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1. To be able to prepare standard solutions.
2. To determine the strength of a given solution of Hydrochloric acid (HCl).
3. To analyze errors that occurs during standardization experiments.


Standardization is doing a titration to work out the exact concentration of the solution you want
to use to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. To do a titration you must to know
the exact number of moles of one of the reagents (titrant) you are using so that you can then
determine the number of moles of the unknown reagent.

The standard solution is a reference guide to discover the molarity of unknown species. Titration
methods can be used to acquire the concentration of a standard solution. These involve using
equipment such as a burette.

Good standardizing reagents should have the following characteristics:

 They should have a high degree of purity.

 They should be stable and unaffected by the atmosphere, i.e. they should not be
efflorescent or deliquescent, for easy weighing.

The process used to determine the concentration of a solution with very high accuracy is called
standardizing a solution. To standardize an unknown solution, you react that solution with
another solution whose concentration is already known very accurately.

Reagents used as standards are divided into primary reagent and secondary reagent.

 A primary reagent can be used to prepare a standard containing an accurately known

amount of analyte. A primary reagent must have a known stoichiometry, a known purity
(or assay) and be stable during a long term storage both in solid and solution form.
 The purity of a secondary reagent in a solid form or the concentration of a standard
prepared from a secondary reagent must be determined relative to a primary reagent

For example, to standardize the hydrochloric acid solution prepared, we might very carefully
measure a known quantity of that solution (called an aliquot) and neutralize that aliquot with a
solution of sodium carbonate whose concentration is already known very accurately. Adding a
few drops of an indicator, such as phenolphthalein or methyl orange, to the solution provides a
visual indication (a color change) when an equivalence point is reached, when just enough of the
standard solution has been added to the unknown solution to neutralize it exactly. By
determining how much of the sodium carbonate solution is required to neutralize the
hydrochloric acid, we can calculate a very accurate value for the concentration of the
hydrochloric acid. This procedure is called titration.


CHEMICALS 1. 1000ml volumetric flask

1. Anhydrous sodium carbonate 2. 250ml conical flask
2. Methyl orange indicator 3. Funnel
3. Concentrated hydrochloric acid 4. Burette
4. Distilled water 5. Measuring cylinder
6. Electronic balance

1. Clean your burette and fill it with the hydrochloric acid prepared
2. Weigh 0.2g of sodium carbonate into a 250ml conical flask and dissolve in 100ml of
distilled water and top up to the mark
3. Add Methyl orange indicator and titrate against the prepared acid solution.
4. Repeat Two more times.

Colour change = Yellow to orange
Indicator used = Methyl orange

Burette reading/ml 1 2 3
Final reading/ml
Initial reading/ml
Titre value/ml

The reaction equation of the reaction that occurred between Na2CO3 and HCl is
Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
from the above reaction equation

n(Na2CO3) =1
n(HCl) 2
this implies that n(HCl)= 2×n(Na2CO3)
n(Na2CO3)= m/M = 0.2g/106gmol-1= 1.8868×10-3mol
hence n(HCl) = 2×1.8868×10-3= 3.7736×10-3mol
for 44.50ml
[HCl]= 3.7736×10-3mol = 0.0848M
44.50 ×10-3L
for 44.40ml
[HCl]= 3.7736×10-3mol = 0.0850M
for 44.30ml
[HCl]= 3.7736×10-3mol = 0.0852M

0.0848 + 0.0850 + 0.0852

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 0.085M


In this experiment a standard 0.1M HCl solution was prepared by diluting a stock
solution of the HCl. A stock solution is a solution from which a dilute solution can be prepared.
The prepared solution was standardized with sodium carbonate pellets which is hygroscopic
which absorb water from the surroundings but do not dissolve. Na2CO3 is 99% pure thus, only
the 99% of Na2CO3 would give the accurate concentration of HCl. That is only 85% of the
expected concentration would be determined hence the concentration of HCl after the experiment
is 0.085M which is 85% of the expected concentration. So the 85% of the expected concentration
which is less than the expected concentration of 100% can be due to some errors occurring
during the measurement of the solution also the sodium carbonate might have absorb some water
from the surroundings.

1. The electronic balance was calibrated before use.

2. Accurate volume measurements were ensured.
3. Sodium carbonate was used for the standardization because it is 99% pure.


1. Since Na2CO3 is hygroscopic, it could have absorbed water molecules from the
atmosphere during weighing thereby increasing the weight.


The concentration of HCl after the preparation was found to be 0.085M which is 85% of
the expected concentration. Also, the concentration of the analyte was found to depend on the
purity of the standard solution used.


1. Freiser, Henry; Nancollas, George H (1987). Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature:

Definitive Rules 1987. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. p. 48
2. Skoog, Douglas A., Donald M. West and F. James Holler. (1995) "Fundamentals of
Analytical Chemistry 8th ed." Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
3. Sawyer, C.N. & P.L. McCarty (1978) Chemistry for Environmental Engineers, McGraw
Hill Publ,. pp. 65-69, 284-285, 454-462.