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Estimation of Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit

Parameters from Nameplate Data


Keun Lee, Stephen Frank, Luigi Gentile Palese Mahmoud Alahmad and Clarence Waters
and Pankaj K. (PK) Sen Electricity, Resources,& Charles W. Durham School of
Division of Engineering B uilding Systems Integration Architectural Engineering and Construction
Colorado School of Mines National Renewable Energy Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Golden, Colorado 80401 Golden, Colorado 80401 Omaha, Nebraska 68182
Email: kelee@mines. edu

Abstract-The induction motor equivalent circuit parameters 1) Computation of the motor full load and starting power
are required for many performance and planning studies involv­ requirements;
ing induction motors. These parameters are typically calculated
2) Estimation of the motor losses from the nameplate data,
from standardized motor performance tests, such as the no load,
full load, and locked rotor tests. However, standardized test
NEMA design characteristics, and published typical
data is not typically available to the end user. Alternatively, values [4], [7];
the equivalent circuit parameters may be estimated based on 3) Development of a set of simultaneous, nonlinear equa­
published performance data for the motor. This paper presents tions that relate motor power and losses to the circuit
an iterative method for estimating the induction motor equivalent
parameters; and
circuit parameters using only the motor nameplate data.
4) Solution of this system of nonlinear equations by an
iterative Gauss-Seidel method.
I. INTRODUCT ION
Section III provides a review of the induction motor equivalent
Induction motors are extensively used to drive mechanical circuit, while Section IV discusses the proposed method in
loads in commercial and industrial power systems due to detail. The proposed method converges reliably in very few
their low cost and reliability. Many engineering studies­ iterations and computes estimates of parameters very close to
including efficiency studies, fault studies, calculation of volt­ the true values, as illustrated by the case studies in Section V.
age drop during motor starting, planning studies for power
factor correction, and the development of the motor torque­ II. PRIOR WORK
speed characteristic-require the induction motor equivalent
IEEE Standard 112 [4] outlines methods for determining
circuit model in order to evaluate motor behavior [1]-[3].
the rated losses and the various equivalent circuit parameters
The induction motor equivalent circuit parameters are usu­
of an induction motor. Some of the tests required include
ally computed from full load, no load, and locked rotor test
data as per IEEE Standard 112 [4]. For most commercially • A DC test for stator resistance,
available or previously installed motors, however, neither the • One or more three-phase locked rotor tests (performed at
original test data nor the equivalent circuit parameters are rated or reduced frequency),
available from the motor manufacturer. In many cases, only • A no load test, and/or
the motor nameplate data are available. These data include • One or more load tests (performed at full or reduced
the rated voltage, rated output power, speed, efficiency, and load).
power factor of the motor, as well as (in the United States) its These tests require controlled conditions and calibrated test
NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) design equipment [3]. Except for very large motors, manufacturers
characteristics. In this paper, we present a method to estimate do not typically provide the data from these tests. Moreover,
the induction motor equivalent circuit parameters from the performing these or similar performance tests in the field is
motor nameplate data. both difficult and time consuming [2]. Therefore, the end user
Several previous papers have described methods to estimate does not have easy access to the data required to compute the
the induction motor equivalent circuit parameters given a set equivalent circuit parameters using standard methods.
of performance data [2], [5], [6]; these methods are reviewed Responding to this need, both Natarajan [5] and Haque [2],
in Section II. Our method differs in that it requires only the [8] developed methods to estimate induction motor equivalent
motor nameplate data. B ecause the nameplate is physically circuit parameters from nameplate and published performance
affixed to the motor, the nameplate data are reliably available data. The method of Natarajan requires both the motor name­
even for already installed motors. plate data and specific performance data from the manufac­
The estimation method proposed in this paper extends the turer's catalog, including the motor full-load torque, starting
algorithm proposed by Haque [2] and consists of four steps: torque, and power factor and efficiency at 50%, 75%, and

978-1-4673-2308-6/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE


Pout

RLoad+Stray+Mech
= RJC1-s)/s

Fig. 1. Equivalent Circuit Model for Induction Motor [3].

Fig. 2. Power-How Diagram of an Induction Motor [3].


100% loading. The method uses a spreadsheet to solve a
system of linear equations that relate the circuit parameters
power in addition to losses. Typical full load slip values are in
to these data.
the range of 0. 03-0.05 p. u. [3], although newer motors may
Haque's method requires the nameplate data, the ratio of
have significantly lower full load slip.
starting torque to full load torque, and power factor and effi­
ciency at 50% and 100% loading-fewer data than are required B. Induction Motor Losses
Natarajan's method. Using these data, Haque develops a set
Figure 2 shows the power flow diagram of an induction
of nonlinear equations that relate the circuit parameters to the
motor. Each loss in the figure is modeled by a specific
motor input power and losses. These equations are solved
resistance in the motor equivalent circuit; see Table I. The
by an iterative Gauss-Seidel method. Haque later described
stator and rotor resistive losses are modeled by Rl and R2,
a similar method which also models deep bar or double cage
respectively. Rc models core loss, while stray and mechanical
rotor construction [8].
losses are included in RLoad.
The primary shortcoming of both these methods is the
requirement of catalog data for motor torque and performance TABLE I
at other than full load. Manufacturers often do not provide INDUCTION MOTOR Loss DEFINITION

these data, particularly for smaller motors. Catalog data may


Loss Type Circuit Element
also be difficult to find for older motors.
Stator Winding Resistive Rl
III. BACK GROUND Rotor Winding Resistive R2
Core Magnetic Re
A. Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Stray Magnetic RLoad
Friction & Windage Mechanical RLoad
Induction motors operate by inducing current and torque in
Stray and mechanical losses are accounted for
the rotor circuit via transformer action due to slip (difference
in the load resistance.
in frequency) between the rotor and the stator. Such motors
are typically modeled with the well-known per-phase induction
In order to calculate the equivalent circuit parameters, it
motor equivalent circuit, shown in Figure 1. Rl and Xl are
is necessary to separate the resistive losses from the other
the stator impedance, R2 and X2 are the rotor impedance
losses (core, stray, and mechanical). In the absence of test
as referred to the stator, Rc models the core loss, and XM
data, these losses may be assumed as a ratio of the total
represents the magnetizing reactance. The motor output power
loss based on typical values. In modern motors, mechanical
is modeled by RLoad, which is a function of slip,
losses account for approximately 14% of the total loss and core
R2 (1 - s ) losses account for approximately 12% [7]. Stray load loss is
RLoad = (1)
s higher for smaller machines. IEEE Standard 112 [4] provides
In this paper, RLoad models stray loss and mechanical loss assumed values of the stray load loss as a function of the
(windage and bearing friction) in addition to the output power. machine power rating; see Table II. This paper uses assumed
The induction motor equivalent circuit is further described in values of the mechanical loss and stray load loss based on
many textbooks, such as [3]. these ratios to correct the power in RLoad and to calculate
The motor output power is Re.
(2) IV. PROPOSED MET HOD

Typically, slip s varies approximately linearly from no load to The proposed method to estimate the circuit parameters
full load. At no load, s is nearly zero, such that RLoad is very requires the following nameplate data:
large, 12 is very small, and the power in RLoad represents only 1) Rated output power (Poud
mechanical and stray losses. At full load slip, RLoad decreases, 2) Rated terminal voltage (VRated)
lz increases, and the power in RLoad includes the rated output 3) Full load efficiency (T))
TABLE II TABLE III
ASSUMED STRAY LOAD Loss AS A FRACTION OF RATED LOAD [4] TABLE OF NEMA CODE LE TTERS [3]

Motor Rating Stray Load Loss Code Letter Locked Rotor Code Letter Locked Rotor
0-90 kW 0.018 kVA/HP kVA/HP
91-375 kW 0.015 A 0-3.15 L 9.00-10.00
376-1850 kW 0.012 B 3.15-3.55 M 10.00-11.20
>1850 kW 0.009 C 3.55-4.00 N 11.20-12.50
D 4.00-4.50 0 12.50-14.00
E 4.50-5.00 P 14.00-16.00
F 5.00-5.60 R 16.00-18.00
4) Full load power factor (PF) G 5.60-6.30 S 18.00-20.00
5) Full load speed in RPM (N) and number of poles H 6.30-7.10 T 20.00-22.40
6) NEMA design type J 7.10-8.00 U 22.40 and up
7) NEMA code letter K 8.00-9.00
From these data, the method estimates all relevant circuit pa­
rameters: RI, Xl, R2, X2, Ro, and XM. The equations in the
method description use the per-unit system. Any convenient Next, the motor losses are segregated according to known
base may be used; the rated output power and terminal voltage relationships and reasonable assumptions regarding the loss
are one possibility. distribution. The mechanical, stray, and core losses are as­
sumed to be fixed fractions of the total loss (see Section III),
A. Derivation of Known Parameters
such that
First, several intermediate data are derived from the name­
plate data. The total input power and total loss at rated load PMech = PLoss' FMech (11)
are PStray = POut' FStraY (12)

In---
P
_

TJ
POut
(3) POore = POut· FOore (13)

PLoss = PIn - POut (4) The converted power, PConv , includes the output power, stray
loss, and mechanical loss:
Similarly, the apparent and reactive input powers are

IsIn1= TJ'POut (5) PConv = POut + PMech + PStray (14)


PF
2 -- p-I-2n
QIn= J'-ISI- n- 1- - (6)
The electromagnetically developed power, or air gap power,
PAG is
The phasor input current is

= PInVRa-jteQd In
(15)
IRated (7)
The stator and rotor resistive (copper) loss may be deter­
The motor synchronous speed Ns in RPM is derived from
mined from the other losses and the air gap power,
the number of poles,

Ns
1201
= Number of Poles (8) PSCL = PIn - PAG - PCore (16)
PRCL = PAG - PConv (17)
where 1 is the system electrical frequency in Hz. Given the
synchronous speed and the full load speed, the full load slip The stator resistance can then be determined exactly from the
is stator copper loss,

s= NsN-N
s
(9)
(18)
The approximate locked rotor current hR can be deter­
mined from the rated voltage, rated power, and NEMA code B. Development of Simultaneous Equations
letter. The NEMA code letter gives a range of starting kVA
After RI is determined from (18), the remammg
values based on the motor horsepower rating, as shown in
Table III. As an approximation, the locked rotor kVA ISLRI parameters-Xl, R2, X2, Rc, and XM-may be estimated by
solving a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations, developed
may be set to the midpoint of the range corresponding to
here.
the NEMA code letter. Then the corresponding locked rotor
current magnitude is Given the input current and an estimate of the stator
impedance, the air gap voltage E may be calculated,
(10)
(19)
TABLE IV
The rotor current magnitude is TYPICA L RATIO OF Xl AND X2 TO XLR [3), [4]
E
h = -=---- Rotor Design Xl X2
R2 .
- + J X2 NEMA Design A 0.5 XLR 0.5 XLR
s NEMA Design B 0.4 XLR 0.6 XLR
NEMA Design C 0.3 XLR 0.7 XLR
(20) NEMA Design D 0.5 XLR 0.5 XLR

Substituting Ihl from (20) into (15) yields require magnetizing reactive power Q M ,

(27)

(21)

(28)
From (21), a quadratic expression in R2/ s is derived,
Similarly, Rc is estimated based on the require core loss
POore ,
2
IE I
Rc = (29)
2 POore

IE I ± J IE I4 4PAG X�
-

(22) A total of eight simultaneous equations are required to find


s 2PAG
the unknown parameters, three of which are auxiliary equa­
In practice, the larger root gives the correct value for the rotor tions. The primary equations give estimates for the unknown
resistance. Therefore, for a given value of E, R2 is circuit parameters:
• R2 from (23),
(23) • Xl from (25),
• X2 from (26),
(Here, R2 is written as a function of E rather than of h • XM from (28), and
because the estimate of 12 depends strongly on R2 while the • Ro from (29).
estimate of E does not. When used in an iterative method, These are supplemented by auxiliary equations for E, 1 121,
(23) has superior convergence properties to an update using and XLR:
only h) • E from (19),
Assuming the value of R2 is similar at the locked rotor and • 1 121 from (20), and
full load conditions, the locked rotor reactance XLR may be • XLR from (24).
then estimated from
C. Iterative Solution Method
VRated = hR ( R1 + R2 + j XLR)
The set of eight simultaneous equations may be solved
d 2
I V;;; 1 V
= ( R1 + R2 ) + XZ R via an iterative, Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. The Gauss­
Seidel solution method improves upon an initial estimate by
IVRated1 2
( R1 + R2 ) 2
sequentially solving each equation using the current estimate
XLR =
IhR I2
_
(24)
of all parameter values in order to obtain an updated estimate
of a given parameter value. For reliable convergence, the
where IVRatedl and IhR I are input data. It is known that method requires that
XLR = Xl + X2, but the exact ratio of Xl to X2 cannot 1) The initial estimate of the parameters is reasonably close
be determined from only the nameplate data. Instead, a ratio to their true values, and
is assumed from typical values based on the NEMA design 2) The right-hand-side value of each equation is not a
class [3], [4]; see Table IV. Defining Ratio = Xd XLR , the strong function of the parameter being updated.
stator and rotor reactances are
The iterations continue until all the process converges within
Xl = XLR . Ratio (25) a specified tolerance.
The proposed iterative method is as follows:
X2 = XLR· (1 - Ratio) (26)
1) Compute known motor powers and currents as described
Once estimates for 11, h, and E are available and the in Section IV-A.
rotor impedance is calculated, XM can be estimated from the 2) Compute R1 from (18).
3) Define initial estimates for air gap voltage E and rotor • The proposed method makes no special provisions for
current magnitude I2, single-phase machines.

E � VRatedLO These limitations are a compromise required by the limited


set of data.
II21 � Re{h}
(These are similar to the initial estimates proposed by V. NUMERICAL RESULTS

[2]. ) Initialize the values of the five unknown circuit The proposed method was implemented as a MATLAB
parameters to zero. script and tested using nameplate data from various motors
4) Store the present estimates of Xl> R2, X2, Re, and XM available online. In all cases, the procedure converged within
for later comparison. a 0.001 per unit tolerance in five or fewer iterations. In order
5) Update R2 from (23) using the present estimates for to verify the accuracy of the computations, the method was
E and X2. (An initial zero value for X2 has minimal also tested for a motor with known parameters: a textbook
impact on this step because the rotor impedance is example from [3]
mostly resistive at full load. ) Chapman [3, Example 7-3] provides an example of a three­
6) Compute XLR from (24) using the present estimate of phase induction motor with known circuit parameters and loss
R2. breakdown. TableV provides the data for this motor. In the
7) Update Xl and X2 from (25)-(26) using the present
estimate of XLR and the reactance ratio derived from TABLE V
the NEMA design type. EXAMPLE MOTO R DATA [3, EXAMPLE 7-3]
8) Update XM from (28) using the present estimates of E,
Rated voltage VRated 460 V
Xl, and X2. Rated power output POut 25 HP (18.64 kW)
9) Update Re from (29) using the present estimate of E. 1100 W
Mechanical Loss PMech
10) Check for convergence by comparing the updated values Core Loss Peore OW
of Xl, R2, X2, Re, and XM with their previous values. Stray Loss PStmy OW
Stator Resistance RI 0.641 n
a) If all parameters have converged within a specified
Stator Reactance Xl 1.106 n
tolerance, STOP. Rotor Resistance R2 0.332 n
b) Otherwise, update E and II21 from (19)-(20) using Rotor Reactance X2 0.464 n
the updated parameter values. Then, return to Step Magnetizing Reactance XM 26.3 n
4.
11) Save final parameter values and display results. example, the full load slip is not provided. It is therefore
At the end of the iterative procedure, the validity of the calculated at s 0.04189 by determining the slip at which
=

computed parameters may be checked by solving the full load the output power equals the rated value. Similarly, appropriate
powers in the resulting induction motor equivalent circuit and values for the rated power factor and efficiency were computed
comparing to known values, such as PIn, PAG, and PConv . by solving the circuit at rated slip.
The parameters for this motor were calculated using the
D. Limitations
proposed method but using exact values for the locked rotor
As with previous methods of this type [2], [5], the proposed current, reactance ratio, and loss distribution. Table VI com­
method has a number of limitations. pares the results of the parameter estimation method with the
• The rotor resistance and reactance are assumed identical actual circuit parameters.
under the locked rotor conditions as at full load. This
TABLE VI
is not the case for deep bar and double cage rotors, COMPUTED CI RCUIT PA RAMETE RS FO R EXAMPLE MOTO R [3, EXAMPLE
which are designed to experience significant skin effect 7-3]
at high slip. Caution should therefore be used when using
the computed parameters for starting and pull-out torque Parameter Exact Proposed Method Proposed Method +
calculations. Methods are available to correct the model Exact Motor Data
for rotor skin effect [8], [9], but they require additional RI 0.641 0.6573 0.6408
Xl 1.106 1.0983 1.1061
data beyond the nameplate data. 0.332 0.3332 0.3320
R2
• The ratio between stator and rotor reactance is assumed, X2 0.464 0.4607 0.4640
rather than determined from calculation. Rc 00 1721 00

• The parameters are fit to the full load condition only. XM 26.3 26.03 26.30
• Stray loss, core loss, and mechanical losses are assumed Units are n

to be fixed ratios of the full load loss based on typical


values [4], [7]. The results demonstrate first that the proposed method with
• The core loss is placed in the stator, when in reality it is the proposed assumptions returns results very close to actual
distributed between stator and rotor. values, and second that the proposed method recovers the exact
Exact
R2 Rotor resistance due to rotor copper loss
X2
--

- - - Exact + Proposed Stator reactance


....... Proposed
Rc Core loss resistance
200 XM Magnetizing reactance
Ratio Ratio of Xl to XLR
RLoad Equivalent load resistance including mechanical
and stray loss
150 s Full load motor slip
E
6 SIn Input apparent power
POut Output power
"

e-
"

PLoss
o
I- Total motor loss
100
PMech Mechanical loss, including windage and bearing
friction loss
FMech Fraction of mechanical loss to total loss
50 PStray Stray loss
FStray Fraction of stray loss to output power
PCore Core loss
FCore Fraction of core loss to output power
° L---�--�--������ --�
0 200 400 600 800 1 000 120�0 ��
14=00�� 6
1 �0�0 �1 00
8 PConv Converted power
Mechical Speed (r/min)
PAC Air gap power
PRCL Rotor copper loss
Fig. 3. Torque Vs. Speed Curve
PSCL Stator copper loss
E Air gap voltage

circuit parameters when the loss distribution and reactance ACKNOWLEDGMENT


ratio assumptions are replaced with the actual motor data. The research presented in this paper resulted from work
Figure 3 shows the torque vs. speed curves of the example performed under direction of the National Renewable Energy
with the given information and Table VI. The solid line, Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, CO, with funding from the
dashed line, and dotted line are the curves using the parameters B onneville Power Administration, TI Project No. 192, Con­
from the exact, proposed and exact, and proposed methods, tract No. 51353, and Interagency Agreement No. IAG-ll-
respectably. Since their parameters are very close to each 1801, which the authors gratefully acknowledge.
other, the curves appear overlapped, but the curve using the
parameters from the proposed method is slightly different in REFERENCES
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the induction motor circuit parameters using only the name­ McGraw-Hili Education, 2005.
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Generators, IEEE Std. 112, 2004.
The use of only the nameplate data is an advantage over [5] R. Natarajan and V. Misra, "Parameter estimation of induction motors
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Rated voltage 2010.


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