Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

MINERALS – are naturally inorganic  Double Refraction – light rays enter into

substances with definite and predictable birefringent minerals and the light divides
chemical composition and physical into two rays.
properties.  Dispersion and Fire – the splitting of
white light into the colors of the spectrum.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Absorption Spectrum – the spectral
1) Cleavage – the breaking of minerals along wavelengths absorbed by a gem.
certain lines of weakness in their structure.
ROCK-FORMING MINERALS – any
2) Fracture – the tendency of a mineral to minerals that forms igneous, sedimentary, or
break along curved surfaces without a metamorphic rocks and that typically, or
definite shape. solely, forms as an intimate part of rock-
making processes.
3) Color – the constant and predictable
component of minerals 9 MOST COMMON ROCK-FORMING
MINERALS
4) Streak – the color of the mineral when
turned into fine powder. - Feldspar - Olivine -Clay
- Pyroxene -Dolomite - Calcite
5) Luster – how light is reflected from the
- Mica -Amphibole -Quartz
surface of a mineral. Categorized by two
types: When are rocks formed?
a) Metallic - During cooling of molten materials
- Evaporation of liquids
b) Non-metallic
- Cooling of liquids
6) Specific Gravity – this determines the - At high temperatures and pressure
density of minerals. new crystals may grow in solid
materials.
7) Hardness – the scratching of a minerals
surface and to measure its resistance to Silicate Minerals – most common minerals
abrasion. in the earth’s crust and mantle by 95% -
97% ex. Quartz
8) Tenacity – the resistance of a mineral to
breaking, bending, or otherwise being Non-silicate Minerals – rocks that do not
deformed. contain oxygen and silicon. Ex: oxides,
sulfides, sulfates, halides, carbonates
9) Crystal Forms – the external shape of a
mineral and determined largely by its internal Clay Minerals – a very fine particle size
atomic structure. made up of aluminum silicate and other
elements. Composed of cations and
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF
coordinated oxygen.
MINERALS
Clay mineral groups:
 Refractive Index – how fast the light - Kaolinite, Illite, Vemicullite, Smectite,
travels on minerals Chlorite
MINERAL ACCUMULATION HOW DOES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
FORM?
Mineral Deposit – concentration of metals or
minerals. Determined by the timing of ore- - They are formed from broken pieces
forming processes of rocks called sediments and
through the processes called
Type of mineral deposits- industrial & non-
compaction, cementation, and
industrial
recrystallization of sediments.
CLASSIFICATION OF MINERAL
TPYES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
DEPOSIT
1) CLASTIC 2) CHEMICAL 3) ORGANIC
- Environment of formation
o Sedimentary, magmatic, and Clastic – smaller grains of rocks broken off
metamorphic from other rocks by physical weathering.
- Form or symmetry to mineral deposits examples: mudstones, shales, sandstones,
o the symmetry or the form of a deposit conglomerate (made of gravel and larger
gives very defined groups of different fragments)
locations
Chemical – this are rocks formed by
- Content of chemical elements
precipitation of minerals from water.
o Scientific way
examples: limestones (formed from
ROCKS precipitation of calcium carbonate),
dolomite (formed from limestones or lime
- a natural substance composed of solid mud that is modified by magnesium-rich
crystals of different minerals that are groundwater), Iron ore (formed when iron
fused together. and oxygen combine, Quarts/Chert
TYPES OF ROCKS (composed of silicon dioxide and was used
as cutting tools and weapon).
Igneous – Latin “ignis” meaning fire or
magnetic rock Organic – form from the actions of
organisms.
TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS examples: Coquina (limestone formed form
Intrusive – crystallize rocks earth’s surface, broken shell fragments), Coal (carbon-rich
and the slow cooling that occurs there allows rock formed from compacted plant remains),
large crystals to form. Coral reef rock (mineral calcite rock
formed by coral organisms.)
Extrusive – erupted to the earth’s surface
that quickly cooled and formed into a small METAMORPHIC ROCKS – rocks that
crystal where some of it formed into an are modified by heat, pressure and chemical
amorphous glass. processes. This rocks were once igneous or
sedimentary but changes because of
Sedimentary Rocks – rocks formed by temperature and pressure. The word META
accumulation lithification of sediments “TRANSFORM” and MORPH means
and also formed from eroded fragments of change of shape.
other rocks and remains of plants or animals.
TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS
- Non-Foliated – this rocks do not
have layered or banded appearance.
o Ex. Hornfels, marble,
quartzite and novaculite.
- Foliated -have layered or banded
appearance that produced by exposure
to heat and pressure.
o Ex. Gneiss, phyllite, schist
and slate