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# ENGR.

PART 1
INTRODUCTION

## The principles of integration were formulated

by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz in the late
17th century, through the fundamental theorem of
calculus, which they independently developed. The
theorem demonstrates the relationship between the
two central operations of calculus , differentiation
and integration.
INTRODUCTION

## Integration is connected with differentiation, and

the definite integral of a function can be easily
computed once an antiderivative is known.
Newton’s notation to indicate integration is a
small vertical bar above a variable , or placed the
variable inside a box.
INTRODUCTION

## However, the vertical bar was easily confused

with 𝑥 or 𝑥 , which Newton used to indicate
differentiation, and the box notation was difficult for
printers to reproduce, so these notations were not
INTRODUCTION

## The modern notation for the indefinite integral

was introduced by Gottfried Leibniz in 1675. He
adapted the integral symbol, "∫", from an elongated
letter S, standing for summa (Latin for "sum" or
"total").
𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹 𝑥 + 𝐶
INTRODUCTION

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹 𝑥 + 𝐶

## F(x) is any function such that F’(x)= f(x) and C is an

arbitrary constant.
 – integral sign C – constant of integration
f(x)→integrand
F(x) + C → indefinite integral
BASIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
BASIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS

## Where: (in all cases)

u and v are functions of x

Note:
To apply the formula of Integration by parts, separate the
integrand into two factors, u and dv with dv usually as the
most complicated factor containing dx.
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRAL FORMULAS
HIGHER ORDER INTEGRALS
HIGHER ORDER INTEGRALS
PARTIAL INTEGRATION

## Like the concept of partial differentiation, treat the

other variables as constant and integrate the
function with respect to the integral variable (dx, dy,
etc.)
𝑓(𝑥) ∙ 𝑔 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑦 ∙ 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

## 𝑓(𝑥) ∙ 𝑔 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) ∙ 𝑔(𝑦) 𝑑𝑦

Sample problem no. 1

Evaluate:
𝑑𝑥
5 − 2𝑥
A. – 2ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶 C. 2ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶
B. – 0.5ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶 D. 0.5ln |5 – 2𝑥| + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 2

Evaluate:
1 − cos 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

−2 2 𝑥
A. +𝐶 C. −2 2 tan 2
2
+1+𝐶
2 𝑥
tan +1
2
2 2 𝑥
B. +𝐶 D. 2 2 tan 2
2
+1+𝐶
2 𝑥
tan +1
2
Sample problem no. 3

Evaluate:
𝑥
𝑑𝑥
(𝑥 + 1)(𝑥 + 2)
A. ln 𝑥 + 1 + ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
B. ln 𝑥 + 1 + 2 ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
C. − ln 𝑥 + 1 + ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
D. −ln 𝑥 + 1 + 2 ln 𝑥 + 2 + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 4

Evaluate:
3
2𝑥 cos(3𝑥) 𝑑𝑥
1

A. 7.945 C. 1.465
B. 5.794 D. 0.748
Sample problem no. 5

Evaluate:
5
𝑑𝑥
2 𝑥ln(𝑥)
A. 0.842 C. 47.333
B. 26.766 D. 
Sample problem no. 6

Evaluate:

2𝑥𝑦 cos(𝑥 + 𝑦) 𝑑𝑥

## A. 2𝑥(𝑦 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑥 cos(𝑥 + 𝑦)) + 𝐶

B. 2𝑦(𝑥 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑦 cos 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝐶
C. 2𝑥(𝑦 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + cos 𝑥 + 𝑦 ) + 𝐶
D. 2𝑦(𝑥 sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 + cos(𝑥 + 𝑦)) + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 7

Evaluate:
2
2 cos(𝑥 + 𝑦) 𝑑𝑥
1

## A. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 − 2 cos(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶

B. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 − 2 sin(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶
C. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 + 2 cos(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶
D. 2 sin 𝑦 + 2 + 2 cos(𝑦 + 1)) + 𝐶
Sample problem no. 8

Evaluate:
2 𝑦
2 2
(𝑥 + 3𝑦 ) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
0 0
20 20
A. C.
3 7
40 40
B. D.
3 7
Sample problem no. 9

Evaluate:
𝜋
4
12
3
𝑥 cos(3𝑦) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
0 0
32 2 32 2
A. C. −
3 3
32 3 32 3
B. D. −
3 3
Sample problem no. 10

Evaluate:
3 2
2 2
𝑥 𝑦 + 5𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
0 1

A. 22.2 C. 44.4
B. 33.3 D. 55.5
Sample problem no. 11

Evaluate:
4 3 2
2
2𝑥 ln 𝑦 cos(3𝑧) 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑧𝑑𝑦
1 2 0

A. 0.168 C. 8.667
B. 3.129 D. 13.457
PART 2
AVERAGE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

## Integral is being used in calculating the

average/mean/dc value of a function. This
application is the foundation of common average
formulas in electronics.
𝑏
1
𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑏−𝑎 𝑎
effective VALUE OF A FUNCTION

## Integral can also be used in calculating the

effective/root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of a
function.
𝑏
1 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝑓 𝑥
𝑏−𝑎 𝑎
Sample problem no. 12

## Determine the average value of the function 𝑦 =

5𝑥 3 − 2𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 − 12 from x = 2 to x = 6.
A. 1256/3 C. 1256/4
B. 1096/3 D. 1096/4
Sample problem no. 13

## Determine the dc value of the voltage wave

represented by the function 𝑉 𝑡 = 4 sin 3𝑡 − 2
from 5/12 to .
A. –1.787 V C. 3.275 V
B. –2.813 V D. 2.813 V
Sample problem no. 14

## Determine the effective value of the function

3 2
𝑓(𝑥) = 5𝑥 − 2𝑥 + 3𝑥 − 12 from 2 to 6.
A. 346.088 C. 436.088
B. 364.088 D. 463.088
Arc length

## Integrals are also used in computing the length

of an arc of any curve. For the rectangular
equation, y = f(x) or x = f(y), the length of an arc
can be calculated as:
Arc length

𝑑𝑆 2 = 𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑑𝑦 2

𝑥2 2 𝑦2 2
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
𝑆= 1+ 𝑑𝑥 = 1+ 𝑑𝑦
𝑥1 𝑑𝑥 𝑦1 𝑑𝑦
Arc length

## For any given parametric equation, y = f(t) and

x = f(t), the length of an arc can be calculated as:

𝑡2 2 2
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
𝑆= + 𝑑𝑡
𝑡1 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Arc length

## For any given polar equation, r = f(), the

length of an arc can be calculated as:

𝜃2 2
𝑑𝑟
𝑆= 𝑟 2+ 𝑑𝜃
𝜃1 𝑑𝜃
Sample problem no. 15

## Determine the length of the arc of the curve y2 = 4x

from y = 0 to y = 2
A. 1.8 C. 2.3
B. 2.1 D. 2.7
Sample problem no. 16

## Find the length of arc of a circle x2 + y2 = 25 from

x = 2 to x = 4 on the first quadrant.
A. 1.33 C. 2.14
B. 1.667 D. 2.58
Sample problem no. 17

## Determine the length of the curve x = 2(2t + 3)3/2,

y = 3(3 + t)2 from t = –1 to t = 3.
A. 109.2 C. 122.8
B. 112.7 D. 127.5
Sample problem no. 18

## Determine the length of the polar curve r =  for 0

<  < 1.
A. 1.15 C. 1.35
B. 1.25 D. 1.50
Area between curves

## One of the most important application of integral calculus

is the calculation of area bounded by two or more
functions forming irregular shapes by which areas cannot
be computed using basic geometry.
Area between curves

## Using vertical strip:

y2 𝑥2
𝐴= 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 𝑑𝑥
𝑥1

y1
Area between curves

## Using horizontal strip:

x2 𝑦2
𝐴= 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑑𝑦
𝑦1

x1
Area between curves

## For area of polar curves:

𝜃2
1
𝐴= 𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃
2 𝜃1
Sample problem no. 19

## Find the area of the curve y = 9 – x2 and the x-

axis.
A. 9 sq. units C. 36 sq. units
B. 18 sq. units D. 72 sq. units
Sample problem no. 20

## Find the area bounded by the curve y2 + 2x – 2y –

3 = 0 and the y–axis.
A. 13/3 sq. units C. 15/3 sq. units
B. 14/3 sq. units D. 16/3 sq. units
Sample problem no. 21

## Determine the area of the region bounded by the

curve y = 2x + x2 – x3 and the x-axis.
A. 2.25 sq. units C. 4.667 sq. units
B. 3.083 sq. units D. 5.55 sq. units
Sample problem no. 22

## Find the area bounded the parabola 4x – y2 = 0

and y = 2x – 4.
A. 4.5 sq. units C. 18 sq. units
B. 9 sq. units D. sq. units
Sample problem no. 23

## Find the area bounded by the parabola y = 9 – x2

and x + y = 7.
A. 4.5 sq. units C. 18 sq. units
B. 9 sq. units D. 32 sq. units
Sample problem no. 24

## Find the area bounded the line x – 2y + 10 = 0,

the x-axis, the y-axis and the line x = 10.
A. 40 sq. units C. 68 sq. units
B. 55 sq. units D. 75 sq. units
Sample problem no. 25

## Determine the area bounded by the curve r2 = 2a2

cos θ.
A. 0.5a2 sq. units C. 2a2 sq. units
B. a2 sq. units D. 4a2 sq. units