, § 1; Nov. 8, 1960. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 6. Definition of corporations; suits. The 64; eliminated by revision, L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov.
term corporations, as used in this article, shall 4, 1980.
include all associations and joint stock companies
having powers and privileges not possessed by § 7. 
individuals or partnerships; and all corporations History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
may sue and be sued in their corporate name. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, 64; L. 1861, ch. 16, § 1; eliminated by revision, L.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. 1980, ch. 356; Nov. 4, 1980.
64; Jan. 29, 1861. § 8. 
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
Article 13.—BANKS
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 1. Banking laws. No bank shall be estab- 64; eliminated by revision, L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov.
lished otherwise than under a general banking law, 4, 1980.
nor be operated otherwise than by a duly organ-
§ 9. 
ized corporation.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
65; eliminated by revision, L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov.
64; L. 1980, ch. 356; Nov. 4, 1980.
4, 1980.
§  2. State not to be stockholder. The state
Article 14.—CONSTITUTIONAL
shall not be a stockholder in any banking institu-
AMENDMENT AND REVISION
tion, except that any retirement or pension plan
authorized pursuant to the laws of this state may § 1. Proposals by legislature; approval by
be a stockholder in any banking institution. electors. Propositions for the amendment of this
History: Adopted by Convention, July 29, constitution may be made by concurrent resolution
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. originating in either house of the legislature, and if

35
two-thirds of all the members elected (or appoin- question shall vote in the affirmative, delegates to
ted) and qualified of each house shall approve such convention shall be elected at the next elec-
such resolution, the secretary of state shall cause tion for representatives thereafter, unless the legis-
such resolution to be published in the manner lature shall have provided by law for the election
provided by law. At the next election for repres- of such delegates at a special election. The electors
entatives or a special election called by concurrent of each representative district as organized at the
resolution of the legislature for the purpose of sub- time of such election of delegates shall elect as
mitting constitutional propositions, such proposi- many delegates to the convention as there are rep-
tion to amend the constitution shall be submitted, resentatives from such district. Such delegates
both by title and by the amendment as a whole, to shall have the same qualifications as provided by
the electors for their approval or rejection. The the constitution for members of the legislature and
title by which a proposition is submitted shall be members of the legislature and candidates for
specified in the concurrent resolution making the membership in the legislature shall be eligible for
proposition and shall be a brief nontechnical state- election as delegates to the convention. The deleg-
ment expressing the intent or purpose of the pro- ates so elected shall convene at the state capital on
position and the effect of a vote for and a vote the first Tuesday in May next following such elec-
against the proposition. If a majority of the elect- tion or at an earlier date if provided by law.
ors voting on any such amendment shall vote for The convention shall have power to choose its
the amendment, the same shall become a part of own officers, appoint and remove its employees
the constitution. When more than one amendment and fix their compensation, determine its rules,
shall be submitted at the same election, such judge the qualifications of its members, and carry
amendments shall be so submitted as to enable the on the business of the convention in an orderly
electors to vote on each amendment separately. manner. Each delegate shall receive such com-
One amendment of the constitution may revise pensation as provided by law. A vacancy in the
any entire article, except the article on general office of any delegate shall be filled as provided
provisions, and in revising any article, the article by law.
may be renumbered and all or parts of other art- The convention shall have power to amend or
icles may be amended, or amended and transferred revise all or that part of the constitution indicated
to the article being revised. Not more than five by the question voted upon to call the convention,
amendments shall be submitted at the same elec- subject to ratification by the electors. No proposed
tion. constitution, or amendment or revision of an exist-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, ing constitution, shall be submitted by the conven-
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. tion to the electors unless it has been available to
65; L. 1970, ch. 411, § 1; L. 1980, ch. 355; Nov. 4, the delegates in final form at least three days on
1980. which the convention is in session, prior to final
passage, and receives the assent of a majority of
§ 2. Constitutional conventions; approval all the delegates. The yeas and nays upon final
by electors. The legislature, by the affirmative passage of any proposal, and upon any question
vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to upon request of one-tenth of the delegates present,
each house, may submit the question "Shall there shall be entered in the journal of the convention.
be a convention to amend or revise the constitu- Proposals of the convention shall be submitted
tion of the state of Kansas?" or the question "Shall to the electors at the first general or special
there be a convention limited to revision of statewide election occurring not less than two
article(s) ______ of the constitution of the state of months after final action thereon by the conven-
Kansas?", to the electors at the next election for tion, and shall take effect in accordance with the
representatives, and the concurrent resolution provisions thereof in such form and with such
providing for such question shall specify in such notice as is directed by the convention upon
blank appropriate words and figures to identify the receiving the approval of a majority of the quali-
article or articles to be considered by the conven- fied electors voting thereon.
tion. If a majority of all electors voting on the History: Adopted by convention, July 29,

36
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. horse and dog racing and parimutuel wagering
65; L. 1970, ch. 411, § 1; Nov. 3, 1970. thereon. Notwithstanding the provisions of sec-
tion 3 of article 15 of the constitution of the state
Article 15.—MISCELLANEOUS of Kansas, the legislature may permit, regulate,
license and tax, at a rate not less than 3% nor more
§ 1. Selection of officers. All officers whose than 6% of all money wagered, the operation or
election or appointment is not otherwise provided conduct, by bona fide nonprofit organizations, of
for, shall be chosen or appointed as may be pre- horse and dog racing and parimutuel wagering
scribed by law. thereon in any county in which: (a) A majority of
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, the qualified electors of the county voting thereon
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. approve this proposed amendment; or (b) the qual-
65; Jan. 29, 1861. ified electors of the county approve a proposition,
§ 2. Tenure of office; merit system in civil by a majority vote of those voting thereon at an
service. The tenure of any office not herein election held within the county, to permit such
provided for may be declared by law; when not so racing and wagering within the boundaries of the
declared, such office shall be held during the county. No off-track betting shall be permitted in
pleasure of the authority making appointment, but connection with horse and dog racing permitted
the legislature shall not create any office the ten- pursuant to this section.
ure of which shall be longer than four years, History: L. 1986, ch. 416; Nov. 4, 1986.
except that appointments under a merit system in § 3c. State-owned and operated lottery.
civil service shall not be subject to such limitation.
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 3 of art-
The legislature may make provisions for a merit
icle 15 of the constitution of the state of Kansas,
system under which appointments and promotions
the legislature may provide for a state-owned and
in the civil service of this state and all civil divi-
operated lottery, except that such state-owned lot-
sions thereof, shall be made according to merit
tery shall not be operated after June 30, 1990,
and fitness, to be determined, so far as practicable,
unless authorized to be operated after such date by
by examination, which, so far as practicable, shall
a concurrent resolution approved by a majority of
be competitive.
all of the members elected (or appointed) and qual-
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
ified of each house and adopted in the 1990 regular
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
session of the legislature. The state shall whenever
65; L. 1939, ch. 188, § 1; Nov. 5, 1940.
possible provide the public information on the odds
§ 3. Lotteries. Lotteries and the sale of lot- of winning a prize or prizes in a lottery game.
tery tickets are forever prohibited. History: L. 1986, ch. 414; Nov. 4, 1986.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
§ 4. 
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
65; Jan. 29, 1861. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§  3a. Regulation, licensing and taxation of 66; L. 1868, (1868 senate journal, p. 336); 1903
"bingo" games authorized. Notwithstanding the S.C.R. 20, L. 1905, ch. 545, § 1; repealed, L.
provisions of section 3 of article 15 of the consti- 1974, ch. 464, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
tution of the state of Kansas the legislature may
regulate, license and tax the operation or conduct § 5. Financial statements; publication. An
of games of bingo and instant bingo, as defined by accurate and detailed statement of the receipts and
law, by bona fide nonprofit religious, charitable, expenditures of the public moneys, and the several
fraternal, educational and veterans organizations. amounts paid, to whom, and on what account,
History: L. 1974, ch. 461, § 1; L. 1995, ch. shall be published, as prescribed by law.
275; Apr. 4, 1995. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
§ 3b. Regulation, licensing and taxation of 66; Jan. 29, 1861.

37
§ 6. Rights of women. The legislature shall may be authorized to join with the sane spouse in
provide for the protection of the rights of women, executing a mortgage upon the homestead, renew-
in acquiring and possessing property, real, per- ing or refinancing an encumbrance thereon which
sonal and mixed, separate and apart from the hus- is likely to cause its loss, or in executing a lease
band; and shall also provide for their equal rights thereon authorizing the lessee to explore and pro-
in the possession of their children. duce therefrom oil, gas, coal, lead, zinc, or other
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, minerals.
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
66; Jan. 29, 1861. 1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
66; L. 1943, ch. 161, § 1; Nov. 7, 1944.
§ 7. Salaries reduced for neglect of duty.
The legislature may reduce the salaries of officers, § 10. Intoxicating liquors. (a) The legis-
who shall neglect the performance of any legal lature may provide for the prohibition of intoxicat-
duty. ing liquors in certain areas.
History: Adopted by convention, July 29, (b) The legislature may regulate, license and
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p. tax the manufacture and sale of intoxicating
66; Jan. 29, 1861. liquors, and may regulate the possession and trans-
portation of intoxicating liquors.
§ 8. Location of state capital. The tempor-
(c) The sale of intoxicating liquor by the indi-
ary seat of government is hereby located at the
vidual drink in public places is prohibited, except
city of Topeka, county of Shawnee. The first legis-
that the legislature may permit, regulate, license
lature under this constitution shall provide by law
and tax the sale of intoxicating liquor by the drink
for submitting the question of the permanent loca-
in public places in a county where the qualified
tion of the capital to a popular vote, and a majority
electors of the county approve, by a majority vote
of all the votes cast at some general election shall
of those voting on this proposition, to adopt this
be necessary for such location.
proposition, but such sales shall be limited to: (1)
History: Adopted by convention, July 29,
Public places where gross receipts from sales of
1859; ratified by electors, Oct. 4, 1859; L. 1861, p.
food for consumption on the premises constitute
66; Jan. 29, 1861.
not less than 30% of the gross receipts from all
§ 9. Homestead exemption. A homestead to sales of food and beverages on such premises; or
the extent of one hundred and sixty acres of farm- (2) public places for which a temporary permit has
ing land, or of one acre within the limits of an been issued as authorized by law.
incorporated town or city, occupied as a residence At any subsequent general election, the legis-
by the family of the owner, together with all the lature may provide by law for the submission of
improvements on the same, shall be exempted propositions to qualified electors of counties for:
from forced sale under any process of law, and (1) The prohibition of sales of intoxicating liquor
shall not be alienated without the joint consent of by the individual drink in public places within the
husband and wife, when that relation exists; but no county; (2) the regulation, licensing, taxing and
property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for sale of intoxicating liquor by the drink in public
the payment of obligations contracted for the pur- places within the county without a requirement
chase of said premises, or for the erection of that any portion of their gross receipts be derived
improvements thereon: Provided, That provisions from the sale of food; or (3) the regulation, licens-
of this section shall not apply to any process of ing, taxing and sale of intoxicating liquor by the
law obtained by virtue of a lien given by the con- drink in public places within the county which
sent of both husband and wife: And provided fur- derive not less than 30% of their gross receipts
ther, That the legislature by an appropriate act or from the sale of food for consumption on the
acts, clearly framed to avoid abuses, may provide premises. Temporary permits for the sale of intox-
that when it is shown the husband or wife while icating liquor may be issued in any county in
occupying a homestead is adjudged to be insane, which the regulation, licensing, taxation and sale
the duly appointed guardian of the insane spouse of intoxicating liquor by the drink in public places

38
is approved pursuant to this section, but no tem- officers before entering upon their respective
porary permit shall be issued for the sale of intox- duties shall take and subscribe an oath or affirma-
icating liquor by the drink within any county in tion to support the constitution of the United
which the regulation, licensing, taxation and sale States and the constitution of this state, and faith-
of intoxicating liquor by the drink in public places fully to discharge the duties of their respective
is prohibited. offices.
History: L. 1879, ch. 165, § 1; L. 1947, ch. History: L. 1974, ch. 459, § 1; Nov. 5, 1974.
248, § 1; L. 1985, ch. 360, § 1; Nov. 4, 1986.
§  15. Victims' rights. (a) Victims of crime,
§ 11.  as defined by law, shall be entitled to certain basic
History: L. 1919, ch. 321, § 1; repealed, L. rights, including the right to be informed of and to
1972, ch. 396, § 1; Aug. 1, 1972. be present at public hearings, as defined by law, of
the criminal justice process, and to be heard at
§ 12. Membership or nonmembership in sentencing or at any other time deemed appropri-
labor organizations. No person shall be denied ate by the court, to the extent that these rights do
the opportunity to obtain or retain employment not interfere with the constitutional or statutory
because of membership or nonmembership in any rights of the accused.
labor organization, nor shall the state or any subdi- (b) Nothing in this section shall be construed
vision thereof, or any individual, corporation, or as creating a cause of action for money damages
any kind of association enter into any agreement, against the state, a county, a municipality, or any
written or oral, which excludes any person from of the agencies, instrumentalities, or employees
employment or continuation of employment thereof. The legislature may provide for other
because of membership or nonmembership in any remedies to ensure adequate enforcement of this
labor organization. section.
History: L. 1957, ch. 235, § 1; Nov. 4, 1958. (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed
§ 13. Continuity of state and local govern- to authorize a court to set aside or to void a find-
mental operations. Notwithstanding any general ing of guilty or not guilty or an acceptance of a
or special provision of this constitution, the legis- plea of guilty or to set aside any sentence imposed
lature, in order to insure continuity of state and or any other final disposition in any criminal case.
local governmental operations in periods of emer- History: L. 1992, ch. 343, § 1; Nov. 3,
gency resulting from disasters caused by enemy 1992.
attack, shall have the power and the immediate  
§16. Marriage. (a) The marriage contract is
duty (1) to provide for prompt and temporary suc- to be considered in law as a civil contract. Mar-
cession to the powers and duties of public offices, riage shall be constituted by one man and one
of whatever nature and whether filled by election woman only. All other marriages are declared to
or appointment, the incumbents of which may be contrary to the public policy of this state and
become unavailable for carrying on the powers are void.
and duties of such offices, and (2) to adopt such (b) No relationship, other than a marriage, shall
other measures as may be necessary and proper for be recognized by the state as entitling the parties
insuring the continuity of governmental operations to the rights or incidents of marriage.
including, but not limited to, the financing thereof. History: L. 2005, ch. 211, § 1; Apr. 5, 2005.
In the exercise of the powers hereby conferred the
legislature shall in all respects conform to the SCHEDULE
requirements of this constitution except to the
extent that in the judgment of the legislature so to § 1. Change from a territorial to a state
do would be impracticable or would admit of government. That no inconvenience may arise
undue delay. from the change from a territorial government to a
History: L. 1959, ch. 183, § 1; Nov. 8, 1960. permanent state government, it is declared by this
constitution that all suits, rights, actions, prosecu-
§ 14. Oaths of state officers. All state tions, recognizances, contracts, judgments and

39
claims, both as respects individuals and bodies the legislature shall direct the mode in which such
corporate, shall continue as if no change had taken suits, pleas, plaints, prosecutions and other pro-
place. ceedings, and all papers, records, books and docu-
ments connected therewith, may be removed to the
§ 2. Penalties, forfeitures and bonds. All courts established by this constitution.
fines, penalties and forfeitures, owing to the territ-
ory of Kansas, or any county, shall inure to the use § 9. Ratification or rejection of constitu-
of the state or county. All bonds executed to the tion. For the purpose of taking the vote of the
territory, or any officer thereof, in his official electors of this territory for the ratification or
capacity, shall pass over to the governor, or other rejection of this constitution, an election shall be
officers of the state or county, and their successors held in the several voting precincts in this territ-
in office, for the use of the state or county, or by ory, on the first Tuesday in October, A.D. 1859.
him or them to be respectively assigned over to
the use of those concerned, as the case may be. § 10. Mode of voting on constitution. Each
elector shall express his assent or dissent by voting
§ 3. Officers of territory. The governor, sec- a written or printed ballot labeled "For the Consti-
retary and judges, and all other officers, both civil tution," or "Against the Constitution."
and military, under the territorial government,
shall continue in the exercise of the duties of their § 11. First election under constitution. If a
respective departments until the said officers are majority of all the votes cast at such election shall
superseded under the authority of this constitution. be in favor of the constitution, then there shall be
an election held in the several voting precincts on
§ 4. Laws. All laws and parts of laws in the first Tuesday in December, A.D. 1859, for the
force in the territory, at the time of the acceptance election of members of the first legislature, of all
of this constitution by congress, not inconsistent state, district and county officers provided for in
with this constitution, shall continue and remain in this constitution, and for a representative in con-
full force until they expire, or shall be repealed. gress.
§ 5. Seal. The governor shall use his private
§ 12. Persons qualified to vote. All persons
seal until a state seal is provided.
having the qualification of electors, according to
§ 6. Offices at capital. The governor, secret- the provisions of this constitution, at the date of
ary of state, auditor of state, treasurer of state, each of said elections, and who shall have been
attorney general, and superintendent of public duly registered according to the provisions of the
instruction, shall keep their respective offices at registry law of this territory, and none others, shall
the seat of government. be entitled to vote at each of said elections.

§ 7. Court records and documents. All § 13. Judges of election. The persons who
records, documents, books, papers, moneys and may be judges of the several voting precincts of
vouchers belonging and pertaining to the several this territory at the date of the respective elections
territorial courts, and offices and to the several dis- in this schedule provided for, shall be the judges
tricts and county offices, at the date of the admis- of the respective elections herein provided for.
sion of this state into the union, shall be disposed
of in such manner as may be prescribed by law. § 14. Oath of judges; clerks. The said
judges of election, before entering upon the duties
§ 8. Suits and proceedings. All suits, pleas, of their office, shall take and subscribe an oath
plaints and other proceedings pending in any court faithfully to discharge their duties as such. They
of record, or justice's court, may be prosecuted to shall appoint two clerks of election, who shall be
final judgment and execution; and all appeals, sworn by one of said judges faithfully to discharge
writs of error, certiorari, injunctions, or other pro- their duties as such. In the event of a vacancy in
ceedings whatever, may progress and be carried the board of judges the same shall be filled by the
on as if this constitution had not been adopted, and electors present.

40
§ 15. When polls open. At each of the elec- vassers, any two of whom shall be a quorum; and
tions provided for in this schedule the polls shall who shall, on the fourth Monday after each of the
be open between the hours of nine and ten o'clock elections provided for in this schedule, assemble at
a.m. and closed at sunset. said city of Topeka, and proceed to open and can-
vass the votes cast at the several precincts in the
§ 16. Poll books. The tribunals transacting different counties of the Territory and declare the
county business of the several counties, shall result; and shall immediately issue certificates of
cause to be furnished to the boards of judges in election to all persons (if any) thus elected.
their respective counties two poll books for each
election hereinbefore provided for, upon which the § 21. Declaration of result of election. Said
clerks shall inscribe the name of every person who board of state canvassers shall issue their proclam-
may vote at the said elections. ation not less than twenty days next preceding
each of the elections provided for in this schedule.
§ 17. Count of votes. After closing the polls Said proclamation shall contain an announcement
at each of the elections provided for in this sched- of the several elections, the qualifications of elect-
ule, the judges shall proceed to count the votes ors, the manner of conducting said elections and
cast, and designate the persons or objects for of making the returns thereof, as in this constitu-
which they were cast, and shall make two correct tion provided, and shall publish said proclamation
tally lists of the same. in one newspaper in each of the counties of the
§ 18. Custody of poll books and tally lists. territory in which a newspaper may be then pub-
Each of the board of judges shall safely keep one lished.
poll book and tally list, and the ballots cast at each § 22. Copies of constitution for federal
election; and shall, within ten days after such elec- authorities. The board of state canvassers shall
tion, cause the other poll book and tally list to be provide for the transmission of authenticated cop-
transmitted, by the hands of a sworn officer, to the ies of the constitution to the president of the
clerk of the board transacting county business in United States, the president of the senate and
their respective counties, or to which the county speaker of the house of representatives.
may be attached for municipal purposes.
§ 23. Proclamation of governor. Upon offi-
§ 19. Canvass of votes; transcript. The cial information having been by him received of
tribunals transacting county business shall the admission of Kansas into the union as a state,
assemble at the county seats of their respective it shall be the duty of the governor elect under the
counties on the second Tuesday after each of the constitution to proclaim the same and to convene
elections provided for in this schedule, and shall the legislature, and to do all things else necessary
canvass the votes cast at the elections held in the to the complete and active organization of the state
several precincts in their respective counties, and government.
of the counties attached for municipal purposes.
They shall hold in safekeeping the poll books and § 24. County lines. The first legislature
tally lists of said elections, and shall, within ten shall have no power to make any changes in
days thereafter, transmit, by the hands of a sworn county lines.
officer, to the president of this convention, at the
city of Topeka, a certified transcript of the same, § 25. Homestead provision At the election
showing the number of votes cast for each person to be held for the ratification or rejection of this
or object voted for at each of the several precincts constitution, each elector shall be permitted to
in their respective counties, and in the counties vote on the homestead provision contained in the
attached for municipal purposes, separately. article on "Miscellaneous," by depositing a ballot
inscribed "For the Homestead," or "Against the
§ 20. State canvassers. The governor of the Homestead"; and if a majority of all the votes cast
territory, and the president and secretary of this at said election shall be against said provision,
convention shall constitute a board of state can- then it shall be stricken from the constitution.

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RESOLUTIONS of July, A.D. 1859.
Sundry resolutions. Resolved, That the JAMES M. WINCHELL,
congress of the United States is hereby requested, President of the Kansas Constitutional Convention, and
upon the application of Kansas for admission into Member from Osage County.
the union, to pass an act granting to the state forty-
five hundred thousand acres of land to aid in the
construction of railroads and other internal Robt. Graham, John James Ingalls,
improvements. J.A. Middleton, Saml. A. Kingman,
Resolved, That congress be further requested to John Taylor Burris, James Blood,
pass an act appropriating fifty thousand acres of Wm. Hutchinson, S.O. Thatcher,
land for the improvement of the Kansas river from N.C. Blood, Edwin Stokes,
its mouth to Fort Riley. John P. Greer, John Ritchey,
Resolved, That congress be further requested to W.P. Dutton, Benjamin S. Simpson,
pass an act granting all swamp lands within the Wm. McCullough, James M. Arthur,
state for the benefit of common schools. Jas. G. Blunt, Saml. E. Hoffman,
Resolved, That congress be further requested to J.C. Burnett, James H. Signor,
pass an act appropriating five hundred thousand Wm. R. Griffith, Robt. J. Porter,
dollars, or in lieu thereof five hundred thousand Caleb May, Luther R. Palmer,
acres of land, for the payment of the claims S.D. Houston, R.L. Williams,
awarded to citizens of Kansas by the claim Josiah Lamb, P.H. Townsend,
commissioners appointed by the governor and H.D. Preston, Allen Crocker,
legislature of Kansas under an act of the territorial Edmund G. Ross, George H. Lillie.
legislature passed 7th February, 1859. James Hanway,
Resolved, That the legislature shall make
JOHN A. MARTIN, Secretary.
provision for the sale or disposal of the lands
The following-named delegates to the Wyan-
granted to the state in aid of internal
dotte convention did not sign the constitution:
improvements and for other purposes, subject to
the same rights of prermption to the settlers J.P. Slough, P.S. Parks,
thereon as are now allowed by law to settlers on C.B. McClellan, E.M. Hubbard,
the public lands. J.W. Forman, F. Brown,
Resolved, That it is the desire of the people of J. Stiarwalt, Sam. Hipple,
Kansas to be admitted into the union with this W.C. McDowell, S.A. Stinson,
constitution. A.D. McCune, R.C. Foster,
Resolved, That congress be further requested to John Wright, J.T. Barton,
assume the debt of this territory. W. Perry, B. Wrigley,
Done in convention at Wyandotte, this 29th day E. Moore, T.S. Wright.

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