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EXP NO: 10 DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL GAIN STATE

FEEDBACK CONTROL OF PHYSICAL SYSTEM


20-11-2018

OBJECTIVE:
To design and analyze the performance of optimal gain control state feedback
control for Automatic Voltage Regulator

THEORY:
Excitation control of generators is a very important topic in the field of power systems. A
good excitation control, indeed, has proven to be very efficient to support the voltage on
the power system, to enhance its transient stability and to damp its oscillations. The basic
requirement is that the excitation system supply and automatically adjust the field current
of the synchronous generators to maintain the terminal voltage as the output varies within
the continuous capability of the generator (Generator considerations), while the excitation
system should contribute to effective control of voltage and enhancement of system
stability (Power system considerations).
The main equipment in a power system is the synchronous generator, which is able to
deliver or absorb a significant amount of reactive power. The automatic voltage regulator
(AVR) controls the generator’s excitation in order to maintain stator edge voltage at set-
point value.

TE(s) denotes the transfer function of the AVR. The excitation provided to the field winding
of synchronous generator is vf which is from two sources. One is a constant excitation, vf0,
and another is the output from the AVR, v0f. The AVR measures the terminal voltage of
synchronous generator, Vt, and compares it to a reference setting value Vtref . The AVR
responds to the deviation of terminal voltage to change the excitation of generator and
hence regulates the reactive power supply or absorption by generator. By doing so, the
terminal voltage of generator is effectively maintained close to the reference setting value.
AVRs have an adverse effect in providing negative damping to power system oscillations in
some occasions. This results in a conflict requirement in the design of the AVRs.
Subsequently, the power system stabilizer (PSS) was introduced into excitation control to
overcome the problem. Nowadays, it is quite common to have a combination of a fast-
acting AVR and a PSS for the excitation control of synchronous generators. Stabilizing signal,
upss, is superimposed on that of the AVR

Where, vf0 is the constant excitation, upss the stabilizing signal of the PSS, and Vt and Vtref
the terminal voltage of generator and its reference setting value, respectively.
Mathematical model of the AVR can be written as

A Single-Machine Infinite-Bus Power System


Figure shows the configuration of a power system where a generator sends power to a large
network. Capacity of the large network is much greater than that of the generator such that
operation of the large network is not affected at all by any changes in the part of the power
system on the left-hand side of busbar b.
This effectively means that the voltage and frequency at busbar b are constant when the
focus of the study is the part of the left-hand side of the power system. Thus, from the point
of view of operation of the part of left-hand side of the power system, capacity of the large
network is “infinite”. Hence, busbar b is called the “infinite busbar”, and the part of the
power system on the left-hand side of busbar b is a “single-machine infinite-bus” power
system. The single-machine infinite-bus power system is an approximate representation of a
kind of real power systems, where a power plant with a generator or a group of generators
are connected by transmission lines to a very large power network.

HEFFRON-PHILLIPS MODEL:

For the study of power system oscillations, full mathematical model of synchronous
generator can be simplified based on the following considerations
1. Effect of damper windings is not considered or directly included in the damping
coefficient D in the rotor motion equation
2. Effect of fast transient and the resistance of d and q armature windings are
neglected.
3. In small-signal power oscillations, variation of rotor speed is very small, x _ 1
The simplified model of single-machine infinite-bus power system is as follows:

State space representation of AVR

Where,
LINEAR QUADRATIC CONTROL
The theory of optimal control is concerned with operating a dynamic system at minimum
cost. The case where the system dynamics are described by a set of linear differential
equations and the cost is described by a quadratic function is called the LQ problem. One of
the main results in the theory is that the solution is provided by the linear–quadratic
regulator (LQR), a feedback controller whose equations are given below.

For a continuous-time linear system, described by

with a quadratic cost function defined as

the feedback control law that minimizes the value of the cost is

where K is given by

and P is found by solving the continuous time Riccati differential equation:

with the boundary condition

The first order conditions for Jmin are


(i) State equation

(ii) Co-state equation

(iii) Stationary equation

(iv) Boundary conditions


MATLAB CODING:
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB
CODING:
ka=2
Tg=1
Te=0.4
Ta=0.1
Ts=0.05
num1=[1]
den1=[1 Ts]
sen=tf(num1,den1)
num2=[1];
den2=[Tg 1];
gen=tf(num2,den2)
num3=[ka];
den3=[Ta 1];
amp=tf(num3,den3)
num4=[1]
den4=[Te 1]
exc=tf(num4,den4)
plant=series(gen,amp)
uncompplant=series(plant,exc)
unstplant=feedback(uncompplant,sen)
step(unstplant)
hold on
[numk,denk]=tfdata(unstplant,'v')
[A B C D]=tf2ss(numk,denk)
for R=0.05:0.05:0.1
Q=[1 0 0 0;0 1 0 0;0 0 1 0;0 0 0 0.001]
N=[0]
[K P E]=lqr(A,B,Q,R,N)
T=A-B*K
[numc,denc]=ss2tf(T,B,C,D)
comp=tf(numc,denc)
step(comp)
end

OUTPUT:

ka = 2

Tg = 1

Te = 0.4000

Ta = 0.1000

Ts = 0.0500

num1 = 1

den1 = 1.0000 0.0500

sen = 1
--------
s + 0.05

gen = 1
-----
s+1

amp = 2
---------
0.1 s + 1

num4 = 1

den4 = 0.4000 1.0000

exc = 1
---------
0.4 s + 1
plant = 2
----------------------
0.1 s^2 + 1.1 s + 1

uncompplant = 2
-------------------------------------
0.04 s^3 + 0.54 s^2 + 1.5 s + 1

unstplant = 2 s + 0.1
------------------------------------------------------------
0.04 s^4 + 0.542 s^3 + 1.527 s^2 + 1.075 s + 2.05

numk = 0 0 0 2.0000 0.1000

denk = 0.0400 0.5420 1.5270 1.0750 2.0500

A= -13.5500 -38.1750 -26.8750 -51.2500


1.0000 0 0 0
0 1.0000 0 0
0 0 1.0000 0

B =1
0
0
0

C= 0 0 50.0000 2.5000

D= 0

Q= 1.0000 0 0 0
0 1.0000 0 0
0 0 1.0000 0
0 0 0 0.0010

N= 0

K= 0.9097 2.7403 5.1118 0.0002


P= 0.0455 0.1370 0.2556 0.0000
0.1370 3.4620 4.9182 2.3313
0.2556 4.9182 11.8086 7.0223
0.0000 2.3313 7.0223 13.0994

E= -10.9513 + 0.0000i
-3.1868 + 0.0000i
-0.1608 + 1.2011i
-0.1608 - 1.2011i

T= -14.4597 -40.9153 -31.9868 -51.2502


1.0000 0 0 0
0 1.0000 0 0
0 0 1.0000 0

numc = 0 0 0 50.0000 2.5000

denc = 1.0000 14.4597 40.9153 31.9868 51.2502

comp = 50 s + 2.5
---------------------------------------------
s^4 + 14.46 s^3 + 40.92 s^2 + 31.99 s + 51.25

Q= 1.0000 0 0 0
0 1.0000 0 0
0 0 1.0000 0
0 0 0 0.0010

N= 0

K= 0.4706 1.4867 2.8683 0.0001

P= 0.0471 0.1487 0.2868 0.0000


0.1487 3.5940 5.2861 2.4117
0.2868 5.2861 12.9600 7.6199
0.0000 2.4117 7.6199 14.7002

E= -10.4539 + 0.0000i
-3.2969 + 0.0000i
-0.1349 + 1.2119i
-0.1349 - 1.2119i
T= -14.0206 -39.6617 -29.7433 -51.2501
1.0000 0 0 0
0 1.0000 0 0
0 0 1.0000 0

numc = 0 0 0 50.0000 2.5000

denc = 1.0000 14.0206 39.6617 29.7433 51.2501

comp = 50 s + 2.5
---------------------------------------------
s^4 + 14.02 s^3 + 39.66 s^2 + 29.74 s + 51.25
System: unstplant Step Response
1.2 Peak amplitude: 1.03
Overshoot (%): 2.02e+03
At time (seconds): 1.64

1
System: comp
Peak amplitude: 0.983 System: comp
Overshoot (%): 1.91e+03 Peak amplitude: 0.945
0.8
At time (seconds): 1.62 Overshoot (%): 1.84e+03
At time (seconds): 1.62

0.6

0.4
Amplitude

0.2
System: comp System: unstplant
Settling time (seconds): 25.6 Settling time (seconds): 40.5

0
System: comp
Settling time (seconds): 30.4

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (seconds)

INFERENCE:

An optimal AVR for the excitation control system is proposed based on the linear
quadratic techniques in order to control the terminal voltage ΔEt of the synchronous
generator. The performance of the proposed AVR is evaluated on Single Machine Infinite
Bus bar (SMIB) system. Simulations show that in addition to controlling ΔEt the damps well
the angular speed deviations Δωr in short time.