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Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Engineering Structures journal

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct Loading paths of con fi ned concrete in circular concrete

Loading paths of con ned concrete in circular concrete loaded CFT stub columns subjected to axial compression

Yan-Gang Zhao a , Siqi Lin a , , Zhao-Hui Lu b , Takasuke Saito a , Liusheng He c

T
T

a Dept. of Architecture and Building Engineering, Kanagawa Univ., Kanagawa 2218686, Japan

b School of Civil Engineering, Central South Univ., Changsha 410075, China

c Research Institute of Structural Engineering and Disaster Reduction, Tongji Univ., Shanghai 200092, China

ARTICLE INFO

Keywords:

Loading path Loading path eect Compressive strength Concrete- lled steel tube column

ABSTRACT

So far, the loading path eect on the compressive strength of conned concrete has been poorly investigated. To clarify the compressive strength of con ned concrete in concrete- lled steel tube (CFT) columns, experimental tests with a total of 18 specimens are conducted to investigate the loading paths of con ned concrete in concrete loaded CFT stub columns. The parameters that are varied in the experiment include the steel strength, the uncon ned concrete strength and the D /t ratio. Two evaluation indices, namely the laterally dominant index and the e ect index, are proposed to characterize the loading path and its eect on the compressive strength of con ned concrete, respectively. A detailed parametric study is conducted on the loading paths and the corre- sponding eects on compressive strength. The results suggest that the loading paths of conned concrete in CFT column are a ected by the column parameters. Depending on the loading paths by which the concretes are con ned, the loading path e ects on the compressive strength of the con ned concrete in CFT columns could be totally dierent. Based on the test results, a compressive strength model incorporating the loading path e ect is developed and good performance was found in comparison with the experimental results.

1. Introduction

Concrete- lled steel tube (CFT) columns are widely used in the construction of high-rise buildings, bridges and subway platforms. The restraining e ect of the concrete can either prevent or at least delay local buckling of the steel tube. Moreover, connement resulting from the steel tube increases the strength of the concrete. This mutual in- teraction between concrete and steel tube makes CFT column exhibit an excellent performance of high strength, sti ness and ductility [1] . There are many types of CFT columns. Of interest herein are circular CFT stub columns, which are considered to o er good post-yield axial ductility [2] and are commonly used in many modern structures. Re- searches on circular CFT columns have been ongoing worldwide for decades, and various researchers [3 16] have made signi cant con- tributions to the ultimate capacity and load deformation relationships of CFT columns, which are the two primary concerns in practical en- gineering. It has been realized that a well-established compressive strength model of con ned concrete is important for accurately pre- dicting the ultimate capacity and plays an essential role in establishing the load deformation relationships of CFT columns [17] . Many models of compressive strength of con ned concrete have

been developed, and the best known is that proposed by Richart [18] who used a con nement factor to characterize the con nement e ect of concrete, namely,

f

(1)

where f cc is the compressive strength of the con ned concrete; f c is the uncon ned concrete strength; σ ru is the ultimate lateral stress; k is the con nement factor, for which a value of 4.1 was generally adopted. Although Eq. (1) is relatively simple and in common use, the con- nement factor k has been found to vary between 2.6 and 7 with the con ning pressure and the uncon ned concrete strength [7,19 21] . Other compressive strength models of the con ned concrete have been also proposed by many researchers, e.g. Mander [19] and Attard [22] . All such models were developed based on the experimental tests of actively con ned concrete, in which specimens were subjected to a prescribed constant hydrostatic uid lateral pressure. These models are widely adopted in the researches of CFT columns [3 5,10,23,24] and even in some current codes [25] . However, when a CFT column is compressed axially, the lateral stress of the concrete is not constant but increases with the compressive stress due to the lateral expansion of the concrete. The relationship between the lateral stress and compressive

cc

= f +

c

ru

Corresponding author. E-mail address: lsq8986@jindai.jp (S. Lin).

Received 14 July 2017; Received in revised form 26 September 2017; Accepted 8 November 2017

Available online 16 November 2017 0141-0296/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Y.-G. Zhao et al. Lateral stress Compressive stress
Y.-G. Zhao et al.
Lateral stress
Compressive
stress

(a) General path-a

Lateral stress
Lateral stress

Compressive stress

(d) Multistep path-b

Lateral stress Compressive stress (b) General path-b
Lateral stress
Compressive stress
(b) General path-b

Lateral stressLateral stress Compressive stress (b) General path-b Compressive stress (g) Incremental path stress of con fi

Lateral stress

Compressive stress

(g) Incremental path

stress of conned concrete is known as the loading path. Obviously, the loading paths of con ned concrete in a CFT column di ers from that of actively con ned concrete. The e ects of loading path were investigated by Imran and Pantazopoulou [27] and Lu and Hsu [31] . The loading paths studied in these studies are shown in Fig. 1 . It should be noted that the loading paths shown in Fig. 1(a) and (b) are generally adopted in the test of actively conned concrete. In Fig. 1 (a), the lateral stress was increased initially to a target value and then kept constant, whereupon the compressive stress was applied [26 29] ; In Fig. 1 (b), the compressive and lateral stresses were simultaneously increased to a target value, then the lateral stress was kept constant [20,30] . Besides the two general paths, multistep path, incremental path and trilinear path, as shown in Fig. 1 , are also investigated. In these studies, compressive strength of conned concrete was found basically path-independent. However, in their tests the loading paths of con ned concrete were all prescribed and di erent from those in CFT columns. Furthermore, in their tests, a signicant lateral stress was applied in the very initial stage, whereas for con ned concrete in a CFT column it has been found that no signi cant lateral stress develops before the compressive stress reaches the value of 0.8f c [32] . It has been found recently that the compressive strength of conned concrete in a CFT column di ers from that of actively con ned concrete under an equivalent lateral stress [33,34] . Also, it has been pointed out that the constitutive relations of concrete established from tests with active connement are incapable of describing the behavior of concrete under passive con nement because of the di erent loading paths be- tween the two con nement schemes [32,35,36] . This indicates that the compressive strength of con ned concrete in a CFT column may be in uenced not only by the ultimate lateral stress but also by its loading path. To date, however, the loading paths in the CFT columns and the quantitative evaluation on the loading path e ects have not been in- vestigated in detail. In the present paper, for a better understanding of the compressive strength of conned concrete in a CFT column, the loading paths of con ned concrete in concrete loaded CFT stub columns subjected to axial compression are investigated and then the e ects of loading paths on the compressive strength of con ned concrete are discussed. This paper is organized as follows: In Section 2 , dependence of the com- pressive strength on the loading paths is demonstrated, and two

Lateral stress Compressive stress (c) Multistep path-a Lateral stress Compressive stress
Lateral stress
Compressive stress
(c) Multistep path-a
Lateral stress
Compressive stress

(h) Trilinear path

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

Fig. 1. Loading paths in previous studies.

evaluation indices, namely, the laterally dominant index and the e ect index, are proposed to characterize the loading path and loading path e ect on the compressive strength of con ned concrete, respectively; In Section 3 , the method for determining the loading path is illustrated and details of an experimental program with a total of 18 specimens are introduced; In Section 4 , the loading paths of conned concrete in CFT columns and the e ects of loading paths on the compressive strength are discussed; In Section 5 , the conclusions are drawn.

2. Evaluation methods of loading path and loading path eect

2.1. Loading path dependence of compressive strength

Typical loading paths of con ned concrete are shown in Fig. 2 . In the gure, the loading path of conned concrete in a CFT column could be indicated by P i (OBD). Path P a (OAD) is one of the typic loading paths adopted in the test of actively conned concrete and could be consider as the upper boundary path of P i . Accordingly, the lower boundary path is indicated by P 0 (OCD). Without loss of generality, denote the compressive strength of con ned concrete under loading path P i as:

f =f +Δ(,f Pσ )

cc

c

i

ru

(2)

where Δf ( P i ,σ ru ) is the increasing strength of the concrete under loading path P i . For loading path P a (OAD), because the lateral stress of AD part

D A P a ru P i B C O P 0 Compressive stress f
D
A
P
a
ru
P
i
B
C
O
P 0
Compressive stress
f cc
Lateral stress

Fig. 2. Typical loading paths of con ned concrete.

22

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

Table 1 Test results of con ned concrete under path P a.

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

No. f c (Mpa)

σ ru (Mpa) f cac (Mpa) Refs.

No.

f c (Mpa) σ ru (Mpa) f cac (Mpa)

Refs.

1 60

2.29

80.61

D = 55.5 mm, H = 110 mm (Xie et al. [26]) 44

32.6

1.5

45.5

D = 150 mm, H = 300 mm (Sfer et al. [28] )

2 60

5.30

97.58

45

32.8

4.5

55.3

3 60

8.31

107.64

46

32.8

9

65.7

4 60

20.29

156.88

47

32.8

30

124.5

5 60

29.32

193.24

48

32.8

60

192.9

6 60

23.30

172.05

49

38.5

1.5

47.8

7 60

11.32

121.60

50

38.8

4.5

58.2

8 60

14.33

136.83

51

38.8

9

66.5

9 92

3.78

129.36

52

38.8

30

129.3

10 92

8.30

155.63

53

38.8

60

205.10

11 92

12.82

181.17

54

51.6

5

75.1

D = 63 mm, H = 126 mm (Lim and Ozbakkaloglu [29] )

12 92

17.33

194.27

55

51.6

5

68.9

13 92

21.85

208.74

56

51.6

5

75.2

14 92

26.28

234.65

57

51.6

7.5

84.6

15 92

16.50

199.80

58

51.6

7.5

79.3

16 92

35.50

261.11

59

51.6

10

91.2

17 92

44.44

293.47

60

51.6

10

96.4

18 119

6.07

172.31

61

51.6

10

92.1

19 119

12.02

212.18

62

51.6

15

115.2

20 119

17.97

225.86

63

51.6

15

111.6

21 119

24.04

250.97

64

51.6

15

116.9

22 119

29.99

261.80

65

51.6

20

135.1

23 119

36.06

280.96

66

51.6

20

136.7

24 119

47.96

316.30

67

51.6

20

135.4

25 119

59.98

367.35

68

51.6

25

158.4

26 28.6

1.05

33.60

D = 54 mm, H = 115 mm (Imram and

69

51.6

25

158

27 28.6

2.1

36.37

Pantazopoulou [27] )

70

51.6

25

158.4

28 28.6

4.2

48.08

71

128

2.5

139.7

29 28.6

8.4

65.15

72

128

2.5

146.5

30 28.6

14.7

92.26

73

128

5

156.2

31 28.6

21

114.50

74

128

5

156.1

32 47.4

2.15

57.65

75

128

7.5

172

33 47

4.3

67.30

76

128

7.5

175

34 47.4

8.6

83.59

77

128

10

179.1

35 47.4

17.2

118.07

78

128

10

181.9

36 47.4

30.1

161.06

79

128

15

203.1

37 47.4

43

204.70

80

128

15

199.1

38 73

3.2

96.13

81

128

20

227.5

39 73

6.4

108.70

82

128

20

225.1

40 73

12.8

125.60

83

128

25

244.2

41 73

25.6

168.60

84

128

25

241.4

42 73

38.4

203.95

43 73

51.2

240.50

increases the compressive strength of the concrete, Δ f is positive; that is,

(3)

Meanwhile, for the loading path P 0 (OCD), it is clear that there is no increase in strength, because the lateral stress of part OC is zero and that of part CD does not increase the compressive strength. That is,

Δf(,)=0

Although the ultimate lateral stresses σ ru of path P a and P 0 are the same, the parts of increasing strength Δ f are totally di erent, which could only be explained by the di erent e ects of loading paths be- tween P a and P 0 . That is, the loading path may signi cantly a ect the compressive strength of conned concrete.

(4)

Δf(,) >0

a

ru

0

ru

2.2. Laterally dominant index and e ect index of loading paths

To investigate the loading path of con ned concrete and the loading path e ect on the compressive strength, two evaluation indices are de ned in this section. Firstly, to characterize a loading path P i between path P 0 and P a , a laterally dominant index is de ned as:

S ( P )

i

SI ( P )

(5)

where S( P i ) is the area enclosed by paths P i and P 0 . The two boundary

i

=

S ( P )

a

conditions of the laterally dominant index are SI( P 0 ) = 0 and SI ( P a ) = 1. In Eq. (5) , a higher value of SI ( P i ) indicates the lateral stress in the loading path plays a more dominant role in the conned concrete; Otherwise, it is the compressive stress that plays a more dominant role. In other words, a higher value of SI( P i ) means the loading path P i is in a closer proximity to path P a ; Otherwise it is in a closer proximity to P 0 . In particular, SI( P i ) = 1.0 means path P i coincides perfectly with path P a , whereas SI( P i ) = 0 means path P i coincides perfectly with path P 0 . Secondly, to predict the di erent inuences on the increasing strength between paths P i and P a , an e ect index λ is de ned as:

λ ( P ) =

i

Δ(, f Pσ

i

ru

)

Δ( f Pσ ,

a

ru

)

(6)

In Eq. (6) , λ (P i ) 1.0 means the in uence of path P i on the in- creasing strength di ers from that of path P a . That is, the compressive strength of con ned concrete is path-dependent. The greater the de- viation between the eect index and unity, the more signi cant the loading path e ect. On the contrary, as for the loading path P i that is di erent from P a , λ ( P i ) = 1.0 means the inuence of path P i on the increasing strength (or compressive strength) is completely the same with that of path P a . In other words, λ ( P i ) = 1.0 means the compressive strength of the con ned concrete is independent of loading paths. To evaluate the laterally dominant index λ ( P i ), the increasing

23

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

strength of actively conned concrete under path P a , namely Δ f( P a ,σ ru ), should be determined rstly, which obviously could be easily obtained by removing the uncon ned concrete strength from the compressive strength of actively con ned concrete. Compressive strength models of actively con ned concrete have been proposed by certain researchers, i.e. Richart [18] , Xiao et al. [37] and Lim et al. [38] . However, Richart et al. used relatively weak concrete, meaning that their model may not make good predictions for specimens with high strength concrete. Al- though the models of Lim and Xiao were both established based on a large amount of test data of actively conned concrete, the database they used also included the tests conducted under the path shown in Fig. 1 (b). Because Δ f( P a ,σ ru ) is essentially the increasing strength of actively conned concrete under P a , to obtain Δ f( P a , σ ru ), the data of actively con ned concrete under path P a only should be used. For this purpose, a test database with a total of 84 specimens of actively conned concrete under path P a (test data under the path in Fig. 1(b) are excluded) is assembled from the published literatures [26 29] . The test data cover cylinder specimens with the uncon ned concrete strength ranging from 28.6 MPa to 128 MPa and lateral con- ning stress ranging from 1.05 MPa to 59.98 MPa. Details of the test data are given in Table 1 . From a regression analysis, the compressive strength of conned concrete under path P a is given by:

f

cac

c 0.3 ru 0.81

= f + 2.2

c

(7)

where f cac is the compressive strength of actively conned concrete under path P a . Comparison of the experimental results with those calculated using the proposed model is shown in Fig. 3. The mean and CoV (coe cient of variance) of the ratio of calculated strength to experimental strength are 1.0006 and 0.0683, respectively. The results indicate that Eq. (7) provides a good prediction of the compressive strength of actively con ned concrete under path P a . By removing the uncon ned concrete strength f c from the compressive strength f cac in Eq. (7) , Δ f( P a ,σ ru ) is easily obtained as:

Δf (, ) = 2.2f

a

ru

c 0.3 ru 0.81

σ

(8)

Substituting Eqs. (2) and (8) for Eq. (6), e ect index λ( P i ) can be calculated by:

λ ( P ) =

i

f

cc

f

c

2.2 f

c 0.3 ru 0.81

σ

(9)

λ ( P ) = i f cc f − c 2.2 f c 0.3 ru

Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental results with the present model.

24

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

3. Experimental test to investigate the loading paths

3.1. Determination of loading paths

Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the loading paths, and to obtain the laterally dominant index and e ect index of loading path in the paper. The loading path of con ned concrete is indicated by the curve of lateral stress ( σ r ) verse normalized compressive stress of the concrete with respect to uncon ned concrete strength ( f cz / f c ). The de- termination of loading path from the test results is described below. The lateral stress of the concrete can be calculated based on the force equilibrium condition of the column section:

σ =

r

2 t

D

2

t σ

θ

(10)

where D is the diameter of the column; t is the thickness of the steel tube; σ r and σ θ are the lateral stress of the concrete and hoop stress of the steel tube, respectively. The compressive stress of the concrete can be obtained by dividing the compressive load of the concrete by the area of the concrete section, where the compressive load of the concrete is determined by sub- tracting the friction between the steel tube and concrete from the axial load of column:

f =

cz

N σA

z

s

A

c

(11)

where f cz is the compressive stress of the concrete; N is the axial load of the column obtained from the testing machine; A s and A c are the section areas of the steel tube and the concrete, respectively; σ z is the axial stress of the steel tube. The axial stress and hoop stress of the steel tube are determined from the strains measured in the experimental tests, as summarized below. The von Mises stress (or the equivalent stress) σ e is used to de- termine the stress state of the steel tube:

σ =−+σ σσ

(12)

In the elastic stage ( σ e < f y ), the stress of the steel tube is calculated by the generalized Hooke law. Although a thin layer of grease is spread on the inner surface of the steel tube to reduce the friction between the steel tube and concrete, results indicate that the friction is still sig- nicant, especially in the initial loading phase. Therefore, the steel tube, as a thin-walled structure, is considered under a state of plane stress and the stresses of the steel tube are then determined by:

2

z

z

θ

θ 2

σ

e

(13)

where d ε z and d ε θ are the incremental axial strain and hoop strain, respectively. Poisson ratio υ and the tangent modulus E s [39] are given, respectively, by:

z

θ

=

1 υ

E

s

2

1

υ

υ

1

⎦ ⎨

z

θ

υ =

0.283

0.217

0.5

σ

e

f

p

f

y

f

p

+

σ

e

0.283 f

p

σ

e

<

f

p

⩽⩽ σf

>

e

f

y

y

(14)


E

(

f

y

σσ )

e

e

(

f

y

ff )

pp

σf

e

<

p

σ

e

f

y

E =

(15)

where f p is the proportional limit, taken herein to be 0.75 f y . In the plastic stage ( σ e f y ), the stress of the steel tube is calculated by the incremental Prandtl-Reuss equation:

s

Ef

p

z

θ

=

1 υ

E

2

1

υ

υ

1

⎦ ⎨

3(1

z

θ

Edγ

)

υ

2

2

υ

21

υ

2

υ

12

υ

{

σ

z

σ

θ

}

(16)

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

The scalar d γ is given by:

s de

9(

G s de

zz

+

s de

rr

+

=

G =

θθ

)

E

2

2

(

σH

e

2(1 + υ)

+

G

3)

(17)

 

(18)

where e i and s i are the deviatoric strain and stress, respectively; H is the slope of equivalent stress equivalent plastic strain curve, which is taken as the slope of the stress plastic strain curve of the steel from tensile tests; G is the shear modulus. The axial strain ε z and hoop strain ε θ at each loading step can be measured directly by using the strain gauges, whereupon the axial stress σ z and hoop stress σ θ can be determined according to Eqs. (12) (18) . Substituting the axial stress and hoop stress of the steel tube at each loading step for Eqs. (10) and (11) , the lateral stress and the compressive stress of the concrete could be determined. The compres- sive stress at each loading step was normalized with the uncon ned concrete strength. The loading path was then expressed as a relation- ship between the lateral stress ( σ r ) and the normalized compressive stress of the concrete (f cz / f c ). As two specimens are tested for each type of the column, the loading path is an average of the two specimens. A typical loading path of con ned concrete in a CFT column is shown in Fig. 4 (taken from specimen 490-36-31). The corresponding axial load displacement and axial stress strain curves of the column are given in Figs. 5 and 6 , respectively. According to the transition points, the loading path can be divided into four stages. In stage OA, the lateral stress is quite insigni cant because the concrete barely expands. When the compressive stress exceeds point A (about 0.5 f c ), microcracks de- velop rapidly in the concrete, and the expansion of concrete causes the lateral stress to develop signi cantly but smoothly. Because of the con nement e ect, fracture of concrete is delayed until point B, at which the compressive stress is roughly 1.4 f c (for specimen 490-36-31).

A

rapid lateral expansion due to the fracture of concrete at point B leads

to

a drastic increase in lateral stress, while the compressive stress nearly

gains no increase. As the loading is increased, the steel tube yields at point C. The lateral stress exhibits a short plateau and then continues to increase because of strain hardening of the steel tube, until reaching the ultimate state at point D. It should be noted that in the experimental test the strain gauges may be broken before or after the column reaching the peak load. As for the former case, point D refers to the state of the column corresponding to the maximal strains measured in the experiment; As for the latter case, point D refers to the state of the column corresponding to the peak load. As discussed above, microcracks began developing signi cantly in the concrete at point A and fracture of concrete happens at point B. Subsequently, the steel tube yields at point C and reaches the ultimate

the steel tube yields at point C and reaches the ultimate Fig. 4. Typic loading path

Fig. 4. Typic loading path of con ned concrete in CFT column.

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

in CFT column. Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31 Fig. 5. Axial load-displacement curve. Fig. 6. Axial

Fig. 5. Axial load-displacement curve.

156 (2018) 21–31 Fig. 5. Axial load-displacement curve. Fig. 6. Axial stress-strain curve. state at point

Fig. 6. Axial stress-strain curve.

state at point D. The ultimate compressive stress of the con ned concrete at point D are the compressive strength of conned concrete f cc . Substituting f cc and the corresponding ultimate lateral stress σ ru for Eq. (9), the e ect index λ ( P i ) can be calculated. Meanwhile, the laterally dominant index SI( P i ) can be obtained by Eq. (5) , where S( P i ) in Eq. (5) can be de- termined by:

S ( P )

i

N 1

=

j

= 0

()

+

σσ

r

jj

r1

+

()

⌋⌊

( f

cz

)

j

+ 1

( f

cz

)

j

f

2

c

(19)

where N is the number of the loading steps, and ( σ r ) j and ( f cz ) j are the lateral stress and compressive stress of conned concrete at j-th loading step, respectively.

3.2. Experimental program

An experimental test with a total of 18 specimens was conducted in this paper. The parameters varied in the experiment were as follows: (1) uncon ned concrete strength f c ; (2) yield strength of the steel f y ; (3) ratio of column diameter to steel thickness D/ t . The compressive strengths of 100 × 200 mm concrete cylinders were measured on the test day and were 28 Mpa, 41 Mpa and 52 Mpa, respectively; Two kinds of steel (STK400 and STK490) were used for the tubes and the me- chanical properties of the steel were obtained from tensile tests of coupons taken from each steel plate before manufacturing. To minimize the slenderness e ect, the length of each specimen was three times its diameter, and to avoid the e ect of local buckling for achieving full con nement, the D/ t ratios used in the experiment are 26, 36, and 48, which satisfy AISC [40] limitation given by:

25

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

Y.-G. Zhao et al. Fig. 7. Polishing of the column section. t ⩽ 0.15 E s

Fig. 7. Polishing of the column section.

t

0.15

E s

f y

D

(20)

where E s and f y are the elastic modulus and yield stress of the steel tube, respectively. To provide a at column end for ensuring that the load is applied evenly to the section, all the specimens are polished by a polishing machine. The polishing process was shown in Fig. 7 . Since the com- pressive strength of conned concrete in a CFT column is concerned in this paper, the axial load is directly applied to the concrete with the steel tube used only for con nement and a thin layer of grease is spread on the inner surface of the steel tube to reduce the friction between the steel tube and concrete. All the specimens were subjected to axial monotonic compression under a universal testing machine with a maximum capacity of 5000 kN. Two pairs of electrical strain gauges were placed at the mid-height of the exterior of the steel tube to mea- sure the axial and lateral strains of the steel tube. The longitudinal deformation of the column was read directly from the test machine. The experimental test setup is given in Fig. 8 . Two specimens were tested for each type of column. For convenience, the columns are identi ed as:

type

number. Details of all the specimens are given in Table 2 .

of steel + design strength of concrete + D / t ratio + specimen

3.3. Experimental results

The axial stress of the column ( f z ) is obtained by dividing the axial load of the column ( N) by the area of the concrete section. The re- lationships between axial stress and axial/hoop strain of the column for the specimens of batch 1 and batch 2 are shown in Fig. 9 , while those for the specimens of batch 3 are shown in Fig. 10 . Although two spe- cimens were tested for each type of column, the axial stress strain curves were similar. For the sake of clarify, only one curve of the two specimens is given in the gures. The maximum loads ( N u ) of all the specimens are summarized in Table 2 . In Fig. 9, it was observed that with the increase of the concrete strength, the ultimate axial stress of the column increases while the corresponding ultimate strain decreases. A shorter strain hardening stage tended to be yielded in the specimen with higher strength

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

higher strength Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31 Fig. 8. Experimental test setup. concrete, which suggests

Fig. 8. Experimental test setup.

concrete, which suggests that, under the same con nement, specimen with higher strength concrete would be more brittle. Comparison be- tween the curves of batch 1 and 2 indicates that adopting higher strength steel could improve the ductile behavior of the column. Ad- ditionally, observation in Fig. 10 suggests that a better performance (higher ultimate stress and more ductile behavior) was generally achieved in the specimen with a smaller D / t ratio. Using the experimental results in Figs. 9 and 10 , the loading path can be determined with the aid of the procedure described in Section 3.1 . The laterally dominant index and the e ect index of the loading path can also be obtained, as listed in Table 2 .

4. Investigation of loading paths and loading path eects

4.1. Investigation of loading paths

The loading paths of con ned concrete in CFT columns with dif- ferent parameters, such as concrete strength f c , steel strength f y and D/ t ratio, are investigated in this section. The inuence of concrete strength on the loading path is in- vestigated based on the tests of specimens in batches 1 and 2, loading paths for which are shown in Fig. 11(a) and Fig. 11(b) , respectively. It can be observed that, for both batches 1 and 2, the parts of the loading paths before steel tube yields (stage OABC) are similar, after which the loading paths start to exhibit signicant dierences. That is, concrete strength only signi cantly aects the part of the loading path in the strain hardening stage of the steel tube (stage CD). A shorter and steeper CD stage was found for the specimen with a higher strength concrete, which suggests that, under the same con nement condition, higher strength concrete has a worse connement e ect. Loading paths for specimens with di erent strength steels are shown in Figs. 12a 12c . The obvious di erence is observed only in the parts of loading path in the post-fracture stage of the concrete core (stage BD).

26

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

Table 2 Specimen details and test results.

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

Batch

Specimens

D (mm)

t (mm)

D/ t

f y (Mpa)

f c (Mpa)

N u (kN)

SI

λ

Batch 1

400-24-31-1

140

4.5

31

374.2

28

1517.6

0.38

0.80

400-24-31-2

140

4.5

31

374.2

28

1530.2

0.40

0.81

400-36-31-1

140

4.5

31

374.2

39

1618.1

0.30

0.72

400-36-31-2

140

4.5

31

374.2

39

1530.4

0.29

0.65

400-48-31-1

140

4.5

31

374.2

52

1670.0

0.21

0.57

400-48-31-2

140

4.5

31

374.2

52

1630.2

0.21

0.55

Batch 2

490-24-31-1

140

4.5

31

462.9

28

2001.7

0.52

1.03

490-24-31-2

140

4.5

31

462.9

28

2047.4

0.48

1.06

490-36-31-1

140

4.5

31

462.9

39

2026.6

0.40

0.89

490-36-31-2

140

4.5

31

462.9

39

2047.4

0.40

0.87

490-48-31-1

140

4.5

31

462.9

52

2120.2

0.35

0.77

490-48-31-2

140

4.5

31

462.9

52

2149.6

0.35

0.74

Batch 3

400-36-26-1

216.3

8.2

26

381.1

41

4210.9

0.29

0.71

400-36-26-2

216.3

8.2

26

381.1

41

4256.9

0.28

0.74

400-36-36-1

190.7

5.3

36

382.5

41

2726.8

0.21

0.65

400-36-36-2

190.7

5.3

36

382.5

41

2705.5

0.24

0.65

400-36-48-1

216.3

4.5

48

371.9

41

2904.1

0.19

0.61

400-36-48-2

216.3

4.5

48

371.9

41

2906.2

0.12

0.64

216.3 4.5 48 371.9 41 2906.2 0.12 0.64 Fig. 9. Axial stress-strain curve for specimens. Fig.

Fig. 9. Axial stress-strain curve for specimens.

0.64 Fig. 9. Axial stress-strain curve for specimens. Fig. 10. Axial stress-strain curve for of batch

Fig. 10. Axial stress-strain curve for of batch 1 and batch 2 specimens of batch 3.

Specimens with higher strength steel tend to yield a higher BC stage with a longer yielding plateau, and a longer and gentler CD stage. The results indicate that higher strength steel makes little contribution to the fracture delay of the con ned concrete but provides a better con- nement e ect after fracture of the concrete core. Specimens with D/ t ratios of 26, 36 and 48 were tested, and their loading paths are shown in Fig. 13 . According to the gure, it was observed that:

27

13 . According to the fi gure, it was observed that: 27 Fig. 11a. Loading paths

Fig. 11a. Loading paths for batch 1.

was observed that: 27 Fig. 11a. Loading paths for batch 1. Fig. 11b. Loading paths for

Fig. 11b. Loading paths for batch 2.

(1) The D/ t ratio signicantly inuences the parts of the loading path in both the pre-fracture (OB) and post-fracture (BD) stage of the concrete core; (2) The loading path in the specimen with a smaller D/ t ratio was found to yield a longer OB stage. That is, the specimen with a smaller D/ t ratio has a better con nement e ect, which leads to a more pro- found fracture delay of the con ned concrete;

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

Y.-G. Zhao et al. Fig. 12a. Loading paths for specimens with f c = 28. Fig.

Fig. 12a. Loading paths for specimens with f c = 28.

Fig. 12a. Loading paths for specimens with f c = 28. Fig. 12b. Loading paths for

Fig. 12b. Loading paths for specimens with f c = 39.

Fig. 12b. Loading paths for specimens with f c = 39. Fig. 12c. Loading paths for

Fig. 12c. Loading paths for specimens with f c = 52.

(3) Besides, the loading path in the specimen with a smaller D/ t ratio tends to exhibit a higher BC stage and a longer CD stage, which indicates a more ductile failure of the specimen; (4) It should be noted that, because the same strengths of concrete and steel are used, the slopes of stages BC and CD of all the paths are found nearly the same.

The enhanced performance of the specimens with smaller D/ t ratio can be explained by Eq. (10) . Based on Eq. (10) , it is known that the concrete con ned by the steel tube with smaller D/ t ratio would

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

/ t ratio would Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31 Fig. 13. Loading paths for specimens with

Fig. 13. Loading paths for specimens with dierent D /t ratios.

experience a higher lateral con ning stress under the same stress state of the steel tube. That is, a better con nement e ect tends to be achieved for the concrete con ned by the steel tube with a smaller D/ t ratio, which leads to a more signicant enhanced performance. As discussed above, it is interesting to nd that stage OB of loading path (pre-fracture stage of concrete core) seems to be in uenced more by the D/ t ratio than by the strengths of the concrete and the steel tube, whereas stage BD of the loading path (post-fracture stage of concrete core) is a ected by all the parameters. As de ned in section two, the loading path is indicated by the laterally dominant index SI . The results for the laterally dominant index of each specimen are summarized in Table 2 . The average laterally dominant index of two specimens is also given in Figs. 11 13 for each loading path. The relationships for SI verse f y / f c ratio and SI verse D / t ratio are shown in Figs. 14 and 15 , respec- tively. It can be observed that the laterally dominant index increases with the strength ratio f y / f c but decreases with the D/ t ratio, which may suggest that loading paths that are in closer proximity to path P a tend to be yielded in specimens with higher strength ratio f y / f c and smaller D/ t ratio.

4.2. Loading path e ect on compressive strength

In this section, the loading path e ects on the compressive strength of con ned concrete, as indicated by the e ect index λ , are discussed. The e ect index for each specimen is given in Table 2 . The average e ect index of two specimens is also shown in Figs. 11 13 for each loading path. All e ect indices were found less than 1.0 except that of

e ff ect indices were found less than 1.0 except that of Fig. 14. Relation between

Fig. 14. Relation between laterally dominant index and f y /f c ratio.

28

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

Y.-G. Zhao et al. Fig. 15. Relation between laterally dominant index and D / t ratio.

Fig. 15. Relation between laterally dominant index and D /t ratio.

490-24-31, which indicates that compressive strength is in uenced by the loading path. The relationship between laterally dominant index and e ect index found this study is shown in Fig. 16 . The e ect index was found to increase with the laterally dominant index. That is, for the loading path with a small laterally dominant index (loading path is far awayfrom path P a ), the inuence on the compressive strength is signi cantly di erent from that of path P a . As the laterally dominant index increases (the path gets closer to path P a ), the path-dependent e ect becomes less signi cant. Here it should be noted that the laterally dominant indices of specimens 490-24-31 approximately equal to 0.5 and the corre- sponding e ect indices are roughly 1.0, which suggest that compressive strength may be path-independent when the concrete is con ned by a loading path whose laterally dominant index is greater than 0.5. Table 3 gives the laterally dominant indices and e ect indices of loading paths in the previous studies [27,31] , which are also given in Fig. 16. For the specimens of T-Ma and T-Mb, no compressive strengths are available in the original paper. However, stress-strain curves of the specimens under multistep paths and path P a are given, and only small di erences are observed. Therefore, the e ect indices of these two specimens are taken as 1.0 here. It should be noted that the lateral stress of specimen T-Mb (multistep path-b) was reduced in a stepwise manner from 25.6 Mpa to 6.4 Mpa and thus led to a laterally dominant index SI greater than 1.0, which generally could not happen for con- ned concrete in a CFT column. All the laterally dominant indices are found greater (or just marginally smaller) than 0.5. This may explain why the compressive strength of con ned concrete was found basically path-independent in previous studies. Based on the results of the present study and previous researches,

on the results of the present study and previous researches, Fig. 16. E ff ect index

Fig. 16. E ect index verse laterally dominant index.

29

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

the relationship between e ect index and laterally dominant index may be given by:

1.0,

1.52

SI

0.6

,

0

SI

SI

<

0.5

λ =

(21)

To obtain the eect index, the laterally dominant index should be determined. Based on the investigation of Section 4.1, it is known that the loading path is inuenced by parameters, such as the uncon ned concrete strength, steel strength and D/ t ratio, which suggests the lat- erally dominant index could be determined by these parameters. A con nement coe cient including all the parameters is then de ned as

0.5

2

t

f

y

D

2

t f

c

η =

(22)

The relationship between laterally dominant index and con nement coe cient is given in Fig. 17 . It seems that the laterally dominant index increases linearly with the connement coe cient. Therefore, a simple model for the laterally dominant index is proposed as:

SI = 0.44η

Substituting Eq. (23) for Eq. (21) , the e ect index can be given by:

(23)

0.6

λ =

(24)

Based on the experimental tests in this paper, it was found that the concrete core in a CFT column is generally conned by a loading path with a laterally dominant index smaller than 0.5. As discussed above, compressive strength of the concrete conned by a loading paths with a laterally dominant index smaller than 0.5 would be quite di erent from that of actively con ned concrete under the same ultimate lateral stress. Therefore, to better determine the compressive strength of the conned concrete in a CFT column, the loading path eect should be considered. A compressive strength model incorporating the e ect of loading path for con ned concrete in a CFT column is recommended as:

f

(25)

where λ is the e ect index of loading path as determined by Eq. (24) . It should be noted that the domain of the e ect index is [0,1], at the boundary of which f cc in Eq. (25) would equal to f c and f cac (Eq. (7) ), respectively. That is, the compressive strength of conned concrete predicted by the proposed model lies between the two extreme cases of the uni-axial and tri-axial compressions. Fig. 18 shows the comparison of the compressive strength between the experimental results and the ones calculated by Eq. (25) . The mean and CV (coecient of variance) of the ratio of calculated results to experimental results are 1.0045 and 0.0460, respectively, which in- dicates a good performance of the proposed model. Predicting the ultimate capacity and load deformation relationship of CFT columns are important in the practical engineering, for which a well-established compressive strength model of con ned concrete is necessary. Although lots of models have been developed to predict the ultimate capacity and load-deformation relationship of CFT columns, it seems that satisfying results are not achieved. The proposed model may be helpful to establish more accurate models of the ultimate capacity and load deformation relationship of the CFT columns.

1.0,

η

,

0.93

0

η

η

<

1.13

1.13

cc

= f + 2.2λf

c

c

0.3

ru 0.81

σ

5. Conclusions

Based on the experimental tests, the loading paths and loading path e ects on the compressive strength of conned concrete in concrete loaded CFT columns were studied in this paper. The following conclu- sions can be drawn:

1. The con nement e ect of con ned concrete is inuenced not only by the ultimate con ning stress but also by the loading path. The

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

Table 3 Laterally dominant indices and e ect indices in previous studies.

Engineering Structures 156 (2018) 21–31

Specimen

f c

σ ru

f cc

SI

λ

Loading path

Refs.

T-G1

67

3.5

84.9

0.96

0.84

General path-b

Lu and Hsu

T-G2

67

7

99

0.93

0.85

General path-b

T-G3

67

14

131

0.89

0.97

General path-b

T-G4

67

21

154

0.86

0.95

General path-b

T-G5

67

28

180

0.84

0.98

General path-b

T-G6

67

42

229

0.82

1.01

General path-b

T-G7

67

56

276

0.80

1.03

General path-b

T-G8

67

14

133

0.68

1.00

General path-b

T-G9

67

14

135

0.69

1.03

General path-b

T-G10

67

14

136

0.69

1.04

General path-b

T-G11

67

21

157

0.60

0.99

General path-b

T-G12

67

21

161

0.61

1.03

General path-b

T-G13

67

28

180

0.53

0.98

General path-b

T-G14

69

28

192

0.85

1.05

General path-b

T-G15

69

7

105

0.80

0.96

General path-b

T-G16

69

14

137

0.69

1.02

General path-b

T-G17

69

14

139

0.70

1.05

General path-b

T-G18

69

21

164

0.62

1.03

General path-b

T-G19

69

21

162

0.61

1.01

General path-b

T-G20

69

28

187

0.55

1.01

General path-b

T-G21

69

28

190

0.56

1.04

General path-b

T-T1

69

28

192

0.78

1.05

Trilinear path

T-I1

69

28

190

0.56

1.04

Incremental path

T-I2

69

42

239

0.51

1.05

Incremental path

T-I3

69

56

282

0.48

1.04

Incremental path

T-I4

69

63

308

0.48

1.06

Incremental path

T-I5

69

70

324

0.47

1.04

Incremental path

T-Ma *

73.4

25.6

0.64

1.00

Multistep path-a

Imran and Pantazopoulou

T-Mb *

73.4

6.4

> 1.0

1.00

Multistep path-b

* 73.4 6.4 > 1.0 1.00 Multistep path-b Fig. 17. Relation between SI and η .

Fig. 17. Relation between SI and η.

Multistep path-b Fig. 17. Relation between SI and η . Fig. 18. Performance of the proposed

Fig. 18. Performance of the proposed model.

compressive strength model of actively con ned concrete is gen- erally not applicable to con ned concrete in a CFT column due to the di erent loading paths.

2. Loading path of con ned concrete in a CFT column P i is aected by the parameters of the column such as uncon ned concrete strength, steel strength and D /t ratio. The proximity of loading path P i to path P a is indicated by the laterally dominant index. The results show that specimens with higher strength ratio f y / f c and/or smaller D/ t ratio tend to achieve a higher laterally dominant index, thus yielding a loading path that is in a closer proximity to path P a .

3. The compressive strength of conned concrete cannot be simply considered path-dependent or path-independent. Results suggest that the loading path e ect on the compressive strength of conned concrete is signicant for the concrete under the loading path with a small laterally dominant index, which however could be neglected if the laterally dominant index exceeds 0.5.

4. The experimental tests indicated that the concrete core in a CFT column is generally con ned by a loading path with a laterally dominant index less than 0.5. Therefore, to better determine the compressive strength of con ned concrete in a CFT column, the loading path e ect should be considered.

5. Models were established for the e ect index and the laterally dominant index, based on which a compressive strength model in- corporating the loading path e ect was developed for the con ned concrete in a CFT column. Good performance was found in com- parison with the experimental results.

Acknowledgements

This research is partially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51738001). The support is gratefully acknowledged.

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30

Y.-G. Zhao et al.

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