AbstractThe induction motor equivalent circuit parameters 1) Computation of the motor full load and starting power
are required for many performance and planning studies involv requirements;
ing induction motors. These parameters are typically calculated
2) Estimation of the motor losses from the nameplate data,
from standardized motor performance tests, such as the no load,
full load, and locked rotor tests. However, standardized test
NEMA design characteristics, and published typical
data is not typically available to the end user. Alternatively, values [4], [7];
the equivalent circuit parameters may be estimated based on 3) Development of a set of simultaneous, nonlinear equa
published performance data for the motor. This paper presents tions that relate motor power and losses to the circuit
an iterative method for estimating the induction motor equivalent
parameters; and
circuit parameters using only the motor nameplate data.
4) Solution of this system of nonlinear equations by an
iterative GaussSeidel method.
I. INTRODUCT ION
Section III provides a review of the induction motor equivalent
Induction motors are extensively used to drive mechanical circuit, while Section IV discusses the proposed method in
loads in commercial and industrial power systems due to detail. The proposed method converges reliably in very few
their low cost and reliability. Many engineering studies iterations and computes estimates of parameters very close to
including efficiency studies, fault studies, calculation of volt the true values, as illustrated by the case studies in Section V.
age drop during motor starting, planning studies for power
factor correction, and the development of the motor torque II. PRIOR WORK
speed characteristicrequire the induction motor equivalent
IEEE Standard 112 [4] outlines methods for determining
circuit model in order to evaluate motor behavior [1][3].
the rated losses and the various equivalent circuit parameters
The induction motor equivalent circuit parameters are usu
of an induction motor. Some of the tests required include
ally computed from full load, no load, and locked rotor test
data as per IEEE Standard 112 [4]. For most commercially • A DC test for stator resistance,
available or previously installed motors, however, neither the • One or more threephase locked rotor tests (performed at
original test data nor the equivalent circuit parameters are rated or reduced frequency),
available from the motor manufacturer. In many cases, only • A no load test, and/or
the motor nameplate data are available. These data include • One or more load tests (performed at full or reduced
the rated voltage, rated output power, speed, efficiency, and load).
power factor of the motor, as well as (in the United States) its These tests require controlled conditions and calibrated test
NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) design equipment [3]. Except for very large motors, manufacturers
characteristics. In this paper, we present a method to estimate do not typically provide the data from these tests. Moreover,
the induction motor equivalent circuit parameters from the performing these or similar performance tests in the field is
motor nameplate data. both difficult and time consuming [2]. Therefore, the end user
Several previous papers have described methods to estimate does not have easy access to the data required to compute the
the induction motor equivalent circuit parameters given a set equivalent circuit parameters using standard methods.
of performance data [2], [5], [6]; these methods are reviewed Responding to this need, both Natarajan [5] and Haque [2],
in Section II. Our method differs in that it requires only the [8] developed methods to estimate induction motor equivalent
motor nameplate data. B ecause the nameplate is physically circuit parameters from nameplate and published performance
affixed to the motor, the nameplate data are reliably available data. The method of Natarajan requires both the motor name
even for already installed motors. plate data and specific performance data from the manufac
The estimation method proposed in this paper extends the turer's catalog, including the motor fullload torque, starting
algorithm proposed by Haque [2] and consists of four steps: torque, and power factor and efficiency at 50%, 75%, and
RLoad+Stray+Mech
= RJC1s)/s
Typically, slip s varies approximately linearly from no load to The proposed method to estimate the circuit parameters
full load. At no load, s is nearly zero, such that RLoad is very requires the following nameplate data:
large, 12 is very small, and the power in RLoad represents only 1) Rated output power (Poud
mechanical and stray losses. At full load slip, RLoad decreases, 2) Rated terminal voltage (VRated)
lz increases, and the power in RLoad includes the rated output 3) Full load efficiency (T))
TABLE II TABLE III
ASSUMED STRAY LOAD Loss AS A FRACTION OF RATED LOAD [4] TABLE OF NEMA CODE LE TTERS [3]
Motor Rating Stray Load Loss Code Letter Locked Rotor Code Letter Locked Rotor
090 kW 0.018 kVA/HP kVA/HP
91375 kW 0.015 A 03.15 L 9.0010.00
3761850 kW 0.012 B 3.153.55 M 10.0011.20
>1850 kW 0.009 C 3.554.00 N 11.2012.50
D 4.004.50 0 12.5014.00
E 4.505.00 P 14.0016.00
F 5.005.60 R 16.0018.00
4) Full load power factor (PF) G 5.606.30 S 18.0020.00
5) Full load speed in RPM (N) and number of poles H 6.307.10 T 20.0022.40
6) NEMA design type J 7.108.00 U 22.40 and up
7) NEMA code letter K 8.009.00
From these data, the method estimates all relevant circuit pa
rameters: RI, Xl, R2, X2, Ro, and XM. The equations in the
method description use the perunit system. Any convenient Next, the motor losses are segregated according to known
base may be used; the rated output power and terminal voltage relationships and reasonable assumptions regarding the loss
are one possibility. distribution. The mechanical, stray, and core losses are as
sumed to be fixed fractions of the total loss (see Section III),
A. Derivation of Known Parameters
such that
First, several intermediate data are derived from the name
plate data. The total input power and total loss at rated load PMech = PLoss' FMech (11)
are PStray = POut' FStraY (12)
In
P
_
TJ
POut
(3) POore = POut· FOore (13)
PLoss = PIn  POut (4) The converted power, PConv , includes the output power, stray
loss, and mechanical loss:
Similarly, the apparent and reactive input powers are
= PInVRajteQd In
(15)
IRated (7)
The stator and rotor resistive (copper) loss may be deter
The motor synchronous speed Ns in RPM is derived from
mined from the other losses and the air gap power,
the number of poles,
Ns
1201
= Number of Poles (8) PSCL = PIn  PAG  PCore (16)
PRCL = PAG  PConv (17)
where 1 is the system electrical frequency in Hz. Given the
synchronous speed and the full load speed, the full load slip The stator resistance can then be determined exactly from the
is stator copper loss,
s= NsNN
s
(9)
(18)
The approximate locked rotor current hR can be deter
mined from the rated voltage, rated power, and NEMA code B. Development of Simultaneous Equations
letter. The NEMA code letter gives a range of starting kVA
After RI is determined from (18), the remammg
values based on the motor horsepower rating, as shown in
Table III. As an approximation, the locked rotor kVA ISLRI parametersXl, R2, X2, Rc, and XMmay be estimated by
solving a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations, developed
may be set to the midpoint of the range corresponding to
here.
the NEMA code letter. Then the corresponding locked rotor
current magnitude is Given the input current and an estimate of the stator
impedance, the air gap voltage E may be calculated,
(10)
(19)
TABLE IV
The rotor current magnitude is TYPICA L RATIO OF Xl AND X2 TO XLR [3), [4]
E
h = = Rotor Design Xl X2
R2 .
 + J X2 NEMA Design A 0.5 XLR 0.5 XLR
s NEMA Design B 0.4 XLR 0.6 XLR
NEMA Design C 0.3 XLR 0.7 XLR
(20) NEMA Design D 0.5 XLR 0.5 XLR
Substituting Ihl from (20) into (15) yields require magnetizing reactive power Q M ,
(27)
(21)
(28)
From (21), a quadratic expression in R2/ s is derived,
Similarly, Rc is estimated based on the require core loss
POore ,
2
IE I
Rc = (29)
2 POore

IE I ± J IE I4 4PAG X�

[2]. ) Initialize the values of the five unknown circuit The proposed method was implemented as a MATLAB
parameters to zero. script and tested using nameplate data from various motors
4) Store the present estimates of Xl> R2, X2, Re, and XM available online. In all cases, the procedure converged within
for later comparison. a 0.001 per unit tolerance in five or fewer iterations. In order
5) Update R2 from (23) using the present estimates for to verify the accuracy of the computations, the method was
E and X2. (An initial zero value for X2 has minimal also tested for a motor with known parameters: a textbook
impact on this step because the rotor impedance is example from [3]
mostly resistive at full load. ) Chapman [3, Example 73] provides an example of a three
6) Compute XLR from (24) using the present estimate of phase induction motor with known circuit parameters and loss
R2. breakdown. TableV provides the data for this motor. In the
7) Update Xl and X2 from (25)(26) using the present
estimate of XLR and the reactance ratio derived from TABLE V
the NEMA design type. EXAMPLE MOTO R DATA [3, EXAMPLE 73]
8) Update XM from (28) using the present estimates of E,
Rated voltage VRated 460 V
Xl, and X2. Rated power output POut 25 HP (18.64 kW)
9) Update Re from (29) using the present estimate of E. 1100 W
Mechanical Loss PMech
10) Check for convergence by comparing the updated values Core Loss Peore OW
of Xl, R2, X2, Re, and XM with their previous values. Stray Loss PStmy OW
Stator Resistance RI 0.641 n
a) If all parameters have converged within a specified
Stator Reactance Xl 1.106 n
tolerance, STOP. Rotor Resistance R2 0.332 n
b) Otherwise, update E and II21 from (19)(20) using Rotor Reactance X2 0.464 n
the updated parameter values. Then, return to Step Magnetizing Reactance XM 26.3 n
4.
11) Save final parameter values and display results. example, the full load slip is not provided. It is therefore
At the end of the iterative procedure, the validity of the calculated at s 0.04189 by determining the slip at which
=
computed parameters may be checked by solving the full load the output power equals the rated value. Similarly, appropriate
powers in the resulting induction motor equivalent circuit and values for the rated power factor and efficiency were computed
comparing to known values, such as PIn, PAG, and PConv . by solving the circuit at rated slip.
The parameters for this motor were calculated using the
D. Limitations
proposed method but using exact values for the locked rotor
As with previous methods of this type [2], [5], the proposed current, reactance ratio, and loss distribution. Table VI com
method has a number of limitations. pares the results of the parameter estimation method with the
• The rotor resistance and reactance are assumed identical actual circuit parameters.
under the locked rotor conditions as at full load. This
TABLE VI
is not the case for deep bar and double cage rotors, COMPUTED CI RCUIT PA RAMETE RS FO R EXAMPLE MOTO R [3, EXAMPLE
which are designed to experience significant skin effect 73]
at high slip. Caution should therefore be used when using
the computed parameters for starting and pullout torque Parameter Exact Proposed Method Proposed Method +
calculations. Methods are available to correct the model Exact Motor Data
for rotor skin effect [8], [9], but they require additional RI 0.641 0.6573 0.6408
Xl 1.106 1.0983 1.1061
data beyond the nameplate data. 0.332 0.3332 0.3320
R2
• The ratio between stator and rotor reactance is assumed, X2 0.464 0.4607 0.4640
rather than determined from calculation. Rc 00 1721 00
• The parameters are fit to the full load condition only. XM 26.3 26.03 26.30
• Stray loss, core loss, and mechanical losses are assumed Units are n
e
"
PLoss
o
I Total motor loss
100
PMech Mechanical loss, including windage and bearing
friction loss
FMech Fraction of mechanical loss to total loss
50 PStray Stray loss
FStray Fraction of stray loss to output power
PCore Core loss
FCore Fraction of core loss to output power
° L�������� �
0 200 400 600 800 1 000 120�0 ��
14=00�� 6
1 �0�0 �1 00
8 PConv Converted power
Mechical Speed (r/min)
PAC Air gap power
PRCL Rotor copper loss
Fig. 3. Torque Vs. Speed Curve
PSCL Stator copper loss
E Air gap voltage
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