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Health is everyone’s concern. It is also an important component of human resources

development. Health goes hand in hand with social-economic development. The Health
for All strategy calls for concerted action in all sectors and demands coordinated efforts
to enlist active people’s participation in the process of health management. Health
education is a fundamental necessity in a welfare state. People need health education


According to WHO, the term ‘health’ comprises the state of complete physical,
mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health
is earned by the people through conscious, planned and sustainable efforts all through
the life. Ruslink Doris emphasizes the role of family in health management as the family
which regards good health as a precious possession takes precautions to protect it and
to avoid those conditions which may jeopardize it. Such a family safeguards the health
of each member in many ways by providing a healthful, happy home, environment, a
well balanced diet, a good balance of work, rest and recreation, by having periodic
health and dental checkups and by taking immunization measures. The state has an
obligation to ensure enjoyment of the highest attainable standards of health as one of
the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, and
political belief, economic or social distinction.


Health education is a term commonly used and referred to by health professionals.

Health education is indispensable in achieving individual and collective health. There is
no single acceptable definition of health education which is normally perceived as an
instrument of changing attitudes and behavioural patterns of people toward attaining
better health status through adoption of health innovations and practices which are
tested and tried. Health education is the translation of what is known about health into
desirable individual and community behaviour patterns by means of an educational


The acronym IEC stands for Information Education and Communication. It is an

important tool for dissemination of health information. The objective of IEC

is to inform, motivate and subsequently guide people into action to adopt healthy
practices and life styles.
Information, education and communication initiatives are grounded in the concepts of
prevention and primary health care. Largely concerned with individual behaviour change
or reinforcement, and/or changes in social or community norms, public health education
and communication seek to empower people their health actions, and to garner social
and political support for those actions.

Information, Education and Communication plays a pivotal role in creating awareness,

mobilizing people and making development participatory through advocacy and by
transferring knowledge , skills and techniques to the people. It is also critical for bringing
about transparency in implementation of the Programmes at the field level and for
promoting the concept of accountability and social audit.


Health promotion - Health promotion represents a comprehensive social and political

process; it not only embraces actions directed at strengthening the skills and
capabilities of individuals, but also action directed towards changing social,
environmental and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on public and
individual health. Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control
over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health. Participation is
essential to sustain health promotion action.

Health information - the content of what is communicated through various channels to

be used for informing various populations about health issues, products and behaviours.
All information related to health.

Health education - a multidisciplinary practice concerned with designing, implementing

and evaluating educational programmes that enable individuals, families, groups,
organizations, and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting and
sustaining health. The process is comprised of a continuum of learning which enables
people to voluntarily make decisions, modify behaviours, and change social conditions
in ways that enhance health.

Health communication - the crafting and delivery of messages and strategies, based
on consumer research, to promote the health of individuals and communities. A public
health communication strategy has three components: planning, intervention,
monitoring and evaluation. Like health education, it attempts to change or reinforce a
set of behaviours in a large-scale target audience regarding a specific problem in
a predefined period of time.

Information, education and communication (IEC) - a package of planned

interventions which combine informational, educational and motivational processes as a
component of a national programme. IEC aims at achieving measurable behaviour and
attitude changes or reinforcement within specific audiences based on a study of their
needs and perceptions. IEC requires multidisciplinary skills and borrows techniques and
methods from various disciplines.

IEC can be defined as an approach which attempts to change or reinforce a set of

behaviours in a “target audience” regarding a specific problem in a predefined
period of time.It is multidisciplinary and client-centred in its approach, drawing from the
fields of diffusion theory, social marketing, behaviour analysis, anthropology, and
instructive design. IEC strategies involve planning, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation. When carefully carried out, health communication strategies help to foster
positive health practices individually and institutionally, and can contribute to
sustainable change toward healthy behaviour.

Information, Education and Communication (IEC) in health programmes

aims to increase awareness, change attitudes and bring about a change in
specific behaviours.IEC means sharing information and ideas in a way that is
culturally sensitive and acceptable to the community, using appropriate channels,
messages and methods. It is therefore broader than developing health education
materials, because it includes the process of communication and building social
networks for communicating information.


Health education is a global subject , because without change in behaviour the highest
standard of health cannot be achieved. IEC existed since the establishment of national
health programmes.Traditionally education was given only with the help of audio aids
and that also in a vague manner. Passing on information by "word-of-mouth", has been
shown to be one of the communication channels for imparting knowledge. And also the
educational facilities was available for those who approaces the health agencies.

Though for the past few years, particularly since 1994-95, the Ministry has been
undertaking IEC activities, their impact in terms of creating awareness and participation
of people in the development process was not found to be substantial. Therefore, an
Advisory Committee on Media comprising eminent journalists and media persons under
the chairmanship of Shri P. Murari, former Secretary (I&B) was constituted by the
Ministry in August,1998, to review and assess the impact of various media and other
activities and to advise the Ministry on appropriate IEC strategy. The Committee in its
report submitted in October,1999, observed that the IEC efforts of the Ministry need to
be stepped up with more intensity and that it is necessary to go beyond undertaking
merely media activities. In pursuance to the strategy adopted by the Ministry and in light
of the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Media, the IEC activities have
been substantially enhanced during 2001-2002 particularly through print, radio and TV.

The IEC efforts aim at creating awareness and disseminating information on the
Programmes of the Ministry primarily to the target groups in rural areas, to the opinion
makers and also to the public at large. The IEC Division of the Ministry has been
entrusted with the responsibility of formulating appropriate IEC strategy in tune with the
communication needs of the various Programmes. The IEC activities are to be
undertaken through the available modes of communication in order to inform the people
with messages and details on Rural Development Programmes.

For meeting expenditure on IEC activities, the IEC Division utilizes budgetary
allocations provided under the Communication Cell in the Department of Rural
Development. In addition, the allocations provided for IEC activities under different
Programmes in all the three Departments viz Department of Rural Development,
Department of Drinking Water and Department of Land Resources are pooled together
and utilized by the IEC Division for undertaking IEC activities in respect of all the
Programmes in a holistic manner.

Behavior Change Communication (BCC) , Recently, the concept of BCC is gradually

replacing lEC in several promotional activities , specially in the context of HIV-RTI and
RCH. In broad sense, BCC is a better focused and targeted form of IEC.

BCC is a part of an integrated,multilevel, interactive process with communities, aimed at

developing tailored messages and approaches using a variety of communication
channels. It aims to foster positive -behaviour; promote and sustain individual,
community, .and societal behaviour change; and maintain appropriate behaviour.

At the individual level, IEC activities can provide people with the opportunity to
develop their personal knowledge, skills and confidence and to reconsider their
attitudes, beliefs and behaviour. It can increase awareness, provide information,
persuade and motivate people to change behaviour, and provide reinforcement to
confirm and sustain behaviour change. In the case of HIV and AIDS for example, IEC
can provide opportunities for people to:

• Learn about HIV and STD transmission, reproduction, contraception and


• Accept that they themselves are vulnerable to HIV/STDs or may be a risk

to others

• Learn the relevant skills, to help them in effective communication,

assertiveness and condom use

• Have confidence and belief in their ability to reduce their risk

• Understand how they are influenced by other people and their

environment and feel able toact differently.

At the wider community level, IEC can encourage local organisations, decision-
makers, the media and other influencers to change social attitudes and norms and the
wider environment which influences people’s behaviour. In the case of HIV/AIDS, for
example, IEC can:

o Encourage shifts in social and cultural influences or pressures, for

example that give women little say about when and how they have sex.
o Overcome barriers such as restrictive policies or legislation, poor
health services,stigmatisation or discrimination, for example laws that
criminalise prostitution which make it difficult for sex workers to access
information, or that prevent unmarried people from obtaining condoms, or
reluctance to use STD services because of associated stigmatisation
o Ensure that policy makers receive up to date information for appropriate
policy making.
o Sensitise school administrators, traditional healers, leaders, convince
religious and community leaders.
o Sensitise broadcasters, journalists and others who work in the media.
o Reorient health professionals, health educators and relevant personnel in
other sectors.


Information, education and communication (IEC) combines strategies, approaches and

methods that enable individuals, families, groups, organisations and communities to
play active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health.

 Embodied in IEC is the process of learning that empowers people to make

decisions, modify behaviours and change social conditions.
 Identifying and promoting specific behaviours that are desirable are usually the
objectives of IEC efforts. Behaviours are usually affected by many factors
including the most urgent needs of the target population and the risks people
perceive in continuing their current behaviours or in changing to different
 Health information can be communicated through many channels to increase
awareness and assess the knowledge of different populations about various
issues, products and behaviours.
 It ensures the maximum utilization of health services.
 To upgrade the standard of living of people , especially in rural area as part of the
rural development.
 IEC activities overtly leads to health for all.


IEC succeeds when it is planned with a comprehensive strategy. IEC strategies

involve planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.This meanshaving clearly
articulated objectives, keeping the client at the centre of what is being designed,
conducting appropriate research, undertaking audience segmentation, carefully crafting
and testing messages, knowing and using appropriate channel choices, and planning
for monitoring and feedback.

Before any IEC activity is planned, it is important to identify the felt-needs of the people.
Prior knowledge of customs, habits and beliefs of the people is important before
preparing the strategy.

The information gathered through the needs assessment provides the framework for the
development of suitable IEC activities. Any activities and materials must always be
culturally sensitive and appropriate. These are the major steps you should follow when
designing an IEC activity:

 Conduct a needs assessment.

 Establish behavioural objectives that will contribute to achieving the goal.
 Develop IEC messages
 Select appropriate channels and tools.
 Mobilize resources.
 Draw up an action plan.
 Implementing a strategy.
 Monitoring and evaluation.
 Review and replanning.


The most important principles that need to be stressed to guide IEC activities, at both
the national and regional levels .

1. Theoretical frameworks are not enough; they need to be translated into a concrete
and doable action plan

2. Don’t just plan: implement

3. Priorities those activities and communications products which address unfinished

agendaand major challenges of the next phase

4. Don’t only produce materials: disseminate and publicise them too

5. Target messages that bring about concrete attitudinal and behavior change

6. Think beyond the print media to broadcast and new media such as the internet and
mobile phones

7. Go beyond the English language media to vernacular media as well

8. Reach out more to youth as a target group

9.Aggressively pursue partnerships with industry to reach out to end consumer

10. Encourage voluntary action by civil society groups

11. Find innovative ways to mobilise resources for awareness

12. Use existing resources innovatively


To plan effective interventions, you must find out what refugees think and know about
various issues, including their ideas about: what causes sickness and disease and what
maintains health, health care, traditional medicine, and reproductive health. It is
important to build a relationship of trust and mutual respect in order to get accurate and
complete information about sensitive issues such as sexual and reproductive matters.

It is usually necessary to use multiple methods in undertaking a thorough needs

assessment. Focus groups, individual interviews or Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour and
Practice (KABP) surveys can be valuable ways to gather information and help develop
systems, activities, materials or messages. Only after there is an accurate picture of the
refugee community's knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, expectations and aspirations
can you determine what programme and messages might be best suited to its needs.

IEC activities and materials should be based on relevant research conducted through
the use of quantitative (how many) and qualitative (what, why and how) methods.
Research and discussions should be seen as an integral and ongoing part of planning
and implementation.


 Use available incidence or prevalence rates of targeted problems.

 Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour and Practice (KABP) Surveys use a series of
closed-and open-ended questions to determine what people in a community
know, think, believe or do in relation to their health. Findings are presented in the
form of percentages of people who think or do a certain thing. These surveys
require many respondents that are randomly selected from the community.
Interviewers are needed to implement the survey and they must be trained. This
is generally considered an expensive and time-consuming method. Also, this
kind of survey does not usually gather information about what inhibits or
promotes certain behaviours, since those factors may arise from the context in
which people live and not from their knowledge and attitudes.

b) Qualitative:
Individual interviews allow the researcher to get deeper insights into a person's
thoughts and feelings. Using an interview guide, interviewer and respondent talk at
length about the respondent's feelings about a specific service or issue. If trust is
established and confidentiality ensured, the interviewer can often get very valuable
information about the interviewee and the community, information that might not
otherwise be revealed.

Focus Groups are in-depth discussions, usually of one to two hours in length, with a
small group of people. Members of the Focus Group should have something in common
with each other (age, sex, and experience) in the expectation that this will make it easier
for them to talk together. They are representatives of the target group in that they are
deliberately chosen. The intention is to make sure different groups within the community
are represented within the Focus Group, or that several Focus Groups are held with
members drawn from various sectors within the community.

Discussions are lead by a facilitator who follows a prepared guide that allows for
probing into the thoughts and feelings of group members. This method is often
considered cost-effective, as many people are gathered together at one time to express
their opinions. Findings are presented in the form of comments or extracts from
interviews, which illustrate what people are thinking about certain topics, or why they
engage in a particular activity.

c) Other Individuals and Community Groups:

Beyond communication with service users, it is necessary to open a dialogue with

influential individuals and groups within the community. Such individuals and groups will
need to be identified as early as possible. The nature and intention of services should
be explained to them and their concerns and priorities discovered and understood. This
will not only help make the services more appropriate to the clientele being served, but
it will help garner family and community support for the client in the reproductive health
behaviour being promoted. The following are some pointers for identifying such
individuals and groups:

 Familiarise yourself with the community with the help of someone who lives in the
environment of the refugees and who provides them with some service, advice or
 Identify individuals who are most important in the social structure of the
community with which you are working. They can be existing formal leaders
(elected or appointed), but, more often than not, they are informal leaders. This
can be done by asking many people in the community. As certain individuals are
named repeatedly, it will become clear that they are the true leaders.
 Identify individuals who have some influence within the community, people
whose opinions are respected. They will make suggestions about how to
approach people and work with them effectively. They can also serve as role
models for desired behaviours and actions.
 Provide these individuals with very clear information about what your intentions
are, what you plan to do, and how they can contribute as partners. Be specific
about what they will gain from working with you and allowing you access to the
 Provide them with input about your plans before you proceed, and secure their
willingness to participate and to support your efforts.


An objective is what you want to see changed or achieved at the end of an activity or
programme. IEC objectives should be based on the problems you have identified and
meet the needs of the target audience. The objectives should be:

An objective must be SMART:

S pecific (what and who)

M easurable (something you can see, hear or touch –

usually expressed with an action verb)

A rea specific (where)

R ealistic (achievable)

T ime-bound (when)

Assessing whether or not objectives have been achieved will form the basis for
evaluation. Clear objectives also help to make decisions about implementation such as
what type and number of activities, staff required, what activities should come first.
Once you have clear objectives you can decide what activities are needed to achieve

An objective for IEC should specify:

• The intended change in a measurable form, for example increase in

knowledge, increase in condom distribution, uptake in family planning

• The amount of change relative to the current situation, for example

percentage of people using condoms, number of schools with sex
education programmes
• The target group for the intended change, for example schoolchildren, or
sex workers, or women aged 15-49 years

• The time period over which the intended change should take place, for
example over the next two years


A message is a specific piece of information that you want to put across to an individual
or community, with the intention of changing behaviour. Messages are central to the
communication process. Messages and the way they are presented are crucial to
moving individuals from the unaware stage to the adoption and maintenance of
behaviour stages. Messages are developed to meet the specific information needs of an
audience, based on their concerns and level of knowledge, or to create demand.
Development of messages should be guided by the analysis of the audience, the
problem and the resources available.

Messages should be:

• Accurate

• Focus on a few key points

• Specific

• Clear

• Use uncomplicated language

• Simple to understand

• Relevant

• Culturally appropriate and acceptable

• Emphasise options, practical actions and solutions that are possible

Messages should include information that will improve the knowledge and skills of the
target group, and about preventive measures and where to obtain more information
from. Developing messages involves deciding what approach to take and deciding on
message content.

a. Decide about approach:

Messages can take one of several approaches, depending on what IEC is trying to
achieve. It is important to remember that people respond to messages differently and
that what might persuade one person may not appeal to another.


The message creates awareness about a new idea and makes it familiar to people.
Mass media is mostly used for wide coverage and reaching a large audience. Print
materials and interpersonal communication are used to reinforce mass media
messages and inform people in more detail.


The new idea is explained including its strengths and weaknesses. This approach is
used when people are already aware but need more information or clarification.
Interpersonal communication with individuals or small groups is probably the most
appropriate way to provide more detailed information, and can be reinforced by print
material such as books, pamphlets and other multi-media approaches such as films,
slide shows and videos.


The message promotes a positive change in behaviour and attitudes which encourages
the audience to accept the new idea. This approach to message development involves
finding out what most appeals to a particular audience. Persuasive approaches are
more effective than coercive approaches in achieving behaviour change. Interpersonal
communication is the most effective way to get across persuasive messages. Other
persuasive methods include radio spots, advertisements and posters.


Messages are designed so that they are not easily ignored or forgotten, or to remind the
audience about something and reinforce earlier messages.


The attention of the audience is drawn to the new idea by using messages which
entertain, for example, posters, songs, humour, puppets or film.

b. Decide about content

Once the general approach has been selected, the next step is to consider exactly what
the message will say and how it will say it. What type of appeal will be used? It can be:
Emotional or rational Most messages either appeal to people's emotions or provide
rational reasons why they should or should not do something. Emotional appeals
stimulate basic human emotions, such as love, fear, hate, anxiety, security. Rational
appeals make the case for doing something using logical arguments and supporting

Emotional appeals are better at attracting attention to the message and provide an
incentive to read or listen to it. Any appeal which involves the audience emotionally is
likely to be better remembered than a non-emotional one. However, messages which
create a lot of fear do not bring about permanent behaviour change. Those who may be
at risk will reject the message and those who are not at risk become unnecessarily
anxious and worried, so messages based on fear should be avoided. Moral messages
and those which blame others are also not particularly effective, as they may deter
people you want to reach or allow people to think that the problem does not concern
them. Rational appeals are usually more convincing.

A combination of emotional and rational appeal, which gets people's attention,

convinces and promotes action is usually most effective.

Positive or negative :

Negative or threatening messages are a form of emotional appeal. These can include
messages which suggest that unfavourable consequences will occur if the receiver of
the message does not follow the course of action recommended.

It is important to be careful if negative appeals are used. People may view the message
as unlikely or improbable "that won't happen to me or my family" or as not of immediate
concern "it might happen sometime but there is no need to worry about it now" or as not
very significant "if it happens it won't make much difference". People tend to ignore
potential threats or negative appeals for as long as possible and it takes a lot of
convincing evidence before people take threats seriously. Most people regard
themselves as being personally exempt from danger. In general, more positive appeals
are more effective, especially those which provide people with options, because they
make people feel that they are in control and able to make choices.

Mass or individual appeals :

A commonly used form of appeal is the mass appeal "Everyone is doing it so why don't
you too". Social pressure can result in an individual adopting a behaviour even if they
are not convinced about the reasons why they should.

The individual appeal should be used for issues where social pressure and approval are
not so important. Even though these messages are designed to appeal to individuals
they do not necessarily have to go through individual channels.

Humorous or serious appeals :

Humour can increase the effectiveness of communication if it helps to gain attention and
the use of humour is consistent with the basic message. When used creatively,
humour can help to communicate messages about issues, products or services that
are not easy to discuss, such as personal or domestic hygiene or sexual behaviour.
However, humour needs to be used carefully, to make sure it is acceptable to groups or
communities and does not offend people.

One-sided or two-sided arguments :

The effectiveness of one-sided or two-sided arguments depends on the target audience.

One-sided arguments tend to be more effective with target groups which are already
favourably disposed towards the point of view being communicated. Two-sided
arguments are more effective with those who may be opposed. People who have more
education are more influenced by messages which put two sides of an argument, while
those who are less well educated are influenced more by one-sided arguments.

An example of a one-sided argument appeal is: "Two is better than too many" the
slogan of a family planning campaign carried out through radio, television,posters,

An example of a two-sided argument appeal is: A poster listing the advantages and
disadvantages of different methods of family planning, leaving it up to the client to
make the decision about what is best for them.

Direct or indirect :

Direct appeals state a message very clearly and specify how people can respond to the
message. For example: “We plan our families, we know that family planning is safe. Let
the family planning centre help you”. Whereas an example of an indirect appeal around
the same idea would be: “Every child a wanted child”.

Repeated or "one time" appeals :

Research shows that repetition increases the amount of information that an audience
remembers.Hearing messages several times helps people to remember
information or ideas. Giving people information once does not necessarily mean that
they will remember, understand or act on it. Priority messages need to be repeated
more often.

However, after being repeated three or four times, not much additional information is
remembered. This is because people tend to become bored with hearing the same
message repeated in the same way too many times and after a while they ignore the
message. The effects of repetition also depend on the message itself. Repetition can
have a negative effect if the message is unclear or offensive. Humour also tends to
loses its appeal more quickly than other types of appeals when it is repeated.
If the message is believable, strong and relevant, repetition can increase
effectiveness, provided that the way the message is expressed and presented is varied
to prevent audience boredom, and the interval between a repetition is increased each
time the message is given. For example: once a day for three days, then once a week
for three weeks, then once a month.

Definite conclusion or open conclusion :

should the message have a definite conclusion or leave the audience to make up their
own mind? Drawing a conclusion may offend those who object to having the obvious
pointed out to them, and may be particularly counterproductive with better educated
audiences who can work it out for themselves. Health planners and managers need to
decide whether there are audiences where it is appropriate to draw conclusions.

c. Steps in message development :

1. Assess the information needs of the target audience

Messages must provide the audience with the information that they need if they are to
succeed in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Community diagnosis and
analysis should have provided an understanding of people’s information needs.

2. Develop message concepts

This step involves using information from community diagnosis and analysis and
assessment of information needs to identify priorities and develop broad ideas for
messages. Where possible, these ideas should be based on culturally acceptable
alternatives to traditional or harmful behaviours and practices.

3. Pre-test the concepts

The next step is to pre-test the broad concepts with groups or individuals representing
the intended target audience. This helps to identify which concept or concepts have the
most potential for further development. Pay special attention in pre-testing to pictures
and other non-verbal materials because these can be easily misunderstood.

4. Design specific messages

The first three steps helped to decide what information is required, the general concepts
we want to get across, and which of these has the greatest potential. The next step is to
design more specific messages. At this stage it may be useful to refer back to questions
about type of approach and appeal, and to remember that people can only remember a
few messages at a time.

Examples of specific messages developed from the broad concepts for the Chipembere
example might be:

Broad concept: Small family norm

Specific messages: Two is better than too many

Two is enough

Boy or girl, two is enough .

Think about designing specific messages in terms of language and timing. For
effective communication and learning, IEC needs to use language and terms that are
familiar to people. Care is required with choosing words, written or spoken. Even if
pictures are used for less literate audiences, words are often used to explain the

Messages should be designed to be delivered when people are most likely to listen to
them and be receptive. For example, a mother is more likely to be interested in
messages about preventing diarrhoea when her child is ill with diarrhoea, so messages
could be designed for use in clinics.

5. Pre-test complete messages and materials with the target audience

The purpose of pre-testing is to see whether the audience understands the message as
intended. In other words, does the message work? Pre-testing is one of the most
important steps in developing messages and materials. Although it takes time and adds
to the cost, it prevents resources being wasted on producing final messages and
materials that are ineffective or unacceptable. You can check understanding by asking
the audience to tell you what they have heard and understood and what they will do.

6. Pre-test existing IEC material

In assessing resources available you will have already identified if there are existing
materials that could be used for IEC activities. If you intend to use or adapt existing
material, it is important to pre-test it to check that the content is still relevant and
effective, especially if the material was produced some time ago.


Community diagnosis and analysis should have provided information about how
information is received, shared and processed. Use this information to select the most
appropriate media to reach the intended target audience.

Health education is possible:

i. On a mass scale, eg by use of mass media such as television, radio,

newspapers, popular press, etc.;
ii. In small groups, i.e., by group discussion, health talks, demonstrations,
role play.
iii. on individual basis, i.e., by counselling

The selection of media for communication should be based on the characteristics of the
target group, the level of media technology and the effectiveness of the media in
reaching the target group and facilitating behaviour change. It is particularly important
that the channels or media selected are:

• Considered to be a credible source of information

• Culturally acceptable

• Appropriate to the literacy level of the audience

• Accessible to as many of the intended target audience as possible

Possible media and channels could include interpersonal communication, group

discussions, radio, cassettes, films, slides, video, television, print materials such as
posters and pamphlets, calendars, newspaper articles, quizzes, and radio spots. It may
also be possible to utilise schools, peer educators, or non-government organisations as
channels for communication in addition to health service providers.


Resources available will have been identified at the assessment stage. These
resources -

organisational support, community involvement, and materials - need to

be mobilised and their role in IEC activities defined.

Community mobilisation :

Community mobilisation is the process of motivating and bringing together people to

identify problems and solutions, using their own resources or those brought in from
outside. It is crucial to the success of community IEC. The essential elements of
mobilisation are:

• Leadership -identifying organisations, individuals that have the greatest potential as

health communicators who are leaders in the community, for example government
ministries, political structures, traditional leaders, churches, trades unions, professional
associations, farmers associations, women and youth groups, business clubs,
prominent individuals

•Identification of social needs and goals -mobilisation must be for a purpose, it is more

effective when there is a concrete community issue to address

•Resources - assessment of resources and infrastructure available for use

•Opportunities - in particular choosing the right time for mobilisation and the right

•Management - arranging organisational conditions and methods of operation to enable

the mobilised community to achieve their objectives, including establishing
effective administrative structures that are acceptable to the community

•Techniques - include research, planning, training, public relations, co-

ordination,campaigns, social marketing, use of the mass media and interpersonal
communication, are tools for achieving successful mobilisation.


Drawing up an action plan should include:

* Listing all the IEC activities planned and thinking about:

• what will be done

• where activities will be done

• when they will be done

• how they will be done

• who will do them

* Listing all the resources (people, materials, organisations) available and those you
need to obtain

* Developing training plans.

* Preparing a schedule and time frame for carrying out planned activities

* Assigning tasks to appropriate personnel to make sure that they will be available when

* Preparing a budget, which include line items for all activities, personnel, materials
development, pre-testing and production and distribution, training, equipment, transport,
monitoring, supervision and evaluation.


§ Support of community leaders, public opinion leaders and decision-makers can

lead to stronger results. The use of such identifiable and credible sources of
information can enhance the success of an IEC initiative.

§ Actively involving the target audience in the design, implementation and

monitoring of a project is critical. Listen to local language, custom, and experience.

Negotiate the relevance of an intervention with the audience. Make sure the intervention
addresses reality “on the ground”.

§ Establish linkages and relationships with, and actively involve, traditional healers,
local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local support groups, and recognize
the important role each plays. Share information with them.

§ The interaction between health care providers (at all levels) and clients is
important for successful IEC interventions. This is where one stage of decisionmaking
takes place. Provider behaviour is critical and the need for behaviour and attitude
change among health workers has been established. (Physician resistance to change,
as well as punitive actions by all other levels of health worker, is well documented.)
Training in interpersonal communication and counselling skills is absolutely critical to
successful programming.

§ Multimedia campaigns are most effective when mass media and popular

traditional channels are used in combination with person-to-person interactions. There

is less power in stand-alone multimedia campaigns than in campaigns that link the
power of media and the power of individual persuasion with service delivery.

§ A media campaign should use diverse broadcast and distribution channels,

combining television, radio, print and traditional media, in order to maximize

penetration and impact.

§ Decisions about media channels and frequency and intensity of broadcast or
distribution should be closely tied to initial and ongoing research with the target

§ Take advantage of local holidays and festivals to disseminate messages or for

inaugural events.

§ IEC interventions cost money to implement and to sustain over time. There is an
imbalance between expectations about what IEC can do and
the resources allocated to carry out those interventions. It is important to realize that
change within five per cent of a designated population represents good
progress.Remember, even Coca-Cola never stops promoting its product.

§ Logos and symbols offer a way to create unity between a wide range of

communication messages, allowing the target audience to build up interpretations and

meaning over time. However, certain symbols are recognized at only certain levels of
the population. Assure that you have adequately tested a symbol or logo and are aware
of the audience’s understanding or interpretation of the same prior to launching.

§ The use of logos and symbols in advocacy campaigns has also been successful.
The red ribbon has come to symbolize the international struggle around HIV/AIDS, but
this meaning has only developed through continued association with other HIV/AIDS
messages. The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood raises awareness about the
need to make pregnancy and childbirth safer for all women and infants.

§ A campaign should reach relevant segments of the target population with

meaningful messages; materials should have broad appeal and, at the same time,
some materials should be tailored to meet specific subsets (e.g., by gender, age, race,
economic status). It is important to direct messages at specific behaviours and when
defining behaviours to think about action/target/context/time (e.g., “Always use condoms
correctly when having vaginal sex with your main partner.”) A media campaign should
be ongoing and responsive to shifts in the market and the audience in order to
prolong and sustain its impact.

§ Media campaigns need to reflect an entire programme’s behavioural

objectives through appropriate message cycles to targeted audiences. Such

messages should support existing desired behaviours, promote new behaviours as

necessary, and alter unhealthy behaviours. Conditions must be in place to support
whatever behaviours are being promoted. For example, birth spacing messages might
reinforce dialogue between partners, encourage clinic visits for contraception, and
address community social norms that advocate large families. It is then incumbent upon
reproductive health facilities to have trained practitioners and counsellors on hand to
facilitate these behaviours.

§ Sometimes it is important to anticipate trouble and to develop a crisis

communication plan if the intervention is considered controversial. It may be

important to determine in advance who will act as spokesperson for the programme and
s/he should be prepared. Centralizing information for dissemination to the public may
help to avoid problems. It is important to communicate with all key audiences and to
maintain good relationships with them. Know who the possible opponents are and, in so
far as possible, build trusting relationships. Remember that people respond best to
facts. Listen first, then act. Be prepared to make short-term sacrifices for long-term

§ Facile pretesting can yield poor information. Many erroneous conclusions have
been attributed to superficial testing for such things as comprehension. Observations of
materials in use and trial periods can help to detect problems. Go beyond simple focus
group discussions. Use different approaches to collect information, and remember that
moving from data to messages is difficult.

§ Simple, inexpensive print materials can be useful and more cost-effective than
more expensive and elaborate products, i.e. counselling cards are helpful for use by
health workers. Also, graphic materials for home use can be important, especially in
empowering women to negotiate their reproductive health needs. Materials
like fotonovelas (similar to comic books but using photographs) have been used to
assist women in Latin America, for example, to negotiate with their sexual partners.

§ It is important to move beyond the “I need a poster” syndrome in developing print

materials. Choosing the right print product can be difficult and requires rigorous
exploration and selection. Be sure to tailor materials to the appropriate literacy level,
even when developing materials which only require visual literacy.

§ IEC materials are more widely distributed when their distribution system is
combined with relevant health commodities (e.g., distribution of contraceptive
commodities simultaneously with posters for family planning).

§ Distribution of print materials may occur more effectively if contracted out to the
private sector. The failure to plan for, implement and maintain distribution systems is
often a major failing of IEC efforts. Stories of materials, video cassette players, and
other materials and equipment “sitting around gathering dust in warehouses” abound.

Barriers to effective implementation include:

• Competition between departments

• Unclear definition of roles and responsibilities

• Understaffing

• Discrimination

• Inadequate training

• Lack of consultation with colleagues and taking unilateral decisions.

Standing Committee on Media

To facilitate formulation and implementation of appropriate IEC strategy, there is

a Standing Committee on Media in the Ministry. The Committee is headed by Secretary
(RD) .

The IEC strategy and various activities undertaken through different modes of
communication such as print, electronic and outdoor publicity are considered and
approved by the Standing Committee on Media. An Action Plan indicating the broad IEC
strategy and specific activities to be undertaken is prepared and implemented with the
approval of the Standing Committee. It periodically monitors various IEC activities and
gives policy directions for mid course correction.

Print Media

The power of the press arises from its ability of appealing to the minds of the people
and being capable of moving their hearts. Despite the fast growth of the electronic
media, the printed word continues to play a crucial role in disseminating information and
mobilizing people. However, it has been noticed that the Press have not evinced the
requisite interest in developmental communication. In order to correct the imbalance
noticed in the media coverage of Rural Development Programmes and to ensure that
these Programmes are portrayed in proper perspective, several steps were taken during
the year to sensitize the media about issues relating to rural development.

The interaction of the Ministry with the Press is mainly through the Press Information
Bureau. During the year under review, press conferences, press tours and workshops
were organized through PIB, with the financial assistance from the Ministry, so as to
sensitize press persons about Rural Development Programmes. An Editor’s Conference
on Social Sector Issues was also organized (through PIB) during the year. For the
purpose of creating awareness in respect of rural development programmes among the
general public and opinion makers and for disseminating information about new
initiatives, the Ministry issued advertisements at regular intervals in National and
Regional Press through the Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity. To enable
people in rural areas to access information on Rural Development Programmes,
a booklet ‘Gram Vikas – Programmes at a Glance’ was brought out in simple language
in Hindi, English and Regional languages. In order to ensure easy accessibility of the
booklet 10 million copies were printed and distributed in rural areas. The leaflets on the
Programmes of the Ministry in Hindi, English and Regional languages were also printed
and distributed upto Panchayat level across the country.

The Ministry prepared a Wall Calendar for the year 2002 with each sheet depicting its
major schemes, for distribution upto the Panchayat level all over the country. Desk
Calendars were also brought out during the year and efforts were made to improve the
quality of communication through ‘Kurukshetra’ a monthly journal devoted to rural
development issues, which is brought out on behalf of the Ministry by the Publications
Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. In addition to serving as a forum of
free, frank and serious discussion on problems related with rural development (with
focus on rural uplift), the journal projects the programmes and policies of the Ministry.

Electronic Media

An intensive IEC campaign over the Electronic Media (Radio and TV) was undertaken
through Prasar Bharati for optimum dissemination of information on rural development
programmes. In order to meet the area and region specific communication needs of
Rural Development Programmes, half an hour audio and video programmes were
produced and broadcast/telecast over local and primary stations of All India Radio and
Regional Kendras of Doordarshan. The audio programmes were produced in 29
languages including dialects and broadcast three to five times a week over 156 local
and primary radio stations of All India Radio. TheT.V. programmes were produced in 15
languages and 10 dialects and telecast three to five times a week over the Regional
Kendras of Doordarshan. In addition to half an hour Programmes on All India Radio and
Doordarshan, short duration spots on different themes relating to Rural Development
Programmes were produced in different languages and broadcast over AIR and
Doordarshan. The audio spots were broadcast upto 210 seconds per day over local and
primary radio stations and 90 seconds per day over Vividh Bharati.

The Song & Drama Division, a media unit of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,
disseminates information on development issues, among target groups through the
medium of performing arts, traditional arts, puppet shows, folk media, mythological
recitals and the like. As the medium of transmission is rooted in thelocal ethos and
traditions, the developmental messages are more easily grasped by the target groups.
During the year, from the financial assistance provided by the Ministry, the Song &
Drama Division presented Programmes through their field units on the themes of the
Programmes of the Ministry. During the year Ministry participated in the Republic Day
Parade 2002 with a tableau on the theme of the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana.
The Ministry also took part in the India International Trade Fair and set up a pavilion
‘Saras’ where products made by rural artisans from all over the country were displayed
to provide them with marketing support and exposure to national and international

viii). Monitoring and Evaluating a Strategy

Monitoring is about checking the progress of planned activities to ensure that they are
being carried out according to plan. The purpose of monitoring is to identify weaknesses
and problems in order to take timely corrective measures. It is a process that checks
whether programmes and activities are effective, efficient.

Monitoring has been neglected as a tool for understanding operational dynamics and for
detecting what works or doesn’t. Inexpensive methods for monitoring can be used
and should be explored e.g., observation

§ Documentation of programme inputs and implementation experiences is important

for understanding successes and failures. Methods for doing this should be
institutionalized as part of management information systems.

§ Evaluation of IEC efforts is a complex task and should be considered from the very
beginning, when projects are being planned and not just after they are underway or
completed. Involving specialists in research design and evaluation early on can ensure
that process and impact evaluations are valid and reliable.

Evaluation is about assessing whether or not objectives have been achieved. In other
words, evaluation involves showing that change has taken place, that the change was
the result of the IEC activities, and that the amount of effort required to produce the
change was worthwhile.

There are two types of evaluation:

• Process evaluation

• Impact evaluation

Process evaluation is similar to monitoring in that it is the continual analysis during

implementation of inputs, effects and impact - timeliness, accuracy, efficiency and
problems. It should provide information to help managers to adjust objectives, policies,
implementation strategies and activities as needed.

The purpose of impact evaluation is to find out if the activities made any difference and
what changes have occurred:

§ There is a need for extreme specificity in questions asked in an evaluation,

especially in countries where multiple interventions have been carried out. Carefully
constructed questions are very important. In designing questions, messages must be
carefully analysed so that primary messages (e.g., “breast is best”) are distinguished
from secondary messages (e.g., promotion of weaning practices).

§ The research and evaluation team should be given an opportunity to fully

understand the project. The stronger the understanding between programme staff and
researchers, the better the product.

§ Evaluation should be considered a learning tool by programme staff and should

be embraced as a resource for programme redesign.

§ An evaluation framework should be responsive to programme needs, and should

feed information and data back to programme staff to allow for corrections and
adjustments to programme components during implementation. Evaluation should not
impede implementation. As one evaluation expert put it, “We will rarely have evidence
that is incontrovertible; nonetheless, we still need to act sensibly on the best evidence
we have.”

§ Recognizing that research and evaluation designs may have limitations and
factoring in those limitations when assessing the effectiveness of programme strategies
can contribute to more successful outcomes.


Plans should also take into account the need for continuity. Communication should be
an ongoing process not just a one-off campaign. One-off campaigns can be effective for
raising initial awareness but need to be reinforced by ongoing IEC to ensure that
behaviour change is sustained and that people are regularly reminded of key
messages. To achieve changes in attitudes and behaviour takes time and repeated
effort. It is therefore important to build continuity into IEC activities so that they do not
end before they have had a chance to succeed.


§ Provided with relevant training, non-IEC professionals can coordinate the

development of good quality IEC materials and approaches. In order for training to be
relevant, it must take into account the role and job description of the persons being
trained. People should not be trained just for the sake of training. All training designs
should be seriously deliberated and individualized in order to meet the needs of the
programme and of those being trained.

§ People need training in materials use and distribution as well as materials


§ Phased training, focusing first on skill building and then on skill transfer, is a
successful model. It allows trainees to practice their new techniques (e.g., counselling)
before actually becoming trainers of others in the same skill area. This enhances overall
programme sustainability. A competency-based approach to training is most effective
at building skills.
§ Training should be curriculum-based and apply the principles of adult


§ Like other programme components, training should be evaluated, and those who
are being trained should be involved in developing the curriculum.

§ Even when trained, people have difficulty discussing personal matters (such as sex)
with others. IEC training needs to address this problem, and to
provide specific techniques for opening dialogue and moving it forward. It must also
address the need for health care workers to come to grips with their own behavioural
and cultural biases. (For example, can a midwife act against female genital mutilation in
a believable way if it has been done to her and she has allowed it to be done to her

§ There is a pressing need for training in IEC techniques that effectively motivate
people to express their genuine desires relating to reproductive health.
Similarly, training design needs to take into account the desires of trainees and/or
providers as well.

§ It is most effective if the number of levels of trainers is kept to a minimum. That is,
instead of having different trainers for each level (i.e., province, county,
township,village), have perhaps two levels of trainers responsible for all training
activities. The fewer the number of levels, the less opportunity for important content to
be lost during training of trainers workshops.

§ Ensure that appropriate training materials are available for community level
workers. This includes budget considerations to assure funding so that adequate
materials reach all levels, not just those at the higher levels.

§ Include leaders and managers in the programme or establish a parallel

programme for them to ensure they understand the importance of interpersonal

communication work and will support it in future.

§ A client-centred approach to training can have dramatic results in terms of service

delivery. A consumer perspective requires that health workers understand the client's
circumstances, that they seek solutions to problems in collaboration with the client, and
that they are systematic about follow-up.

§ Well-designed and tested training modules can serve as reference points for
national and local training programmes. In designing materials for widespread use or for
local adaptation, three strategies can help assure relevance and widespread use:
involving a wide range of potential user organizations in identifying needs and issues;
involving them in pretesting the materials in their respective programmes; and involving
them in the translation and publication of materials.

§ Incorporate interpersonal communication principles and skill training in regular, pre-

and in-service training programmes.

§ Include in any training curricula, sessions on how to conduct audience research and
how to use the results to adapt training materials for use at different levels.

§ Include as many posters, models, and other teaching aids as possible in training
programmes to supplement curricula and training materials.

§ Schedule follow-up or refresher training.

§ Be sure that clearly articulated job descriptions with realistic expectations are
reviewed regularly and that supervision is ongoing.


As part of the community development , all the national programmes are associated
with IEC activities. The various health aspects include human biology, nutrition
,hygiene,family planning, mental health, sexeducation, sanitation ,healthy life styles,
reproductive health etc.

For eg.

Sexual Violence:

 The importance for women to seek medical care as soon as possible

 Where to go for counselling if it is available
 How to prevent it, particularly in collaboration with others in the community

Safe Motherhood:

 The reasons why it is important for women to seek prenatal care

 The need to and how to identify obstetric complications and refer immediately
 The reasons it is important to breastfeed exclusively and the importance of
maternal nutrition

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)/ HIV/ AIDS:

 How to use condoms and how to dispose of them safely

 How HIV is and is not transmitted
 Means of prevention
 Common signs and symptoms
 Where to receive counselling
 Where to receive treatment
 Where to go for support services
 Why it is important to inform and involve all sexual partners

Family Planning:

 How and where to obtain reproductive health services, including contraceptive

 Where to get information or counselling
 How adequate birth spacing contributes to healthy families

Reproductive Health of Young People:

 How young people can protect themselves through safe sex

 Delay and patience is a positive value and that there are other ways to have fun
 Young people need to take responsibility for their own health
 High-risk behaviours may result in long term, unwanted consequences


The main responsibities and tasks of health educators include,


Counselling is a key component of an IEC programme. In the best of circumstances, a

good counsellor is compassionate and non-judgmental, is aware of verbal and non-
verbal communication skills, is knowledgeable concerning health issues, and is
respectful of the needs and rights of the users. In case, there is often a poor counsellor-
to-client ratio, emergencies are common and the local environment is not conducive to
counselling. However, at a minimum, counsellors should strive to ensure that every
service user has the right to the following:

Information:to learn about the benefits and availability of the services.

Access:to obtain services regardless of gender, creed, colour, marital status or


Choice:to understand and be able to apply all pertinent information to be able to make
an informed choice, ask questions freely, and be answered in an honest, clear and
comprehensive manner.

Safety:a safe and effective service.

Privacy:to have a private environment during counselling or services.

Confidentiality:to be assured that any personal information will remain confidential.

Dignity:to be treated with courtesy, consideration and attentiveness.

Comfort:to feel comfortable when receiving services.

Continuity:to receive services and supplies for as long as needed.

Opinion:to express views on the services offered.

The Role of the Counsellor:

The counsellor's role is to provide accurate and complete information to help the user
make her/ his own decision about which, if any, part of the services (s) he will use. The
role of the counsellor is not to offer advice or decide on the service to be used. For
example, the counsellor will explain the available family planning methods, their side
effects and for whom they are considered most suitable. The user then makes a
decision, based on the information given, about which method she/ he wishes to use.

Effective counselling requires understanding one's own values and not unduly
influencing the user's by imposing, promoting or displaying them, particularly in cases
where the provider's and the user's values are different.

The following steps are a useful guide, though not every counselling session will consist
of all six:

G Greet the client in a friendly, helpful and welcoming way, to establish

rapport and make them feel at ease

A Ask the client about his or her needs and feelings and reassure them
that their worries and concerns are normal, take a history if appropriate

T Tell the client all the information he or she may need, for example about
procedures,services, products they may need

H Help the client to make an informed decision, and ensure that they
are clear and happy with their decision and have no persistent doubts

E Explain the relevant facts related to the decision made, and summarise
the discussion

R Return visits should be planned

• Supervise work of all information, education and communication workers.
• Train and guide new and old information, education and communication workers.
• Formulate schedules and holiday planning of all information, education and
communication workers assuring that terms and conditions of mission are respected.
• Contact line manager for possible needs for training or suggestions regarding
information, education and communication officers.

• Collect and look for material that could be useful for activities of department.
• Inform communities about services provided.
• Inform community members about health related issues according to strategies.
• Prepare material for community sensitization sessions.
• Deliver information to community

• Plan and Coordinate the activities in terms of presence on the targeted areas to be
• Visit regularly communities and locations that are under responsibility according to
schedule, and performing sensitization session when necessary or required.
• Facilitate and organise community meetings, trainings and workshops always in
cooperation with logistics and medical department.
• Maintain confidentiality regarding all information observed or registered.
• Establish and maintain contacts with social partners, including other NGOs,
governmental health services that can provide answers to social problems.
• Establish and maintain contacts with various community groups according to
objectives and context.
• Attend coordination meetings with others when requested by manager.
• Ensure cleanliness of information, education and communication areas.
• Participate in creation of any material needed for the activities of information,
education and communication.
• Look after all equipment provided.
• Ensure that no material is taken out of information, education and communication area
without prior authorisation.
• Inform line manager about any possible serious problem or complication during
meetings with population in or outside health facility.
• Plan and report activities done on a regular basis as well as analyse outcomes and
recommend alternative courses of actions.
• Inform higher authorities of any problems that might be linked to work of information,
education and communication officers as well as problematic equipment or material (ex.
broken, missing).


 Review and analyse information gathered at each stage of the

 Analyse project impact among the intended audience
 Identify significant changes in the national or local environment
 Identify missed opportunities and weaknesses
 Evaluate skills acquired by personnel as well as problems
 Recycle assessment information into the design of existing or new

• Participate in preparation of any document linked to work of information, education and
communication officers.
• Be aware of any document regarding detailed responsibilities of information, education
and communication officers (ex. areas and/or neighbourhoods to visit, type of support
groups to create).
• Participate in team meetings and possible trainings.


1. HIV/AIDS and injecting drug use: Information, education and


Information, education and communication (IEC) has an important role to play in

HIV/AIDS prevention and harm reduction among injecting drug users and their sexual
partners. This paper reviews what is known about the effects of IEC within this context.
It distinguishes between six types of individual level intervention in which IEC has a role
to play (mass reach interventions, outreach work, harm minimisation, drug
cessation/treatment programmes, voluntary and confidential counselling and testing,
and risk reduction counselling) and two different styles of structural intervention
(structural and environmental outreach work to tackle the structured vulnerabilities
associated with HIV/AIDS). Though the evidence base is weak, evidence relating to
IEC's contribution and effects in each of these fields is reviewed. Overall, and by itself,
IEC can do little more than raise levels of knowledge, awareness and understanding;
however, when combined with other measures, including service provision and a
supportive social environment, more positive and sustainable effects can be achieved.

2.Effectiveness of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) on the Public

Acceptability of Unsafe Abortion Solutions
Ishaq F Abdul, Olayinka R Balogun, Momoh Anate, Yusuf M Kasim, Mohammed J
Saka, Yusuf S Oganija


Context: Public health measures suggested to curb the menace of unsafe abortions in
developing countries include liberalization of abortion law, family life education and
family planning. However public acceptability of these solution options are poor.
Objective: To examine the efficacy of information, education and communication (IEC)
on the public acceptability of unsafe abortion solution options of contraception, family
life education including sex education and liberalization of abortion laws. Our aim was to
use IEC to improve public acceptability of the recommended solutions.
Methods: Trained questionnaire administrators interviewed randomly selected civil
servants in Ilorin, Nigeria to asses the level of their acceptability of the various options.
There were 95 respondents for the baseline interviews and 93 respondents for the post
IEC interviews. The responses were compared pre- and post-IEC to assess the
effectiveness of the IEC.

Results: Contraception for adults was the most acceptable solution to the public both
pre- and post-IEC, the acceptability doubling (46.3% to 93.4%) after IEC. Contraception
for adolescents, and family life education showed appreciable improved acceptability
post IEC (25.3% to 40.2% and 40% to 67.4%) respectively Liberalization of abortion law
also appreciated marginally in the amount of yes answers (14.8% to 18.5%). Ironically,
the percentage of rejecters also appreciated from 78.9% to 79.3%, giving a very weak
correlation coefficient of 0.42.
Conclusion: IEC is effective in improving public acceptability of unsafe abortion
solutions. The need for an extension and sustenance of this intervention strategy to all
segments of the society for effective advocacy is an imperative.


Communication Planning is an integral part of planning for sustained development. The

development of human society has largely been due to its ability to communicate
information and ideas with each other and to use such information and ideas for
progress. The Programmes being implemented by the Ministry aim at sustainable
holistic development in the rural areas. The success of these Programmes is critically
dependent on the participation of the people, particularly target groups, in the
implementation process. To enable people to participate in the development process, it
is necessary that people have adequate knowledge about the nature and content of
these Programmes. Information, Education and Communication, therefore, assumes
added significance in the context of the Programmes of the Ministry.


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