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ENGINEERING MECHANICS

ISBN: 978-93-392-1917-8
Anil Dhiman
Poonam Dhiman
D C Kulshreshtha

(McGraw Hill Education)


Contents
1. General principles 12. Motion in straight line
2. Force systems
y and 13. Curvilinear motion and
resultants projectile
3. Moments and couples 14. Kinematics of rigid bodies
4. Equilibrium of rigid bodies 15. Kinetics of particles and
5. Beams and frames rigid bodies
6. Trusses 16
16. Work energy
Work, energ and power
po er
7. Friction 17. Impulse and momentum
8. Si l lifting
Simple lif i machines
hi 18
18. Belt and rope drives
9. Centroid and centre of 19. Vibrations
mass 20
20. Simple stresses and
10. Moment of inertia strains
11
11. Virtual Work 21. Bending and torsion
SALIENT FEATURES
• The Table of Contents covers the syllabi
y of most of the reputed
p Universities. Once the g
general book is
published, it can be easily and quickly customized for different Universities, according to their syllabi.
• The manuscript has been critically reviewed not only by all the three authors, but also by a number of
students in Editorial Board. Hence, it is expected to be completely error-free.
• Th manuscript
The i t has
h been
b class-tested
l t t d for
f 2-3
2 3 semesters.
t
• Logical approach has been followed in dealing with topics, maintaining continuity, flow and consistency
throughout.
• The book will serve as a self
self-learning
learning tool for an average student.
student The writing style is the major strength of
the book.
• Diagrams are clear, well defined, properly scaled and detailed, self-explanatory and support the text to their
best.
• At the end, many “Additional Solved Examples” are given, which encompass various concepts dealt in the
Chapter. Most of the Solved Examples are drawn from the old question papers of reputed Universities
(such as UPTU, JNTU, etc.). Practice Problems have two levels―simple and difficult.
• Solved Examples are sufficient in number and present good variety. In many Examples, first the
customary solution is given and then an alternative solution is provided which is much simpler and
shorter.
• In many instances, such wrong steps are given which many students commit while solving the problem.
This is then followed by right steps,
steps explaining why the wrong steps are wrong.
wrong
• Misconceptions : Somehow, some wrong concepts are developed in students’ mind. This part of chapter
states such “Wrong Concepts” and corresponding “Right Concepts”.
• Short-Answer Questions : This helps p students to answer short q questions ((of 2 marks each)) asked in
many Universities. Also, helpful in viva-voce during practical examinations.
• Objective questions provide practice to attempt different types of Objective Questions asked in various
examinations (including UPSC, NTPC, etc.).
CHAPTER 1
General Principles
Engineering Mechanics Applications
• Analysis of Aircrafts for
safety and stability.
• Analysis
A l i off CiCivilil E
Engineering
i i
Structures (buildings,
g
bridges, etc.).
)
• Analysis of Mechanical
systems (machines, etc.)
• Biomechanics / Sports
Mechanics, etc.
Definitions
 Mechanics is the science which describes and predicts
the conditions of rest or of motion under the action of
forces.
 Engineering mechanics uses the principles of
mechanics to analyze practical engineering problems
and to design structures such as buildings,
buildings bridges,
bridges
aircrafts, spacecrafts, robotics, etc.
8

Engineering Mechanics
Newtonian Mechanics

Kinematics
Statics Dynamics
Study of motion of
The study of forces
rigid bodies and their
and conditions of
correlations
l ti with
ith th
the
equilibrium of static
forces causing them
bodies

KINEMATICS : KINETICS :
The space
space-time
time The relationship between
relationship of a moving the motion of a body and
body (without bothering the forces causing it.
about the forces causing
the motion).
Idealization in Mechanics
Idealizations are necessary to simplify the application of theory on
bodies. The accuracy of the results is not much affected.

 Particle. A particle is a point mass or a material point. In practice, if


the dimensions of a body can be ignored while studying its
equilibrium or motion, it may be treated as a particle. e.g. a ball
dropped from height
 System
S t off Particles.
P ti l Wh two
When t or more bodies
b di are represented t d by
b
particles and dealt with together, it makes a system of particles. For
example, the planetary system or the atomic structure.
 Rigid Body. A body is said to be rigid body if the distance between
any two of its points remains unchanged under the action of forces.
In practice,
practice however,
however a body gets deformed when acted upon by
forces. If this deformation is negligible compared to its size, the
body can be assumed rigid. For example, Table, Chair, vehicles
Basic Terms
 Space. refers to the geometric region occupied by bodies. The
position of a body in space is described by linear and angular
measurements relative to a coordinate system.
system
◦ For a two-dimensional problem, we need two independent coordinates, say,
x and y coordinates (called Cartesian system), or r and θ coordinates (called
polar system).
y ) For a three-dimensional problem, we require three
independent coordinates (e.g., x, y and z coordinates).
 Mass. Mass is the quantity of matter in a body. Matter refers to the
substance of which the body is composed. Mass can also be
regarded as a measure of inertia of a body towards a change in its
motion.
 Time. Time is a measure of sequence q of events. It refers to the
concepts of before, after and simultaneous occurrences of two or
more events.
 Force. Force is an action that tends to change the state of rest or
motion of a body to which it is applied. Force is a vector quantity. Its
complete description is given by stating its (1) magnitude, (2)
direction,, and ((3)) p
point of application.
pp
Vector and Scalar Quantities
 Quantities, having both magnitude and direction, are termed
vector quantities.
◦ Graphically, a vector quantity is represented by a directed line
segment. The length of this line segment gives the magnitude of the
quantity.
q y The angular
g orientation of the line segment
g and the
position of the arrowhead give the direction of the quantity.
 The symbol for a vector quantity is printed in boldface letter
(for example,
(f l the
th symbolb l ffor fforce is
i printed
i t d as F and d it
its
magnitude as F (italics)
 You may put an arrow or a bar above  the letter to indicate that
this symbol refers to a vector, e.g., F
 Scalar qquantities ppossess only y magnitude.
g Examples
p are
time, volume, density, mass, work, etc. Scalars are added by
ordinary algebraic methods. For example, 4 s + 3 s = 7 s; 67
kg – 15 kg = 52 kg
kg.
Laws of Mechanics
Five basic laws:
• Newton
Newton’s s first and second law of motion
motion.
• Newton’s third law.
• Newton’s
N t ’ llaw off gravitation.
it ti
• The parallelogram law.
• Principle of Transmissibility of force.
Newton’s First Law of Motion
These laws were first stated by Sir Isaac Newton (in
1687) as
 A body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a
straight line unless itit’ss compelled to change that state by
forces imposed on it.
 The change of motion is proportional to the force applied
and is made in a direction of the straight line in which the
force is applied.
applied
 For the above laws to be meaningful, we must have
some datum or frame of reference relative to which the
state of “rest” or “uniform motion” can be described.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 Relation between Force and Mass.
 Newton’s second law of motion:
◦ The amount of motion of a body can be represented by a
quantity called momentum (L), which is simply the
product
d t off its
it mass and d velocity
l it (L = mv).
)
◦ “the rate of change in momentum of a body is
proportional to the impressed force and takes place in
the direction the applied force”.
◦ The magnitude
g of force F that p
produces an acceleration
a in a body of mass m is given as
F = ma
Newton’s Third Law
 To every action there is always an equal and
opposite reaction, OR
 mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are
always equal and directed to contrary points.
Newton’s Law of Gravitation
• Two particles are mutually attracted along their connecting
line with a force whose magnitude is directly proportional
to the product of their masses and inversely proportional
to the square
q of the distance between them.
Mm
F G 2
r

• G is gravitation constant.
The Parallelogram Law
 This law states that two forces acting on a particle may be
p
replaced by
y a single
g force,, called their resultant.
 To find the resultant of forces F1 and F2, first draw the two
j
force vectors as the adjacent sides ((OA and OB)) of a
parallelogram, pointing away from (or towards) the point of
intersection (point O), as shown below. The resultant of the
t
two f
forces i then
is th represented
t d by
b the
th diagonal
di l (OC) off the
th
parallelogram OACB passing through the same point.
Principle of Transmissibility of Force
• The point of application of a force applied to a rigid body
may be transmitted along its line of action without
changing its effect on the state of motion of the body. A
vector which may y be applied
pp at any
yppoint along
g its line of
action is known as a sliding vector.
CASE-1: Consider a rigid g bodyy CASE-2: Now,, supposepp that
of mass m above the surface of instead of pulling it up, the
the earth. Its weight W acts body is pushed up using a
d
downward d att it
its centre
t off gravity,
it rodd applying
l i a fforce F F, as
and at the same time it is being shown in Fig. Resulting
pulled up
p p using g a rope
p with upward
p acceleration a2 is
tension T (greater than the then given by
weight W), as shown in Fig. The
nett force
f on the
th body
b d is
i T – W;
W
and hence according to
Newton’s second law,, the
upward acceleration a1 produced
is given by
Outcome of the two cases
• If the tension T (applied at point A) has the same
magnitude as the force F (applied at point B), then both
the Equations dictate that the external effect produced in
the two cases will be same,, i.e.,, a1 = a2.
• This illustrates the principle of transmissibility of force.
SI Units
 The
Th IInternational
t ti lSSystem
t off U
Units
it (abbreviated
( bb i t d as SI Units)
U it ) is
i coherent,
h t
rational and comprehensive. It is now followed everywhere in the world-
--at least in engineering. It has seven base units (Table 1.1), two
supplementary
pp y units ((Table 1.2)) and many
y derived units.
 SI Units stands for ‘Systéme International d’Unités’ (in French).
Derived Units
D i d Units
Derived U i S b l
Symbol Ph i l Quantity
Physical Q i
newton N = kg m/s2 Force
joule J = N m = kg m2/s2 Energy Work,
Energy, Work Heat
watt W = J/s = kg m2/s3 Power
pascal Pa = N/m2 = kg/m s2 Pressure, Stress
hertz Hz = s-11 Frequency

No. Physical Quantity


No Unit No. Physical Quantity
No Unit
1. Acceleration m/s2 7. Moment of force Nm
2. Angular acceleration rad/s2 8. Density kg/m3
3. Angular rad 9. Linear momentum kg m/s
4. displacement kg m2/s 10. Momentum of inertia of kg m2
5
5. Angular
g momentum rad/s 11
11. mass rad
6. Angular velocity m2 12. Plane angle m/s
Area Speed
Web-links to the Book
• http://www.mheducation.co.in/9789339219178-india-
engineering-mechanics
g g
• Print Edition
• https://www.amazon.in/Engineering-Mechanics-Dhiman-
p g g
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Kulshreshtha/dp/9339219171/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1
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• Ki dl Edition
Kindle Editi
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