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ENGR.

KRISTIAN MHAR DE PADUA


PART 1
INTRODUCTION

The principles of integration were formulated


by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz in the late
17th century, through the fundamental theorem of
calculus, which they independently developed. The
theorem demonstrates the relationship between the
two central operations of calculus , differentiation
and integration.
INTRODUCTION

Integration is connected with differentiation, and


the definite integral of a function can be easily
computed once an antiderivative is known.
Newton’s notation to indicate integration is a
small vertical bar above a variable , or placed the
variable inside a box.
INTRODUCTION

However, the vertical bar was easily confused


with 𝑥 or 𝑥 , which Newton used to indicate
differentiation, and the box notation was difficult for
printers to reproduce, so these notations were not
widely adopted. were not widely adopted.
INTRODUCTION

The modern notation for the indefinite integral


was introduced by Gottfried Leibniz in 1675. He
adapted the integral symbol, "∫", from an elongated
letter S, standing for summa (Latin for "sum" or
"total").
𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹 𝑥 + 𝐶
INTRODUCTION

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹 𝑥 + 𝐶

F(x) is any function such that F’(x)= f(x) and C is an


arbitrary constant.
 – integral sign C – constant of integration
f(x)→integrand
F(x) + C → indefinite integral
BASIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
BASIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS

Where: (in all cases)


u and v are functions of x

Note:
To apply the formula of Integration by parts, separate the
integrand into two factors, u and dv with dv usually as the
most complicated factor containing dx.
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
HIGHER ORDER INTEGRALS
HIGHER ORDER INTEGRALS
PARTIAL INTEGRATION

Like the concept of partial differentiation, treat the


other variables as constant and integrate the
function with respect to the integral variable (dx, dy,
etc.)
𝑓(𝑥) ∙ 𝑔 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑦 ∙ 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑓(𝑥) ∙ 𝑔 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) ∙ 𝑔(𝑦) 𝑑𝑦


Sample problem no. 1

Evaluate:
𝑑𝑥
5 − 2𝑥
A. – 2ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶 C. 2ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶
B. – 0.5ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶 D. 0.5ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 2

Evaluate:
1 − cos 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

−2 2 𝑥
A. +𝐶 C. −2 2 tan 2
2
+1+𝐶
2 𝑥
tan +1
2
2 2 𝑥
B. +𝐶 D. 2 2 tan 2
2
+1+𝐶
2 𝑥
tan +1
2
Sample problem no. 3

Evaluate:
𝑥
𝑑𝑥
(𝑥 + 1)(𝑥 + 2)
A. ln 𝑥 + 1 + ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
B. ln 𝑥 + 1 + 2 ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
C. − ln 𝑥 + 1 + ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
D. −ln 𝑥 + 1 + 2 ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 4

Evaluate:
3
2𝑥 cos(3𝑥) 𝑑𝑥
1

A. 7.945 C. 1.465
B. 5.794 D. 0.748
Sample problem no. 5

Evaluate:
5
𝑑𝑥
2 𝑥ln(𝑥)
A. 0.842 C. 47.333
B. 26.766 D. 
Sample problem no. 6

Evaluate:

2𝑥𝑦 cos(𝑥 + 𝑦) 𝑑𝑥

A. 2𝑥(𝑦 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑥 cos(𝑥 + 𝑦)) + 𝐶


B. 2𝑦(𝑥 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑦 cos 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝐶
C. 2𝑥(𝑦 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + cos 𝑥 + 𝑦 ) + 𝐶
D. 2𝑦(𝑥 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + cos(𝑥 + 𝑦)) + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 7

Evaluate:
2
2 cos(𝑥 + 𝑦) 𝑑𝑥
1

A. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 − 2 cos(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶


B. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 − 2 sin(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶
C. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 + 2 cos(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶
D. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 + 2 cos(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 8

Evaluate:
2 𝑦
2 2
(𝑥 + 3𝑦 ) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
0 0
20 20
A. C.
3 7
40 40
B. D.
3 7
Sample problem no. 9

Evaluate:
𝜋
4
12
3
𝑥 cos(3𝑦) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
0 0
32 2 32 2
A. C. −
3 3
32 3 32 3
B. D. −
3 3
Sample problem no. 10

Evaluate:
3 2
2 2
𝑥 𝑦 + 5𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
0 1

A. 22.2 C. 44.4
B. 33.3 D. 55.5
Sample problem no. 11

Evaluate:
4 3 2
2
2𝑥 ln 𝑦 cos(3𝑧) 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑧𝑑𝑦
1 2 0

A. 0.168 C. 8.667
B. 3.129 D. 13.457
PART 2
AVERAGE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

Integral is being used in calculating the


average/mean/dc value of a function. This
application is the foundation of common average
formulas in electronics.
𝑏
1
𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑏−𝑎 𝑎
effective VALUE OF A FUNCTION

Integral can also be used in calculating the


effective/root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of a
function.
𝑏
1 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝑓 𝑥
𝑏−𝑎 𝑎
Sample problem no. 12

Determine the average value of the function 𝑦 =


5𝑥 3 − 2𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 − 12 from x = 2 to x = 6.
A. 1256/3 C. 1256/4
B. 1096/3 D. 1096/4
Sample problem no. 13

Determine the dc value of the voltage wave


represented by the function 𝑉 𝑡 = 4 sin 3𝑡 − 2
from 5/12 to .
A. –1.787 V C. 3.275 V
B. –2.813 V D. 2.813 V
Sample problem no. 14

Determine the effective value of the function


3 2
𝑓(𝑥) = 5𝑥 − 2𝑥 + 3𝑥 − 12 from 2 to 6.
A. 346.088 C. 436.088
B. 364.088 D. 463.088
Arc length

Integrals are also used in computing the length


of an arc of any curve. For the rectangular
equation, y = f(x) or x = f(y), the length of an arc
can be calculated as:
Arc length

𝑑𝑆 2 = 𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑑𝑦 2

𝑥2 2 𝑦2 2
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
𝑆= 1+ 𝑑𝑥 = 1+ 𝑑𝑦
𝑥1 𝑑𝑥 𝑦1 𝑑𝑦
Arc length

For any given parametric equation, y = f(t) and


x = f(t), the length of an arc can be calculated as:

𝑡2 2 2
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
𝑆= + 𝑑𝑡
𝑡1 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Arc length

For any given polar equation, r = f(), the


length of an arc can be calculated as:

𝜃2 2
𝑑𝑟
𝑆= 𝑟 2+ 𝑑𝜃
𝜃1 𝑑𝜃
Sample problem no. 15

Determine the length of the arc of the curve y2 = 4x


from y = 0 to y = 2
A. 1.8 C. 2.3
B. 2.1 D. 2.7
Sample problem no. 16

Find the length of arc of a circle x2 + y2 = 25 from


x = 2 to x = 4 on the first quadrant.
A. 1.33 C. 2.14
B. 1.667 D. 2.58
Sample problem no. 17

Determine the length of the curve x = 2(2t + 3)3/2,


y = 3(3 + t)2 from t = –1 to t = 3.
A. 109.2 C. 122.8
B. 112.7 D. 127.5
Sample problem no. 18

Determine the length of the polar curve r =  for 0


<  < 1.
A. 1.15 C. 1.35
B. 1.25 D. 1.50
Area between curves

One of the most important application of integral calculus


is the calculation of area bounded by two or more
functions forming irregular shapes by which areas cannot
be computed using basic geometry.
Area between curves

Using vertical strip:


y2 𝑥2
𝐴= 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 𝑑𝑥
𝑥1

y1
Area between curves

Using horizontal strip:


x2 𝑦2
𝐴= 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑑𝑦
𝑦1

x1
Area between curves

For area of polar curves:


𝜃2
1
𝐴= 𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃
2 𝜃1
Sample problem no. 19

Find the area of the curve y = 9 – x2 and the x-


axis.
A. 9 sq. units C. 36 sq. units
B. 18 sq. units D. 72 sq. units
Sample problem no. 20

Find the area bounded by the curve y2 + 2x – 2y –


3 = 0 and the y–axis.
A. 13/3 sq. units C. 15/3 sq. units
B. 14/3 sq. units D. 16/3 sq. units
Sample problem no. 21

Determine the area of the region bounded by the


curve y = 2x + x2 – x3 and the x-axis.
A. 2.25 sq. units C. 4.667 sq. units
B. 3.083 sq. units D. 5.55 sq. units
Sample problem no. 22

Find the area bounded the parabola 4x – y2 = 0


and y = 2x – 4.
A. 4.5 sq. units C. 18 sq. units
B. 9 sq. units D. sq. units
Sample problem no. 23

Find the area bounded by the parabola y = 9 – x2


and x + y = 7.
A. 4.5 sq. units C. 18 sq. units
B. 9 sq. units D. 32 sq. units
Sample problem no. 24

Find the area bounded the line x – 2y + 10 = 0,


the x-axis, the y-axis and the line x = 10.
A. 40 sq. units C. 68 sq. units
B. 55 sq. units D. 75 sq. units
Sample problem no. 25

Determine the area bounded by the curve r2 = 2a2


cos θ.
A. 0.5a2 sq. units C. 2a2 sq. units
B. a2 sq. units D. 4a2 sq. units