Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

DIVERSITY -------

We can think of animals in terms of their…

1. Grade of Organization

2. Body Symmetry

3.

4. Body Cavities

5. Genetic Material

Germ Layers

-

Budding

Sexual (Meiosis)

- Conjugation / autogamy

Clade Alveolata

- have alveoli

- Phylum Ciliphora

Protoplasmic Org: All in one w/ organelles

o

Diverse, specialized, Larger, Solitary, motile

o

Cilia

Cellular Grade of Org: cell à tissue à organ

o

Nuclear dualism: at least one of:

 

§ Micronucleus

Spherical

§ Macronucleus: day to day

 

o

Genus Vorticella

Radial

§

Sessile, sensitive

 

o

Genus Paramecium

Biradial: only 2 planes produce mirrors

- Phylum Apicompelxa

 

o

Endoparasites à malaria

Bilateral

o

Apical complex

o

Life cycle

Taxonomy: classifying living animals Phylogeny: grouping by ancestry

EUKARYOTES ------

No cell wall, one+ motile stage, heterotrophs but can photosynthesize Pinocytosis: cell drinking across membrane

Phagocytosis: cytostome (mouth), phagosome (food vacuole), lysosomes

Holozoic: particle feeding Saprozoic: dissolved nutrient feeding

- Tonic (tonic means the water outside of cell)

Excretion – water: osmoregulation: contractile vacuoles

Movement:

1. Flagella (undulipodia)

2. Cilia (undulipodia)

3. Pseudopodia (endoplasm à Hyaline cap à ectoplasm)

Undulipodia: 9 pairs around central pair Asexual

- Fission

o

Binary

o

Multiple (schizogony)

§ After sex (sporogony)

§ Simple: Monocystis (earthworm) don’t invade host cell

Sporocyst eaten, sporozoites, trophozoites eat sperm, gametocytes, schizogony, sporocyst

§ Complex: Plasmodium: malaria

P. vivax, P. falciparum (more serious)

Sexual reproduction in anopheles

Asexual replication in human

Human: intermediate host

Anopheles: definitive host

- Phylum Amoebozoa

o

Testate: shell

o

Some have flagellated life stages

o

Pseudopodia (white blood cells have this too)

§ Lobopodian

§ Filopodia

§ Reticulopodia

§ Axopodia

o

Acanthamoeba: cornea

o

Entamoeba histolytica: humans, amebic

dysentery

o

PORIFERA --------------------------------------------

Cnidaria + Ctenophora ----------------------------------

- FYI: Choanoflagellates: sister to metazoans

-

Blastula à gastrula à gut / archenteron

 

o

Similar to cells of porifera

 

o

2 cavities: blastocoel

- Spongocoel, osculum

o

Diploblasts

- Saprozoic feeding (nutrient cycling)

 

§

2 germ layers = ecto, endo- derm

- Embryos free swimming

 

o

Cnidaria: blind gut

- Asconoid à synconoid à leuconoid

o

Ctenophora: complete gut

- Choanocytes in sponges

-

 

o

Flagellated = water flow

-

Phylum Cnidaria

 

o

Trapping food, respiration, excretion

 

o

Medusa/ polyp

 

o

Saprozoic and pinocytosis

o

Cnidocytes

-

Amoeboid cells embedded in mesohyle

 

§ Cnidocil

 
 

o

Digestion: archaeocyte

§ Operculum

o

Support:

§ Nematocyst

 

§ Collencyte à collagen

 

§ Spirocyst

 

§ Sclerocytes à spicules

 

Adhesive, anthozoan

 

o

Protection: pinacocytes

 

§ Ptychocyst

 

§

Protect choanocytes, contract to

Anchor, anthozoan

 

close pores

§ Osmotic pressure & tension, shoot out

-

Multi-cellular, no true tissue

 

o

Reef builders

 
 

o

Mesohyle = collagen (spongin) + spicules

o

Dimorphic polyp, medusa

 

(CaCO3/silica)

o

Radial symmetry

 

§

Spicules:

o

Mesoglea (jelly, collagen)

 

Calcispongiae

o

Blind gut

Hexactinellida

§

Medusa: manubrium

(deep waters)

o

Epitheliomuscular cells

Demospongiae

o

Nerve net: rhopalia sense organs

(leuconoids)

§ Statocysts

Homoscleromorpha (blob)

§ Ocelli

 

- Asexual: bud, gemmules (over wintering)

 

§ chemoreceptors

 

o

Regeneration (somatic embryogenesis)

 

- Sexual: monoecious – both parts in one body

 

o

Anthozoa

 

o

Choanocytes trap sperm

o

Medusozoa: Scyphozoa, cubozoan,

o

Sperm à oocyte

 

hydrozoan

o

Free swimming ciliated larva:

 

o

Class Hydrozoan

 
 

Parenchymula

 

§ Marine, colonial, freshwater

-

blastula à lose blastocoel (no true tissues)

§ Polyp + medusa

 

o

No remaining internal cavity, no germ

§ Obelia typical

 

layers, no gut

 

Dioecious

 

Medusa buds from gonangium

Zygote à ciliated planula larva à polyp, colony

 

§ Hydra atypical

 

Asexual = budding,

Sexual: dioecious

 

o

Class Scyphozoa: true jelly fish

§ Aurelia

Dioecious, strobilation

§ Rhopalium – sense organ

 

o

Class Cubozoa

PLATYHELMINTHES ------------------------------------------------

 

§ Medusa dominant

- True muscles

 

§ Sea wasp

- 3 evolutionary advances

§ Rhopalium – sense organ

o

Primary bilateral symmetry

 

o

Class Anthozoa

o

Cephalization

 

§ No medusa, sessile

o

Triploblasty

§ Planula larvae

- Turbellaria

 

§ Pedal disc

o

Free-living

§ Hexacorallia

 

o

Rhabdites (rod shaped), true muscles

6 fold symmetry

o

Polycladida, Tricladida (planaria)

Soft: sea anemones

o

Movement

Hard: stony corals

§ Bipalium – hammerhead

 

o

Live in Ca cup,

§ Psuedoceros pardalis (leopard

o

Hermatypic = has

flatworm) – undulation

 

symbiotic

o

Protonephridia / flame cell

zooxanthellae, à

o

Zooids, temp attached offspring

- Neodermata (monophyletic - forked)

more CaCO3 produced, reefers

§

o

Neodermis / syncytial tegument

Zooxanthell

o

All parasites

ae: Recycle

o

Trematode fluke

waste, N &

§ Endoparasitic (vertebrates)

P for coral

§ Leaf-like

 

§ Asexual: budding/fragmentation

 

§ 1+ suckers

§ Sexual: mono- or dioecious

§ 1+ host

Brooding

 

Broadcasting: full moon

 

§ Sheep Liver Fluke

 

o

Reef types

 

§

Open ocean > barrier > patch

 

§ Schistosoma: blood fluke

-

Ctenophora

 

Miracidia (ciliated),

 

o

8 rows comblike cilia

 

cercaria

o

Weak swimmers

o

Monogenean fluke

o

Biradial symmetry – two tentacles

§ Ectoparasitic

o

Oral-aboral axis, no head

§ Fish

o

Similar to cnidaria:

§ Posterior hooks

 

§ Diploblasts

§ 1 host

§ Middle jelly layer

o

Cestode – tapeworms

§ Diffuse nerve net

§ Endoparasitic

 

o

Diff than cnidaria:

§ Anterior scolex

§ Only in marine

§ Complete gut

§ Colloblast (sticky)

§ Mostly monoecious

Cnidaria, mono or di

§ Cysticercosis:

Beef tapeworm: Taenia saginata

Pork tapeworm: Taenia solium

ANNELIDS----------------------------------------------------------

- Errantia

o

Originally called polychaetes (many setae)

o

Nereis virens

ECHINODERMS------------------------------------------------------

o

- Sedentaria

- Calcerous endskeleton – ossicles (plates)

o

Clitellates

 

o

Bound by catch collagen

§ Oligochaete

- Coelomic water-vascular system – podia

 

Earthworms

- Pentaradial symmetry

 

Tubifex tubifex

o

Larva bilateral symmetry

 

§ Hirudinida (Leeches)

- Clade Deusterostomia

 
 

Have sensillae

o

Phylum Echinodermata

o

Family Siboglinidae

 

§ Asteroidea (sea stars)

 

Central disc

MOLLUSCA---------------------------------------------------------

 

Oral surface underside

- Gastropoda

 

o

Ambulacral area

- Bivalvia

 

Spine, surrounded by

o

Zebra mussel

 

pedicellarie

- Cephalopoda

 

Papulae – projections of

o

Nautiloidea

 

coelomic

o

Coleoidea

 

o

Skin gills

ARTHROPODS-------------------------------------------------------

 

Ampulla – sacks (hold fluid) – stiffens for walking – podia has

- Crustacea + Hexapoda = Pancrustacea

suction

- Myriapoda

 

Lower cardiac stomach,

o

Centipedes

 

upper smaller and

- Hexapoda

 

digestive glands – arms

o

Insecta

Digestion – extracellular

§ Trichopteran (caddisfly)

 

No brain, central nervous

§ Ephemeroptera (mayfly)

system

§ Coleoptera (beetle)

Radial nerve

§ Lepidoptera (butterfly, moth)

Circumoral nerve

§ Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps)

Sexes separate

Pair of gonads in each arm

§ Diptera (flies)

- Crustacea

o

Maxillopoda

 

§ Ophiuroids (brittle stars)

Active movers – jointed

 

§

Copepoda

arms

o

Malacostraca

 

§ Isopoda (pillbugs)

§ Euphausiacea (krill)

§ Decapoda ( crabs, lobsters, crayfish)

 

Plates = jaws

No anus

§ Holothurians (sea cucumbers)

Breathe thru butts

- Chelicerata

 

Sticky, toxin, spit out gut

o

Spiders

§ Echinoids (urchins)

- Trilobita

 

§ Crinoids (sea lilies)

o

Trilobites (extinct)

 

Lotsa feathery arms

 

o

Phylum Hemichordata

o

Phylum Chordata

CHORDATA -----------------------------------------------------------

-

Craniata

 
 

o

Fishes

 

§

Class Actinopterygii (ray finned fishes)

 

Teleostei

 
 

o

Tetrapods

 
 

§

Amniota

 

Mammals

 

o

Monotremes

o

Marsupials

o

Eutherians

 

Archosauria (birds, reptiles)

 

§

Amphibia

 

Urodela (salamanders)

Anura (Frogs/Toads

 

§

-

Cephalochordata

 
 

o

(amphioxus, lancelets) - Protochordata

-

Urochordata / tunicata

 

o Sea squirts, salps

NEMATODES -------------------------------------------------------

- Hypodermis à secrete Cuticle

o Syncytial outer layer

- Only longitudinal muscles (no circular)

- Unsegmented

- Complete gut

- Sensory structures (lots): sensilla

- Reprod: sexual – males have copulatory spicule:

amoeboid sperm

o 4 juvenile stages – separated by molt

- Hookworm

- Pinworm

- Intestinal roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides)

o

Largest nematode infecting humans

o

Gut à lungs

- Trichinella

- Whip worm

- Filarial worms (river blindness)

o Onchocerca volvulus

- Caenorhabditis elegans

- Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis)

o Dogs and humans, mosquito