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Submitted to:

Dr. Sanil Sir

Roll No.:-

Q.2 Differentiate between recruitment and selection. Develop a
recruitment process for recruiting a manager(HR) for any industry
with modern HR practices.

Recruitment is a process of searching out the potential applicants and inspiring

them to apply for the actual or anticipated vacancy. On the other hand, Selectionis
a process of hiring employees among the shortlisted candidates and providing them
a job in the organization.


Meaning Recruitment is an activity of Selection refers to the process of

searching candidates and selecting the best candidates and
encouraging them apply for it. offering them job.

Approach Positive Negative

Objective Inviting more and more candidates Picking up the most suitable
to apply for the vacant post. candidate and rejecting the rest.

Key Factor Advertising the job Appointment of the candidate

Sequence First Second

Process Vacancies are notified by the firm The firm makes applicant pass
through various sources and through various levels like
application form is made available to submitting form, written test,

the candidate. interview, medical test and so on.

Contractual As recruitment only implies the Selection involves the creation of

Relation communication of vacancies, no contractual relation between the
contractual relation is established. employer and employee.

Method Economical Expensive

1. Recruitment Planning: The recruitment process begins with the planning where
in the vacant job positions are analyzed and then the comprehensive job draft is
prepared that includes: job specifications and its nature, skills, qualifications,
experience needed for the job, etc.

Here, the recruitment committee decides on the number and the type of
applicants to be contacted. The aim of any organization is to attract more
candidates as some of them might not be willing to join, or some might not qualify
for the job position. So the company has a sufficient number of candidates to
choose amongst them. The type of candidates required for the job is well specified
in terms of the task and responsibilities involved in a job along with the
qualification and experience expected.

2. Strategy Development: Once the comprehensive job draft is prepared, and the
type and the number of recruits required are decided upon; the next step is to
decide a strategy that is adopted while recruiting the prospective candidates in the
organization. The following strategic considerations should be kept in mind:
 Make or Buy Employees, which means the firm either decides to select less
skilled employees and invest in training and education programmes or hire
skilled professionals.
 Methods of Recruitment, the firm decide on the methods used for recruiting
the individuals. Such as the internet provides detailed information about the
prospective candidates and helps in shortlisting the best-qualified individuals.
 Geographical Area, the next decision is related to the area from where the
candidates shall be searched. The firm looks for those areas where the handful
amount of qualified employees is concentrated, with a view to curtailing a
search cost.
 Sources of Recruitment, there are two sources of recruitment: Internal
source (within the organization), external source (outside the organization). The
firm must decide the source from where the candidates are hired.

3. Searching: Once the strategy is prepared the search for the candidates can be
initialized. It includes two steps: source activation and selling. The source
activation means, the search for the candidate activates on the employee
requisition i.e. until and unless the line manager verifies that the vacancy exists,
the search process cannot be initiated.

The next point to be considered is selling, which means the firm must judiciously
select that media of communication that successfully conveys the employment
information to the prospective candidates.

4. Screening: The screening means to shortlist the applications of the candidates for
further selection process. Although, the screening is considered as the starting
point of selection but is integral to the recruitment process. This is because the
selection process begins only after the applications are scrutinized and shortlisted
on the basis of job requirements. The purpose of recruitment here is to remove
those applications at an early stage which clearly seems to be unqualified for the
5. Evaluation and Control: Evaluation and control is the last stage in the
recruitment process wherein the validity and effectiveness of the process and the
methods used therein is assessed. This stage is crucial because the firm has to
check the output in terms of the cost incurred.

The recruitment is a costly process as it includes the salaries of recruiters, time

spent by the management, cost of advertisement, cost of selection, a price paid
for the overtime and outsourcing in case the vacancy remains unfilled. Thus, a
firm is required to gather all these relevant information to evaluate the
performance of a recruitment process effectively.


Q.3 What is meant by HR policy? Develop an
internal HR policy for selecting internal
candidates against a vacancy. What problems
generally arise in internal recruitments and how
to address them?
Ans. Policies are ground rules that keep people and processes in order. HR, or
human resource, policies are those that are written for the workplace, and must be
adhered to by employees.

According to US Legal, HR policies are official guidelines and rules that are put into
place by a company’s HR department to hire, train, evaluate and reward staff

Internal hiring process

1. Hiring teams should determine whether there are internal candidates who
can fill a position. Hiring managers should think whether they have qualified
employees already in mind and recruiters should consult our
company’s succession plan. If they find qualified candidates, they should contact
them directly.
2. Hiring teams should post a job ad if needed. If hiring teams don’t have
specific internal candidates in mind, they can post a job internally to give
employees the chance to apply. Decide if you want to post the job
internally before advertising externally or post both ads simultaneously.
3. Recruiters should prepare a job ad and communicate it to employees. Ask
for hiring managers’ input to describe job duties and requirements. Include
important information like benefits or possible need for relocation. Then,
communicate the job ad via [email, intranet, company newsletter or other
available means.]
4. Hiring teams should evaluate internal applications. Hiring managers are
obliged to evaluate all applications from internal candidates and recruiters
should inform them about the outcome.
5. Hiring teams should interview short-listed internal candidates. Internal
candidates don’t need to pass through phone screens and multiple interview
rounds. Depending on the position, hiring managers could interview candidates
once and use assessments to evaluate their skills if needed.
6. Recruiters should update all internal candidates. Hiring teams should inform
employees about the status of their application. Giving internal candidates
feedback on why they were rejected might also help them understand what
training or practice would benefit their career plans.

Hiring teams should keep all applications confidential. It’s at our internal
candidate’s discretion whether they want to tell their manager that they
applied to an internal job. Hiring teams must ensure that applications
remain confidential until a candidate is hired. When an employee is hired
to another role, there will be a [two-week] notice period before they change
jobs to give their mana.

5 Common Hiring Problems

and How to Solve Them
With more than 40,000 online job boards, it’s important that you’re as selective about
where and how you’re posting your open positions as you are in your hiring decisions. If
you’re not getting the response you want after you post your jobs, or if you’re running
into problems after you make the offer, check out these tips from our new eBook,

1. No one is interested.

When no one is clicking your job postings, review the first thing that candidates see
when they find your job listing: the job title. Many candidates may be researching their
current position’s average salary or preparing for interviews, so it’s important to
incorporate search engine logic in your job title. If it’s a tech job, avoid a title like
‘Coding Superstar’. Instead, use what search engines (and most people) will look for—
job titles like ‘Software Engineer’ or ‘Web Developer’ are more likely to get results.

2. There’s a tonne of interest, but no one’s applying.

When you see lots of clicks but no applications, make sure your job description has all
the right ingredients. Make sure you haven’t missed one of the basics:

 Job title

 Location

 Details about the role

 Responsibilities

 Minimum requirements

 How to apply
3. You’re getting a tonne of applications, but no one is qualified.

No one wants to spend countless hours parsing through CVs. Quality matters more than
quantity when it comes to job applicants. An effective job description and inside look at
the company can help you weed out talent that’s not a good fit. To create an effective job
description, consider the following tips:

 Tailor the mission to the job

 Avoid lengthy paragraphs

 Include bullet points

 Illustrate your company’s unique perks

 Provide minimum requirements or preferences

4. No one is accepting your job offers.

Worse than sorting through CVs is bringing in candidates for interviews and having
them turn down job offers. So, what do you need to analyse when candidates aren’t
saying yes to you? Ask yourself the following:

 What is our competition doing?

 Do we have a defined employer brand?

 Do we need to make changes in our interview process?

5. New hires have buyer’s remorse.

This is a classic symptom of an interview process that fails to give a realistic preview of
what the job entails and what it’s like inside your organisation. To avoid buyer’s
remorse, ensure your job descriptions set the right expectations before a candidate sets
foot inside your organisation—and that the candidate experience makes good on that

7. ger time to begin the hiring process for filling their position.


Q.6 Elucidate competency based recruitment process in
detail. Highlight the key difference between traditional
process and competency based recruitment process?
Ans. Competency Based Recruitment
The traditional recruitment process must be reinvented if it is to become competency based.

Competency-based recruitment begins when the organization's leaders identify the key work roles,
positions, or other work designations in need of recruitment efforts. This involves setting
priorities. Decision makers must also decide on the time span over which the recruitment process
will take place.

A competency-based approach to recruitment and selection places more demands on an

organization, compared to the effort required for a traditional approach. But what if sufficient
resources are not available to adopt a competency-based system for the entire organization? In such
a case, the organization should invest its available resources in a competency-based approach to
recruiting and selecting for those jobs or positions that are most critical to the organization's
success the information can be gained through moderate to extensive job analyses and should meet
the following requirements:

o Work outputs, activities, and tasks as well as job competencies and the behavioral indicators by
which those competencies can be measured are clearly stated and aligned, and the
managers who are seeking applicants agree on them.
o The competencies necessary for successful performance of the work are valid for the
purposes stated.
o Key competencies that are the greatest predictors of job success have been identified and
validated by the managers who are seeking applicants.

The Key HR subsystems as  seen from Traditional view point and competency based
viewpoints are given below

Traditional HR Management Competency based HR System

Role of Ensures compliance of policies, procedures Takes the lead in achieving
HR and implements changes based on Top
function Management guidelines. Ensures
compliance with legal and statuary
HR Concentrates on Head count and expense. Focuses on Talent and value that HR
Planning brings to the organization
Makes assumption that future requirement
is based on current realities. Vacancy gets Does not assume that future would be like
generated when one leaves past and accordingly head count would be
needed. Opportunity gets generated when
Favors quantitative methods of work force one leaves
Looks at situation with relation of roles
based on competencies.
Employe Consults the usual external and internal Tries to identify patterns that indicate past
e sources sources of exemplary performers and
recruitm recruits through those or similar sources.
ent and Finds candidates to match the
selection Makes selection decisions based on
Qualifications outlined in the demonstrated ability to perform or
organizations. evidence of end results.

Assumes that education , experience and Compares applicants’ talents to competency

other qualifications are equivalent to ability models that define the traits and indicators
to perform assigned work activities of most successful performers in the area.

Employe Focuses on Individual gaps on Focuses attention on roadblocks to

e performance to work out development individual productivity that are created by
training Needs organization and it is the responsibility of
management to eliminate them.
Builds employees knowledge, skill, and
attitude as per expectation of the company. Builds individual competencies as a
systemic process for each level or role.
PMS The review of performance on goal sis The focus is on measurement of those
more focused to individual needs of competencies which have brought extra
rewards , career , development ordinary results in the area or those
systems and policies which have hinder red
Feedback is more focused to employee’s superior performance.
performance on goals. It si positive when
all goals are achieved or not so positive if Feedback is more evidence based with facts
one misses on goals and figures. Focus is on help the employee
in his/her efforts for better performance

Rewards It rewards & retains those who show extra It attracts and retains those who have
and ordinary results on achievement of goals. shown demonstrated and measurable
compens competencies and delivered extra ordinary
ation results.
Q.10 Highlights factors that are normally taken for job
evaluation. Discuss example of evaluating the job of HR
Manager of manufacturing plant?
Ans. Meaning of job Evaluation: A job evaluation is a systematic way of determining the
value/worth of a job in relation to other jobs in an organization. It tries to make a systematic
comparison between jobs to assess their relative worth for the purpose of establishing a
rational pay structure. Job evaluation needs to be differentiated from job analysis. Job analysis
is a systematic way of gathering information about a job. Every job evaluation method
requires at least some basic job analysis in order to provide factual information about the jobs
concerned. Thus, job evaluation begins with job analysis and ends at that point where the
worth of a job is ascertained for achieving pay equity.
Factor comparison method or Point method

 
This Guide Chart measures the total of every kind of knowledge and skill, however
 acquired, needed for acceptable job performance. It consists of three dimensions:
a. Practical procedures and knowledge, specialized techniques, and learned skills;
b. the real or conceptual planning, coordinating, directing, and controlling of activities
and resources associated with an organizational unit or function; and,
c. Active, practicing, person-to-person skills in the area of human relationships.
 
Problem Solving

The degree and type of original thinking required to accomplish the purpose of the job.
 
This Guide Chart measures the thinking required in the job by considering two dimensions:
a. the environment in which the thinking takes place; and,
b. the challenge presented by the thinking to be done.
 

This Guide Chart measures the relative degree to which the job, performed competently, can
affect the end results of the organization or of a unit within the organization. This measures the
answerability for an action and the consequences of that action. It is the measured effect of the

job on important end results and can be broken into three elements:
 Freedom to Act;
 Types and directness of impact on end results;
  General size of the end results it influences, usually indicated in dollar /Rupee terms

 
Total Evaluation:
 The total evaluation is the sum of the points for the judgments made under each of
 the above headings.
 In addition to the separate evaluation of each element, a Profile for each job is
established illustrating the shape of the job in terms of the interrelationships between
Know-How, Problem Solving and Accountability. This provides an in-built check on
aspects of the validity of the evaluations made.
HR Functions That Drive Results in Manufacturing
View our complete whitepaper “How an Effective HR leader Can Help Drive Results in Manufacturing

 
Compensation management
Compensation expense is typically the second largest business expense next to raw materials or
purchased goods. Competing for talent on the basis of wages alone is no longer cost-effective, and
HR leaders must determine the right mix of base pay, variable pay and benefits that motivates and
retains high performers, and aligning the salary program (as well as incentive programs) to
performance markers for the Company, teams and individuals.
 
Benefits evaluation and administration
Managing and controlling the increasing costs of employee benefits while balancing the needs of the
employees has become a very sensitive issue, especially with respect to health insurance. There are basic
questions to answer, such as whether to offer multiple benefit options, how funding for the plans should be
split between employer and employee contributions, and how much of the benefit plan administration should
be handled internally. Some other strategic issues to consider are included in our full whitepaper.
 
Recruitment/talent acquisition
Declining interest in the manufacturing sector among the younger generations is partly due to the
perception that manufacturing is not as cutting edge as other industries. The need to balance a permanent
“core” full-time work force with temporary workers required to meet seasonal or periodic spikes in demand
also makes manufacturing jobs look less secure to young people..
 
Training and development
The degree to which employees are “engaged” (that is truly committed to an organization’s success vs.
“doing a job”) has a direct impact on profitability. HR leaders need to effectively manage all areas of
training and development, whether by mentoring, contracting for off-the-shelf programs and study courses,
hiring outside consultants, or leveraging train-the-trainer programs offered by suppliers.
 
Performance appraisal and management
HR can design and implement the formal employee appraisal programs internally or use outside consultants
to assist with the process to insure that the process and tool are aligned with the organization’s goals and
draw upon current best practices. In addition HR can provide line managers with the support and skills
they need to effectively engage in these processes so the organization can achieve the desired results.
Effective performance management supports employee engagement; in turn, an engaged workforce
is positively correlated to company financial performance.
 
Employee and labor relations
HR leadership in employee and labor relations is especially important in manufacturing companies. If the
company is non-union, it typically takes much time and effort to sustain this status. If unionized, labor
negotiations and on-going relations with the union have a key impact on company financials as many
budget items are items for negotiation (benefits, merit, lay-off provisions, etc.). Company management
should evaluate how well their HR function is prepared to deal with such circumstances.
Q.2 What forms and formats are normally used in Training
Department of an organization for identifying training needs,
conducting and evaluating the impact of training on organization
Ans. Training: Meaning, Definition
Training constitutes a basic concept in human resource development. It is concerned with
developing a particular skill to a desired standard by instruction and practice. Training is a highly
useful tool that can bring an employee into a position where they can do their job correctly,
effectively, and conscientiously. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an
employee for doing a particular job.
Identifying training needs

Forms and formats are normally used in Training Department

 
Need for Training:
Every organization should provide training to all the employees irrespective of their qualifications

and skills

Specifically the need for training arises because of following reasons:

1. Environmental changes:
Mechanization, computerization, and automation have resulted in many changes that
require trained staff possessing enough skills. The organization should train the employees
to enrich them with the latest technology and knowledge.

2. Organizational complexity:
With modern inventions, technological up gradation, and diversification most of the organizations
have become very complex. This has aggravated the problems of coordination. So, in order to cope
up with the complexities, training has become mandatory.
3. Human relations:
Every management has to maintain very good human relations, and this has made training as
one of the basic conditions to deal with human problems.

4. To match employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs:
An employee’s specification may not exactly suit to the requirements of the job and the
organization, irrespective of past experience and skills. There is always a gap between an
employee’s present specifications and the organization’s requirements. For filling this gap training
is required.

5. Change in the job assignment:

Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level or
transferred to another department. Training is also required to equip the old employees with
new techniques and technologies.

 Various forms 
and formats that are being used in Industry in Training and development area o
Individual Capability development plans
o Organization Training Plan
 
o Training calendar
o Training Content form
 
o Training Review form
o Training evaluation formo
Training Effectiveness form

Typical forms & formats to be used.

Various forms and
formats that are being used in Industry in Training and
 development area
o Individual Capability development plans

 o Organization Training Plan

 o Training calendar
o Training Content form

 o Training Review form
o Training evaluation form o

Training Effectiveness form

Q. 6 What are different methods of training programme for

people in Industry? Explain commonly used methods where
they are used?
Ans. Differences methods of training programme for people in Industry

LECTURES: It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to
create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A
lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something.
Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him  the theoretical
 aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture.

DEMONSTRATIONS: This method is a visual display of how something works or how
 to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do

the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should

be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method.

DISCUSSIONS: This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that
is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the
trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication
between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If
the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion
 higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving
and questioning, can achieve
 and principle learning.

INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM (ITS): This Intelligent Tutorial system uses
artificial intelligence to assist in training or tutoring the participants. This
system learns
through trainee responses. Features of Intelligent Tutorial Systems (ITS)
  
It guides the trainees
  
It is a text-based system
  
It also evaluates the training program
  
It also improves the methodology for teaching the trainee based on the information
  
It is an interactive system
 
It determines the trainee’s level of understanding.

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI): Programmed instruction is a Computer-based
training that comprises of graphics, multimedia, text that is connected to one another and is
stored in memory. Programmed instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants
 the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and
strategically through
efficient learning.

VIRTUAL REALITY: Virtual Reality is a training method that puts the participant in
3-D environment. The three dimensional environment stimulates situations and events
that are experienced in the job. The participant interacts with 3-D images to accomplish
the training objectives. This type of environment is created to give trainee the impression
of physical involvement in an environment.  To experience virtual reality, the trainee wears
 devices, like headset, gloves, treadmills, etc.

GAMES AND SIMULATIONS: Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes
unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training
purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work
as they are designed toreproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take
 place in trainees‟ job.

BEHAVIOR-MODELING: Behavior Modeling uses the innate inclination for people to
 to do something new. It is more often used in combination
observe others to discover how
with some other techniques

ROLE PLAYS: Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play.
Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role, concerns,
objectives, responsibilities, emotions, etc. Then, a general description of the situation, and
the problem that each one of them faces, is given. For instance, situation could be strike
in factory, managing conflict, two parties in conflict, scheduling vacation days, etc. Once
 read their role descriptions, they act out their roles by interacting with
the participants
 one another.

 ON THE JOB TRAINING: The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job.
The four techniques for on the job development are:
  
  
  
Job Rotation
 
Job Instruction Techniques

 OFF THE JOB TRAINING: There are many management development  techniques that an
employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:
  
Sensitivity Training
  
Transactional Analysis
  
Straight Lectures/ Lectures
 
Simulation Exercises

Q.8 What is Management development? What would you
suggest for making management development effective? What
are reasons for management development?

Meaning and definition of Management Development

Management development is a process of increasing efficiency and changing behavioral pattern or
mentality toward particular issues for the achievement of organizational objective. It is mean for
executive level officer only .It is subsequent process enhancing of manager required for
performing their assignments. Some author have define other definition.
Gary Dessler:
Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting
knowledge, changing attitude or increasing skills.

Why is it needed?
• It is acknowledged as one of the determinants for organizational success having a direct impact on
its economic benefits.
 Organisations, making available such techniques to their managers helps the company to hold
on to their pried employees

Define your vision and broadcast it. In the old management format, subordinates
 were paid to execute and not 
to think. We know this structure doesn’t work, especially if
you have talented employees.
In order to engage your team to deliver the best to their abilities, you need to have a clear
vision of your company’s reason to be. What is the purpose of your company? What impact  do
you want to have and on whom? How do you want to change the world? These are the
questions you need to answer and broadcast to your team before they can engage.
 Have a meeting and share your vision.
 Send an e-mail after your meeting.
  Write your vision and post it in places where everyone can see it on a regular basis.

Get personal to get engagement. Defining your vision is great, but it is not enough
to engage your team to commit to it. Do you know what yourteam wants? Do you know
what motivates them? If you don’t, you will need to find out.
 When you find out what your team wants, you can transmit to them the possibilities that
 will trigger their engagement to your vision. Steve Radcliffe called this “Spirit Energy.”
  Organize a brainstorming meeting and also one-on-one meetings.
 Connect possibilities to their desires.
 Engage your team by asking for their input and to share their ideas.
 Make them feel part of journey to success.

 Recognize the power of influence through personal branding. What is
personal branding? Personal branding is the image or impression in the mind of others about
you, your team, or your company. Good personal branding gives you the power of influence.
If you are great at what you do and you look the part, people won’t doubt you.
 Set a clear company dress code to ensure consistency across the team.
 If you want to project passion and creativity, wear colors such as red, bright blues, yellow.
 If you want to project trust and authority, wear black, blue, and grey.

Reasons for management development

It improves the performance of managers. One of the biggest advantages of
management development is the fact that it helps massively in boosting the performance of
managers at all levels within an organization. Management/executive development programs
 and enhance their managerial skills in diverse ways
exploit the full potentials of managers
thereby making them more effective.

It makes employees loyal. Management development has the tendency of making employees
in management positions to become more loyal to the company or organization that they work
 that the
for. The reason this can be possible is because of the fact that since the employees know
 company or organization has invested a lot of time and money in developing them

It solves the problem of shortage of trained managers. It is a fact that getting well-
trained managers to man certain managerial jobs can be quite difficult simply because of the
massive shortage of such professionals. Management/executive development programs are
 and organizations get well-
important because they solve this problem by helping companies
 trained managerial personnel through the training process

It makes managers dynamic and helps them handle changes. Today, the world is
changing faster than ever. For example, the rapid growth of technology means that these days
things are done quite differently from the way they were done  some years back. Companies
 are aware of the massive changes taking place on a daily basis.

It helps deal with the issue of the complexity of the management job. There is no doubt
that the jobs of managers or executives can be very complex. Now, if management jobs are
complex in nature, then mangers at all levels in the organization must possesscertain pertinent
 skills and knowledge in order to enable them to perform their job effectively.

It helps managers to handle the complexity of organizations: These days, in the face of
increasing competition, companies are becoming more and more complex in order to increase
productivity and beat their competitors. As a result of this, there is the dire need for
managers to be well-equipped to be able to handle the complex
 natures of their companies
and deal with the challenges that come along with this.
Q.10 Differentiate between development and education. What is
most effective method of ensuring that learning’s are
implemented successfully after training program?
 The knowledge and skills resulting from instruction and training (Webster)
  Systematic instruction. (Oxford Reference Dictionary, p.448)
 Education focuses on learning new skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will equip an
 individual to assume a new job or to do a different task at some
 predetermined future time. (Nadler, p.6)
 When the behavior at the end of a learning experience is unknown, because it is unknowable,
and the justification for the learning is to enhance a person’s being, not necessarily the
improvement of a performance that translates easily to the improvement of the organization’s
effectiveness (though that might happen), the enterprise is called education

 Development activities are not job related but are oriented to both personal and organizational
growth. The focus of such activities is on broadening the learner’s conceptual and perceptual base
 in areas not previously explored or experienced by the individual. (Nadler, P.7)
 DEVELOPMENT: General transfer of similar skills to very different settings for the
purposes of improving the way people feel, think, behave, or resist learning

Most effective method

There are numerous methods and materials with the most effective training techniques available to help
you prepare and equip employees to better do their jobs. Indeed, with so many choices out there, it can
be daunting to determine which methods to use and when to use them

Quizzes. For long, complicated training, stop periodically to administer brief quizzes on
information presented to that point. You can also begin sessions with a prequel and let 
participants know there will also be a follow-up quiz. Trainees will stay engaged in order to
Improve their prequel scores on the final quiz. Further motivate participants by offering
awards to the highest scorers or the most improved scores

Small group discussions. Break the participants down into small groups and give them
case studies or work situations to discuss or solve. This is a good way
 for knowledgeable
 veteran employees to pass on their experience to newer employees.

Case studies. Adults tend to bring a problem-oriented way of thinking to workplace
training. Case studies are an excellent way to capitalize on this type of adult learning. By
analyzing real job-related situations, employees can learn how to handle similar situations.
They can also see how various elements of a job work together to create problems as well

 as solutions.

Active summaries. Create small groups and have them choose a leader. Ask them to
summarize the lecture’s major points and have each team leader present the summaries
to the class. Read
 aloud a prewritten summary and compare this with participants’
 impressions.

Q & A sessions. Informal question-and-answer sessions are most effective with small
groups and for updating skills rather than teaching new skills. For example, some changes
in departmental procedure might easily be handled by a short explanation
 by the supervisor,
 followed by a question-and-answer period and a discussion period.

Question cards. During the lecture, ask participants to write questions on the
 subject matter. Collect them and conduct a quiz/review session.

Role-playing. By assuming roles and acting out situations that might occur in the
workplace, employees learn how to handle various situations before they face them on the
job. Role-playing is an excellent training technique for many interpersonal skills, such as

 customer service, interviewing, and supervising.

Participant control. Create a subject menu of what will be covered. Ask participants to
review it and pick items they want to know more about. Call on a participant
 to identify his
 or her choice. Cover that topic and move on to the next participant.

 Demonstrations. Whenever possible, bring tools or equipment that are part of the 
training topic and demonstrate the steps being taught or the processes being adopted.
 
Other activities.
o Create a personal action plan
o Raise arguments to issues in the lecture
o Paraphrase important or complex points in the lecture
Q.1 What is meant by balance score card? Discuss its
methodology for setting goals like a sales manager of
consumer durables firm selling refrigerators using BSC.
The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a strategic planning and management system that
organizations use to:
Communicate what they are trying to accomplish
Align the day-to-day work that everyone is doing with strategy
Prioritize projects, products, and services
Measure and monitor progress towards strategic targets

Methodology of setting goals

How it works
The balanced scorecard suggests that we view the organization from four perspectives.
 People ,
 Process ,
 Customer and
 Finance for meeting short term needs and vision related needs.

Then develop metrics, collect data and analyze it relative to each of these perspectives to know
how we are moving towards vision and yearly goals.
Most effective method

There are numerous methods and materials with the most effective training techniques available to
help you prepare and equip employees to better do their jobs. Indeed, with so many choices out
there, it can be daunting to determine which methods to use and when to use them

Quizzes. For long, complicated training, stop periodically to administer brief quizzes
on information presented to that point. You can also begin sessions with a prequel and

let participants know there will also be a follow-up quiz. Trainees will stay engaged in
order to
Q.5 What is assessment center? Discuss the various assessment
tests /exercises that are carried in Assessment center. Give brief
details of each test carried out.
Assessor: An individual trained to observe record, classify and make reliable judgment about the
behaviors of those being assessed.

An Assessment Center (AC) is a comprehensive, systematic procedure in which the efforts of several
candidates are observed and evaluated at the same time by several experts with the help of multiple
assessment techniques according to specific criteria for various purposes.

Key Features of Assessment/Development Centres

 multiple underlying competencies
 controlled, neutral environment
 multiple assessment tools
 multiple trained assessors
 formal integration process

Various Assessment Tests that are carried out in Assessment Centre

Over the many years that assessment centre’s have been used as part of the recruitment process a core
group of exercises have become recognized as the best ones to assess a candidates competencies and
behaviors. The majority of assessment centre exercises fall into one of the following categories.

1. Role play:
This is one of the most popular exercises in assessment centre. This is because it enables prospective
organization to see how well the candidate behaves with others and is applicable to almost every
employee, from a supervisor to senior management.
This type of exercise also allows the assessors to actually test how candidate respond when put on the
spot or dealing with conflict.

It uses structured 2-way interaction mainly testing

1. Customer handling skills
2. Coaching

2. Personality questionnaires:

3. Intray Exercises
The in-tray exercise is a widely used assessment centre exercise because of the diversity of behaviors as
well as, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSA’s) that can be tested. For example the main behaviors that
one will need to demonstrate in this exercise are:
• Planning,
• Prioritization,
• Decision making,
• Management style,
• Evaluation of situations,
• Analysis of information,
• Speed & Accuracy,
• Effective use of Time.

4. Analysis Presentation Exercises

The presentation exercise is a great opportunity to stand out from the crowd. Giving a presentation offers
much better platform than is normally available when simply answering an interviewer's questions. One
also has far more control in this exercise than in any of the others
Standardised exercises requiring candidates to prepare and deliver a presentation in response to
complex business information

5. Group Exercises
Group exercises are used to assess how a candidate interacts with others and to gauge the impact and
influence when working in a team. Typically, he/she will be given a problem or scenario which requires a
collective decision to be taken. This is usually presented in the form of a brief, which also includes a strict
time limit when the result of the discussion will need to be conveyed to the assessors.
Following competencies can be assessed through this exercise.
a. Interpersonal sensitivity
b. Leadership
c. Influence and negotiation
d. Team working

6. Creativity tests
Standardised work-related problems are given to test
1. Number of relevant ideas generated
2. Ability to look at problems from a range of perspectives
3. Originality of ideas

7. Competency based Interviews

They are used as structured evidence gathering process. CBI allows quantifiable ratings on most
competency areas.
Q.9 What are pitfalls of linking financial rewards and
developmental appraisal in annual assessments? How does one
create a de linked system? Discuss with example.
Q.10 What are various uses & application of 360 degree
feedback in industry? What are the limitations of the process?
How can the process be made more objective.
360-degree feedback, is one of the most valuable features of Agile Performance Management.
As the name suggests, it provides feedback from all angles; that is from peer groups, to
managers, to subordinates. As this communication comes from a variety of different sources it
will contain a multitude of differing opinions and perspectives, which is of vital importance
when looking for feedback. In a sense, it can be seen as more valid and objective as it is from
such a varied audience.
Identifies development opportunities As the feedback a person receives is most likely diverse,
this provides a unique opportunity to uncover areas that may need development or open up gaps
in knowledge that could be valuable. Such feedback can then be incorporated into personal
development plans. This is very useful information that the individual may not have thought of
on their own.
Core competencies adhered to When a company introduces a 360-degree feedback as part of its
performance management system, they can do so in a manner that relates to the company’s core
competencies. These competencies reflect the organization’s standard for behaviours and
interactions. When reinforced on a regular basis, they can have an impact in shaping your
company’s culture. Making them a part of the performance management system means that
individuals can receive feedback about how they act on and exemplify the organisation’s core
competencies in their daily performance, encouraging everyone to live and breath these ideals in
everything they do.
Limitations of 360 degree feedback
Inadequate feedback This point is entitled ‘inadequate’; as there are many ways in which
feedback can be inadequate. As with all reviews, there is a chance that the feedback might have
been filtered or edited in some way and therefore isn’t 100% honest. This can happen often as
Managers will ask to receive (or be able to access) all feedback, even if it is not directed towards
them. This can result in people being less frank because they are aware their manager might read
it. Additionally, people often misunderstand the purpose of the 360-degree feedback exercises.
The aim of feedback is to be constructive, not personal.
Poor leadership If a manager does not get on-board with, or is not enthusiastic about a 360-
degree feedback program, it is unlikely that it would be successfully implemented. Whatever the
boss gives importance to, gets the attention of his/her subordinates.
360 data is only helpful if it gets acted upon and used. A main reason for the failure of 360
programs is that feedback is given, but then swiftly forgotten. If no plan to implement the
feedback is made; there is no change in behaviour, and the feedback is redundant. Managers
should therefore be included in the initial discussions and recruited as 360-degree feedback
ambassadors within their teams. Training on the need to follow-up reviews with 1-on-1s and
effective goal-setting that takes feedback into account is essential.
Priorities Too often the priority for managers using a 360 program is to uncover their teams’
weaknesses. While, this is intended to be a consequence of use, there should be more of an
emphasis on praise and positive feedback. If 360 programmes are used only to highlight negative
aspects of a team member’s work, it is likely that they will foster a negative attitude towards the
feedback culture, and then ultimately disengage from it. This leads on to the final disadvantage;
that there are not enough participants in the 360-feedback process.
Less than 360-degree feedback As suggested above, in order for the 360-feedback process to
work, people need to engage with it properly, and use it on a regular basis. If only part of the
team uses it, it loses many of its benefits. If feedback and input is not coming from part of the
team the evaluations and suggestions lose their value, as the lower the number of sources they
come from, the less objective the comments ultimately become. Therefore, 360-degree feedback
processes are most advantageous in larger organisations (and feedback opportunities).
There are many articles entitled the ‘disadvantages of 360-degree feedback programs’ warning
PR personnel and managers of the ‘many’ pitfalls associated with implementing a system of 360-
degree feedback. But what most fail to acknowledge is that these mistakes are largely
preventable, and almost exclusively have to do with how the system has been communicated and
implemented. If people received proper guidance and training on how to use the tools, most of
the problems commonly encountered would be eradicated. If adequate training has been done,
and managers are on-board, the advantages of a 360-degree feedback process should far
outweigh the disadvantages.

360 degree feedback is a positive addition to your performance

management system when implemented with care and training to enable people
to better serve customers and develop their own careers.

There are negatives with the 360 degree feedback processes, but with any
performance feedback process, it can increase positive, powerful problem
solving and provide you with a profoundly supportive, organization-affirming
method for promoting employee growth and development.

However, in the worst case, it saps morale, destroys motivation, and enables
disenfranchised employees to go for the jugular or plot revenge scenarios
against people who rated their performance less than perfect.

Which scenario will your organization choose? It’s all about the details. Think
profoundly before you move forward, learn from the mistakes of others and
assess your organization’s readiness. Apply effective change management
strategies for planning and implementation. Do the right things right and you will
add a powerful tool to your performance management and enhancement toolkit.
Q.1 What is meant by compensation? How do you structure a
compensation package in a company, which believes
aggressively on individual performance driven culture. Also
highlight options possible.
Traditional concept: All forms of pay or rewards going to employee in return for their services
(employment) with the company .Employees exchange work / contribution to the company for monetary
and non-monetary rewards.
Current concept: Employees add value and contribute to the success of the organization. They need to
be paid in return for the value added.

The purpose of compensation Management is

 To ensure that organization achieves its short term goals of profitability and
 Long term goal of competitiveness of the organization by retaining talented employees.

Compensation acts as strategic tool for shaping employee behaviors. Compensation has assumed to be
strategic tool as it serves various purposes like
 attracting,
 developing ,
 retaining and
 Performance of the employee for ensuring successful business performance in short and long term.

Compensation needs to focus on strategic issues of retaining talent for growth needs and operational
aspects for employee performance while delivering on employee satisfaction linked to meaningful
package based on comparisons internally and externally

Effective Compensation Package in a company

Effective Compensation strategy should address following issues in a company
 Attracting Talents
 Retaining talent
 Removing deadwood
 Ensure equity within and outside
 Helping create New / desired behaviors
 Creating affordability

Effective Compensation Package as per today’s trends and current culture

 Organizations are increasingly under pressure to work innovative compensation packages beating
the competition.
 Compensation realities in competitive era
 Talented employees are short in the market. They command very high salaries.
 It has become driver for performance.
 High caliber employees need to be retained unlike in the past where employee used to retire at
same place
 Organizations do not wish to carry any below average person
 Employee wants steep raise every year otherwise wants to leave
 Employee is ready to move to any unrelated industry unlike in the past.
 The concept of competition itself getting refined .From paying people for the job they do to paying
employees according to competencies demonstrated and contribution to results.
 Difficult to know what is external equity.Even using methodologies for internal equity have lost their
meaning as each person expects compensation in line with the value that he adds and salaries as per
his concept of market and how much an employee is to be paid for the value that he adds is one of
the most complex issues in the industry at present. Measuring the value itself is a complex issue.
 Current compensation package is traditional concept of forced benefits while new age
compensation is based on individual’s needs and choice within a certain cost to company.
 Traditional packages drive the annual increases based on Inflation and annual merit increase while
new age packages give more weight on yearly performance of employee and organization.
 Organizations need to create a meaningful compensationstrategy as a part of business revival
strategy for survival and growth.
 Traditional philosophy of compensation based on providing high benefits and low take home ( To
protect against inflation & Tax ) needs to change with time as new generation ‘s mindset want high
take home to enjoy freedom of spending and low benefits ( only statutory ) .
 Concept of benchmarking is getting revised every day .The earlier concept of grade comparisons,
industry comparisons are no longer valid for ensuring external equity.
Compensation needs to benchmarks itself with market as employees compare with market (where they
can get jobs).

Other options possible:

 Paying for how results are achieved, as well as results themselves, paying for competence as well as
 Paying for those skills and behaviors supporting future success of the individual and the organization
,not just immediate results
 Addressing all aspects of reward strategy : the objectives and goals ,the design and systems and the
implementation and operation ,rather than focusing on the design mechanics
 Use of various variety of financial vehicles to ensure innovative packages
 Last few decades have seen that successful companies have tried to align the compensation
management to business strategy


Q.7 What is the difference between -1) Merit Pay, 2)
Performance pay, 3) Gain sharing, 4) Profit sharing, 5) Annual
rewards? Which one would you recommend in your company
and why?

Merit pay is an approach to compensation that rewards higher performing

employees with additional pay, sometimes called incentive pay.
. Merit pay
A permanent cumulative salary increase the firm awards to an individual employee based on his or her
individual performance.
Merit Pay Options
Annual lump-sum merit raises that do not make the raise part of an employee’s base salary.Merit awards
tied to both individual and organizational performance.

A merit system is most applicable when there is detailed data available to

measure the performance of employees. Consider how that data can push
employees to achieve more, padding their own paychecks, as well as the
company's bottom line.
 Communicates company objectives
 Let's employees know where they stand:
 Aids in employee retention

Performance Based Pay

A financial reward system for employees where some or all of their monetary compensation is
related to how their performance is assessed relative to stated criteria. Performance related pay can
be used in a business context for how an individual, a team or the entire company performs during a
given time frame.

Performance pay offers a variety of benefits. Management enjoys better employee performance and
employee engagement. As long as there is a fair and effective performance review system that is
accurately aligned with local salary levels, employees will strive to work hard. Executives will enjoy
increased revenue and working capital. Management can use performance pay systems to transition
model employees into supervisors. HR administrators can use performance pay to attract potential
job applicants and improve employee retention. In the beginning, turnover rates may be slightly
higher as low performers leave, but qualified and motivated employees will remain.

Some companies struggle to implement performance pay systems because it is hard to define
performance levels and objectively evaluate employees. The performance criteria and
measurements may be vague and inadequate. As a result, supervisors favor certain employees over
others, which increase collective employee dissatisfaction. When employees cannot understand the
performance measures, they may still blame management when they fail to receive wage increases.
Sometimes, the objective of performance appraisal systems is to merely identify training needs or
promotion suitability. The biggest challenge of performance pay systems is that management must
continually observe and document employee performance while also providing feedback, which is
very time consuming.

Gain Sharing;
 It is linked to gains of the company as agreed based on yearly goals.
 It comes from concept of productivity improvements shared with employees.
 At senior levels , organizations link the gains in terms of strategic directions

Scanlon Plan

Philosophy Identity Competence Involvement Sharing of

of System Benefits
Cooperation Formula
Implementing a gain-sharing plan

1. Establish general plan objectives.

2. Choose specific performance measures.
3. Decide on a funding formula.
4. Decide on a method for dividing and distributing the employees’ share of the gains.
5. Choose the form of payment.
6. Decide how often to pay bonuses.
7. Develop the involvement system.
8. Implement the plan.

Profit Sharing :
I. Profit-Sharing Plans:
 Cash plans: Employees receive cash shares of the firm’s profits at regular intervals. (Quarterly,
midyear etc.)
 The Lincoln incentive system: Profits are distributed to employees based on their individual merit
rating. (Annually)
 Deferred profit-sharing plans
o A predetermined portion of profits is placed in each employee’s account under a trustee’s
o They are also known as annual Bonus /Ex-Gratia etc. in organizations. ( Different from statutory
bonus )

Annul rewards:
In a competitive business climate, more business owners are looking at
improvements in quality while reducing costs. Meanwhile, a strong economy
has resulted in a tight job market. So while small businesses need to get more
from their employees, their employees are looking for more out of them.
Employee reward and recognition programs are one method of motivating
employees to change work habits and key behaviors to benefit a small
Although these terms are often used interchangeably, reward and recognition
systems should be considered separately. Employee reward systems refer to
programs set up by a company to reward performance and motivate
employees on individual and/or group levels. They are normally considered
separate from salary but may be monetary in nature or otherwise have a cost
to the company. While previously considered the domain of large companies,
small businesses have also begun employing them as a tool to lure top
employees in a competitive job market as well as to increase employee

Both reward and recognition programs have their place in small business.
Small business owners should first determine desired employee behaviors,
skills, and accomplishments that will support their business goals. By
rewarding and recognizing outstanding performance, entrepreneurs will have
an edge in a competitive corporate climate.
Q.9 Discuss the list the factors that are correlated with success
of performance pay in organization and factors which have no
Employee Performance Depends On These 3 Critical Factors

Company Culture
This is the base of the pyramid, and the foundation on which everything else rests. The
company’s purpose (or WHY) and core values are the bedrock of the culture, but it’s much
deeper than simply what you post up on your company’s wall or website.

The true culture is an expression of what is actually valued, regardless of what’s written down.
For example, the company may declare transparency as a value, but are people actively engaging
in candid, open communication or does gossip run rampant? How people interact with each other
and the way they go about doing their work is the culture.

That’s not to say that a written purpose and set of values aren’t important. They let you codify
your culture by purposefully distinguishing the elements that are unique, strong and positive
about your culture, and then act as touchstones to be used in the ongoing conversations and
communication designed to continuously reinforce that culture.
One way to assess the strength and alignment of a culture is to measure the difference between
the stated values and the actual lived values. A good culture exists when the two are aligned, and
it takes continuous steering to make sure the actual culture doesn’t drift away from the stated
2) Employee Engagement
An “engaged employee” is enthusiastic about their work and passionately furthers the
organization’s interests. When someone is engaged, you can feel it. It feels like they’re leaning in
and deeply care about their work, their team and the organization. In contrast, when people are
disengaged the likelihood of their success is dramatically reduced even if they clearly know what
they are supposed to achieve.
Engagement can be difficult to measure because part of the problem is that engagement is based
on each individual’s subjective experience. There are many tools and methodologies out there for
measuring it, but despite their sophistication, none are as powerful as a straightforward
question — “How do you feel about your work?”
In this respect, managers are a bit like doctors. In modern medicine, the highest most
sophisticated determinant of pain is not measured with fMRI machines or CAT-scans, but simply
asking the patient to report their level of pain on a scale of 1–10. With all the tech available, the
best diagnostic tool is still a subjective assessment.
Some of the key drivers of engagement are more straightforward. Some elements that are
prerequisites for engagement, like trust and transparency, are derived directly from the culture.
Others have to do with how connected the person is to the team and the company, how well-
matched they are for their role, and what their opportunities are for growth.
For example, have you hired people who are passionate about the deeper purpose or the Why of
the company? Do they feel like they belong, and do they have positive relationships with their
peers and their manager? Are they in a role that leverages their unique abilities, and that also
gives them an opportunity to continue to learn and grow over time?

3) Performance Management
This sits at the top of the pyramid. It’s the smallest of the three and the most concrete in terms of
practices and measurements, and how easy it is to implement and adjust. Essentially managers
set objectives and KPIs, manage execution, and look at metrics to see whether progress is being
made and outcomes are being achieved.
Think of performance management however as the tip of an iceberg. It’s small, manageable, and
easy to see. But because it’s the only part that you can easily see, many leaders make the fatal
mistake of not realizing that culture and engagement are the hidden layers that determine
whether or not performance management will even be effective at all.
As opposed to focusing on all three of these elements — company culture, employee engagement,
and performance management — separately and haphazardly, a holistic and coordinated approach
ensures consistent results over time.
Continuously focusing on and nurturing the company culture ensures that it stays strong and
healthy, and gives rise to the possibility of high employee engagement. Ensuring that people are
the right fit for the company and their role, have positive relationships with their peers and
manager and feel that they’re growing, creates the highest likelihood that they’ll be engaged.
When employees are engaged, they’ve got the drive and energy to not only move the needle on
existing objectives, but to also innovate and create new opportunities for growth.
With company culture and employee engagement firmly in place, performance management can
be as simple as setting goals that people are eager to fulfill, lightly checking-in regularly to offer
support, and trusting that they have the motivation, skills and desire to get the job done.

Factors which have no correlation::
Q.10 Highlight the differences between paying for performance
Vs Paying for contribution? Which would be more effective in
current era of competitiveness and why?
Q.2 What is meant by People Capability Maturity Model?
Differentiate between PCMM and CMM/CMMi

ANS. The People Capability Maturity Model

The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in the United States is engaged on a long-term programme
of software process improvement. Part of this programme is the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for
software processes, which I discuss in Chapter 28. This is concerned with best practice in software
engineering. To support this model, they have also proposed a People Capability Maturity Model (P-
CMM) (Curtis, Hefley et al. 2001). The P-CMM can be used as a framework for improving the way in
which an organisation manages its human assets.

Like the CMM, the P-CMM is a five-level model, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 The People Capability Maturity Model

The five levels are:

1. Initial Ad hoc, informal people management practices

2. Repeatable Establishment of policies for developing the capability of the staff
3. Defined Standardisation of best people management practice across the organisation
4. Managed Quantitative goals for people management
5. Optimizing Continuous focus on improving individual competence and workforce motivation

Curtis et al (Curtis, Hefley et al. 2001) state that the strategic objectives of the P-CMM are:

1. to improve the capability of software organisations by increasing the capability of their

2. to ensure that software development capability is an attribute of the organisation rather than
of a few individuals;
3. to align the motivation of individuals with that of the organisation;
4. to retain valuable human assets (i.e., people with critical knowledge and skills) within the

The P-CMM is a practical tool for improving the management of people in an organisation because it
provides a framework for motivating, recognising, standardising and improving good practice.
However, like all capability models created by the SEI, it is designed for large rather than small
companies. It reinforces the need to recognise the importance of people as individuals and to
develop their capabilities. Of course, the complete application of this model is very expensive and
probably unnecessary for most organisations. However, it is a helpful guide that can lead to
significant improvements in the capability of organisations to produce high-quality software.


Q.4 What are different levels in people CMM? Discuss with
example of measurement of process capability for recruitment
process in an organization.
The five stages of the People CMM framework are:

1. P-CMM - Initial Level (Typical characteristics: Inconsistency in

performing practices, Displacement of responsibility, Ritualistic
practices, and Emotionally detached workforce).
2. P-CMM - Managed Level (Typical characteristics: Work overload,
Environmental distractions, Unclear performance objectives or
feedback, Lack of relevant knowledge, or skill, Poor communication,
Low morale)
3. P-CMM - Defined Level (Although there are performing basic
workforce practices, there is inconsistency in how these practices are
performed across units and little synergy across the organization. The
organization misses opportunities to standardize workforce practices
because the common knowledge and skills needed for conducting its
business activities have not been identified)
4. P-CMM - Predictable Level (The organization manages and exploits
the capability created by its framework of workforce competencies.
The organization is now able to manage its capability and performance
quantitatively. The organization is able to predict its capability for
performing work because it can quantify the capability of its workforce
and of the competency-based processes they use in performing their
5. P-CMM - Optimizing Level (The entire organization is focused on
continual improvement. These improvements are made to the capability
of individuals and workgroups, to the performance of competency-
based processes, and to workforce practices and activities. The
organization uses the results of the quantitative management activities
established at Maturity Level 4 to guide improvements at Maturity
Level 5. Maturity Level 5 organizations treat change management as an
ordinary business process to be performed in an orderly way on a
regular basis)
Maturity Levels in PCMM
 Chart given above shows what different HR practices are to be performed at different levels of
people process maturity in the organization. Level 1 is just ad hoc or as it is. Nothing is clear
and HR activities driven by people without any system or Policy.
At Level 2 , organization reaches some maturity in key process es like Training & development ,
Performance Management , Staffing , Communication , Work environment .
Focus of responsbility at Various Levels
1. Iniatial : Inconsistant / Ad hoc (Inconsitant Mangment )
2. Managed : Managers take responsbility for managing and developing their people(People
3. Defined : Organisation takes responsibility for developing work force competencies
(Competency Management )
4. Predictable:Opportunism due to development of competencies are exploited . Workforce
competencies are predictable / Capability Management
5.Optimizing :Continuous improvement of workforce competencies (Change Management)


1. Continuous Workforce Innovation
 2 Organizational Performance Alignment 3.
Continuous Capability Improvement
4. Mentoring
 5 Organizational Capability Management 6. Quantitative Performance
Management 7, Competency-Based Assets
 Empowered Workgroups
 8 Competency
9. Participatory Culture
 10 Workgroup Development 11. Competency-Based Practices 12
Career Development 13 Competency Development 14 Workforce Planning 15 Competency
16. Compensation
 17. Training and Development18. Performance Management 19. Work
Environment 20 Communication and –21. Coordination 22. Staffing
GOALS (87)
Goals for each process area defined (87) andthey are met through clearly defined work
practices (495)

 Process Area & MaturityLevels

 Process goal is an organizational state to be achieved by implementing the practices of a process
 Process practice is a sub process within a process area that contributes to achieving a process
area goal.


Q.6 What are process areas at PCMM level 2 and describe in
brief characteristics of staffing function under PCMM at level
2(Managed ).
Maturity Level 2 – The Managed Level (People management) The workforce practices implemented at
the Managed Level focus on activities at the unit level. The first step toward improving the capability of
the workforce is to get managers to take workforce activities as high priority responsibilities of their job.
They must accept personal responsibility for the performance and development of those who perform the
unit’s work. The practices implemented at Maturity Level 2 focus a manager’s attention on unit-level
issues such as staffing, coordinating commitments, providing resources, managing performance,
developing skills, and making compensation decisions. Building a solid foundation of workforce practices
within each unit provides the bedrock on which more sophisticated workforce practices can be
implemented at higher levels of maturity. An important reason for initially concentrating on practices at
the unit level is founded on the frequent failure of organization-wide improvement programs. These
programs often fail because they were thrust on an unprepared management team. That is, managers were
struggling with problems that were not addressed by organizational changes. They often lacked the
experience and skill needed to implement sophisticated practices. Consequently, Maturity Level 2 focuses
on establishing basic practices within units that address immediate problems and prepare managers for
implementing more sophisticated practices at higher levels. It is difficult to implement organization-wide
practices if managers are not performing the basic workforce practices required to manage their units.
Focusing at the unit level first also establishes a foundation in managing performance that can be
enhanced with more sophisticated practices at higher levels. If people are unable to perform their assigned
work, sophisticated workforce practices practices will be of little benefit to individuals or the
. Managed : Level 2

 Introduction :
1. Process areas at the managed level focus on establishing a foundation of basic workforce
practices that can be continuously improved to develop the capability of the workforce.
2. Qualified people are recruited, selected and transitioned into assignments within the unit.
3. Performance objectives are established and performance is periodically discussed to identify
actions that an improve it.
4. Individuals develop interpersonal communication skills to ensure that work dependencies
are coordinated effectively.
 Lead to 6 Process Areas ( at L-2)
1. Communication and Coordination
2. Work Environment
3. Performance Management
4. Training and Development
5. Compensation
6. Staffing ( Only staffing would be covered in details)
1. Communication and Coordination
The purpose of the Communication and coordination is to establish timely communication
throughout the organization and to ensure that the workforce has the skills to share information
and coordinate activities efficiently.
Communication and Coordination establishes the initial basis for developing and empowering workgroups.
This process area establishes a culture for openly sharing information across organizational levels
and laterally among dependent units.
2. Work environment
The purpose of work environment is to establish and maintain physical working conditions and to
provide resources that allow individuals and workgroups to perform their tasks efficiently without
necessary distractions.
The work environment must be managed to ensure it supports the committed work o those in the
organization. This process area focuses on both the resources provided for performing work, and
the physical conditions under which the work is performed

3. Performance Management
The purpose of performance management is to establish objectives related to committed work
against which unit and individual performance can be measured to discuss performance against
these objectives, and to continuously enhance performance.

The primary focus of performance management is on continual discussion of work performance to
identify ways to improve it.
The discussion of performance occurs in the context of measurable objectives that individuals are
trying to achieve in their work.

4. Training & Development

Purpose of T & D is to ensure that all individuals have the knowledge and skills required to
perform their assignments and are provided with relevant development opportunities.
The primary forces of T &D is on removing the gap between the current knowledge and skills of
each individual and the critical skills required to perform their assignments.
After removing the gap, other development objectives can be pursued.
5. Compensation
The purpose of Compensation is to provide all individuals with remuneration and benefits based on
their contributions and value to the organization.
Compensation represents the only process at the managed level whose execution is coordinated by
actions at the organizational level. The compensation system should be designed to motivate and
reward the skills and behaviors the organization considers vital to its success.
6. Staffing
The purpose of staffing is to establish a formal process by which committed work is matched to unit
resources and qualified individuals are recruited, selected and transitioned into assignments.
Staffing is positioned as the primary process area at the managed level since staffing decisions
provide an organization’s greatest opportunities t influence performance.
Staffing involves processes related to balancing the workload with available resources recruiting ,
selecting among candidates for open positions, entering or leaving the organization, and
transitioning into new positions.


Q.10 What are executive Management responsibilities in
implementing PCMM?
Ans. Responsibility for implementation: Executive Management

 A common reason why workforce development or human capital management programs

fail is from lack of executive management leadership.
 There are twelve critical actions executive management should take to ensure the
success of People CMM-based improvement programs.

1 Take personal responsibility:

 Executives do not deliver products or services to customers. Managers and their staffs do
 Executives build organizations that deliver products and services to customers, and this
responsibility cannot be delegated.

2. Set realistic goals:

 Executives must initiate improvement actionswith a clear statement of the

issuesdriving change and the objectives to be achieved.
 If the objectives are unrealistic, the improvement program will be just one more of the
organization’s failed initiatives.
 The improvement program must model the behaviors it wants the organization to adopt,
especially well-analyzed performance objectives for committed work.

to be made, and shield the organization from improvement overkill.

3.Align management:Human resources and related groups have little power to enforce
improvements or change management behavior. If middle managers resist adopting better
workforce practices, only executives can force them to align with the program. Executives must
build consensus among managers on the objectives and tactics for implementing improved
workforce practices and hold them accountable for achieving these objectives.

4.Align incentives: Executives must ensure that incentives are aligned with the planned
objectives of the improvement program and do not send mixed messages about the behaviors
the organization values. Incentives must shift from rewarding those who achieve business
results at the expense of the workforce, to rewarding those most effective at achieving result
5. Replace laggards:Human Resources and related groups own responsibility for assisting
improvement of workforce practices with the innovators, early adopters, and early and late
majority. Executives own the problem of laggards, especially if they are in management. For
an improvement program to succeed, executives must be willing to remove even friends for
failure to make progress

6. Never relent
 True leadership begins under stress. With all the pressures generated by demanding
business schedules and cost cutting, executives must nevertheless stand firm in driving the
improvements to the workforce practices that they know the organization needs.
 If they relent under pressure, the organization learns the art of excuses. The ultimate
appraisal of workforce capability or organizational maturity is determined by which
practices the organization refuses to sacrifice under grinding pressure.

7. Establish policies and empower Human Resources: lets through developing the skills
and competencies of their people.

 Policies that merely sick up goals from People CMM process areas represent a lost
opportunity for executives to communicate their expectations for behavior in their
organizations. Once policies are established, executives need visibility into the
organization’s compliance.
8. Focus on performance: If a People CMM-based improvement program is initiated with a
focus on a process area such as Staffing, then only managers who have open positions will be
engaged. However, all unit managers are responsible for the performance of those who report
to them.

9. Establish (implementation) responsibility for PCMM

 Executives must assign responsibility for managing the program, provide funding and
resources, expect periodic status reports, and measure results.
 People assigned to lead various components of the improvement program must be good
role models. Executives should ask frequent questions about plans for the improvement
program and the assumptions underlying them.

10. Manage change: Executives must determine the amount of change the organization can
absorb, prioritize the changes
11.Involve the workforce:The People CMM begins the empowerment of the workforce by
involving them in setting performance objectives at the Managed Level, and it increases their
responsibility at each subsequent maturity level. Executives must understand and encourage
this cultural transition. They must also ensure that the workforce is involved in analyzing and
defining workforce competencies since they are the best source for identifying and updating the
knowledge, skills, and process abilities required.

12. Review status: Executives own the organization’s rate of improvement. Business reviews
should not only focus on work status and financial results, but also on the progress being made
in adopting workforce practices and of any impending issues or risks. Executives emphasize
their commitment to improved workforce practices through active engagement in reviews and
use of measurements.