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45 SECTIO! CHAPTER BRIDGE ENGINERRING DEFINATION ‘The following definitions of certain important terms used in Bridge Engineering are given below: Bridge: - A structure is facilitating a communication route For carrying road traffic or other moving loads over depression or obstruction such as river, steam, channel, road or railway. The communication route may be a railway track, a tramway, a roadway, footpath, a eyele track oF a ‘combination of them, High Level Bridge or Non-submersible Bridge: - The Bridge which does not allow the high flood Waters to pass over them. All the flood water is allowed to pass through its vents. In other words it carries the roadway above the highest flood level ofthe channel. Submersible Bridge: ~ A submersible bridge is a structure which allows fold water to pass over bridge submerging the communication route. Its formation level should be so fixed as not 0 cause imerruption to tafe during floods For more than three days ata time nor for more than six times in year Causeway: Its a pucca submersible bridge which allows floods to pass over it. It is provided on less important routes in order to reduce the construction cost of cross drainage structures. It may hhave vents for low water flows Foot Bridge: - The foot bridge is a bridge exclusively used for earying pedestrians. Cycles and animals, Culvert: - When a small steam crosses @ road with linear waterway less than about 6 meters. The cross drainage structure so provided is called culven, Desk Bridge: - These are the bridge whose floorings are supported at top of the superstructure ‘Through Bridge, These are the bridges whose floorings are supported or suspended at the bottom of the superstructues, ‘Semi-Through Bridges: - These are the bridges whose floorings are supported at some intermediate level ofthe superstructure. ‘Simple Bridges: - They include all beam, girder or tuss bridges whose flooring is supported at ‘some intermediate level of superstructure Cantilever Bridges: - Bridges which are more or less fixed at one end and free at other, It can be used for spans varying from 8 meters to 20 meters Continues Bridges: - Bridges which continue over two or more spans. They are used for large spans and where unyielding foundations are available 46 13, Arch Bridge: - These are the bridges which [produce inclined pressures on supports under vertical loads, These bridges can be economically used up to spans about 20 meters. The arches may be in ‘the barrel from or in the form of ibs. 14, Rigid Frame Bridges: - In these bridges the horizontal deck slab is made monotithie with the vertical abutments walls, These bridges can be used up to span about 20 meters. Generally this type ‘of bridge is not found economical for spans less than 10 meter. ‘These are the bridges at right angles to axis ofthe river ‘These are the bridges not a right angles to axis ofthe river 17, Suspension Bridges: - These ae the bridges which are suspended on cables anchored at ends, 18, Under-Bridges: ~ It is @ bridge constructed to enable @ road to pass under another work or obstruction 19, Over-Bridges 20, Class AA Bridges: - These are bridges designed for LR.C. class AA Toading and checked for class is bridge constructed to enable one from of land communication over the other. ‘A loading, Hey are provided within certain municipal limits, in certain existing or contemplated industrial area, in other specified areas, and along certain specified highways. 21, Class A Bridges: - These are permanent bridges designed for LR.C. class A loading, 22, Class B Bridges - These are permanent bridges designed for LR.C. class B loading. 23, Viaduet: «Its a long continues structure which carries a road or railways like Bridge over a dry valley composed of se of span over trestle bents instead of solid piers, 24, Apron: It isa layer of conerete, masonry stone etc, placed like flooring. at the entrance or out of culvert to prevent scour 25, Piers: - They are the intermediate supports ofa bridge superstructure and may be solid of open type. 26, Abutment + They are the end supports ofthe superstructure. 27, Curtain Wall: cis a thin wall used as a protection against scouring action a stream, 28, Effective Span: - The centre to centre distance between any two adjacent suppons is called as the cffectve span of abridge. 29, Clear Span: - The clear distance between any two adjacent supports ofa bridge is called clear Span, 30. Keonomie Span: - the span, for which the total cost of bridge structure is minimum is known as ‘economic span, 31, Affiu water level above its normal level while passing under the Bridge. This rise is known as aflux. + due to construction of the Bridge there is a contraction in waterway. This results in rise of 32, Free Board: Free Board at any point is the difference between the highest flood level after allo 1¢ for afflux, if any, and the information level of road embankment on the approaches or top level of guide bunds athe points, ‘33, Headroom: - Headroom is the vertical distance between the highest points ofa vehicle o vessel and the lowest points of any points of any protruding member of a Bridge 34, Length of the Bridge: - The length of a Bridge structure will be taken as the overall ength measure along the cents line of the Bridge from the end to end of the Bridge deck. a7 35, Liner Waterway: - The liner waterway of a Bridge shall be the length available in the bridge between extreme edges of water surface at the highest flood level, measures at right angles to the Abutment faces. 36, Low Water Level (L.W.L.): = The low water level isthe of water surface obtained generally in the dry season. 37. Ordinary Flood Level (O.F.L.): It is average level of a high flood which is expected 1 occur normally every year 38, Highest Flood Level (HLF-L.):- I isthe level of highest flood every recorded or the calculated level for the highest possible ood. 39, Effective Liner Waterway: - Effective linear waterway is the total width of waterway of a bridge minus the effective width of obstruction. For calculating the effective linear waterways, the width of mean obstruction due to each pier shall be taken as mean submerged width of the pier at its foundation up to maximum scour level. The obstruction at ends due to abutments or pitched slopes should be ignored, COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE ‘The bridge structure is divided mainly into two components: 1) Substructure > The function of substructure is similar to that of Foundations, columas and walls ete. ofa building. "Thus the substructure supports the superstructure and distsibutes the oad into the soil below through foundation > The substructure consists of foundation piers and abutment piers, foundation forthe piers, abutments, wing walls, and approaches. The above all supports the superstructure of the bridge, 2) Superstructure The superstructure ofa bridge is analogues toa single story building oof and substructure to that of walls, columns and foundations supporting it > Supersructure consists of structural members carrying a communication route > Ieonsists of handrails, parapets, roadways, girders, arches, wall trusses over which the road is suppot. > kis that part ofthe bridge over which the traffic moves safely