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(Second Grading)

An adverb is a word or a phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb or other adverb.

Types of Adverb:

Adverb of Manner – describes how an action or activity is performed.

They are living happily.
He was behaving angrily.
Sarah is driving carelessly.

Adverb of Place – indicates location.

They were coming here.
Kids are playing near the house.

Adverb of Time – signifies when the action happened.

He will go to school tomorrow.
Please call me now.

Adverb of Frequency – This adverb tells about how often an action occurs.
They always helped me.
I meet him daily.

Exercise 1: Identify if the underlined word is an adverb of time, adverb of manner, adverb of place or adverb of

____________________________ 1. John will attend the soccer game after he finishes his homework.
____________________________ 2. Susan placed the boxes above the file cabinet.
____________________________ 3. Shane slowly walked over the rocky beach.
____________________________ 4. I seldom put salt on my food.
____________________________ 5. You can put it wherever you like.

Exercise 2: Construct sentences each type of adverb.

Adverb of Manner: ____________________________________________

Adverb of Place: ____________________________________________
Adverb of Time: ____________________________________________
Adverb of Frequency: ____________________________________________

Exercise 3: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Encircle the letter of your choice.

1. What is an adverb?
a. An adverb gives more information about the verb.
b. An adverb gives more information about the noun.
c. An adverb gives more information about the punctuations in a sentence.
d. An adverb gives more information about the pronoun.

2. Which word in the following sentence is an adverb? “Sara plays the violin beautifully.”
a. plays b. violin c. beautifully d. Sara
3. Which of these sentences does not contain an adverb?
a. The child ran happily towards his mother.
b. Sali walked to the shops.
c. Brendan gently woke the sleeping baby.
d. None of the above.

4. Complete the sentence: I ___________ tidied up the flat.

a. quickly b. accidentally c. warmly d. yesterday

5. Which of these adverbs tells you where something happened?

a. Regularly b. outside c. often d. warmly


Rhyme scheme is the patter of rhymes at the end of each line of a poem or song. It is usually referred to by using
letters to indicate which lines rhyme; lines designated with the same letter all rhyme with each other.

Types of Rhyme Scheme

a. Alternate Rhyme – ABAB rhyme scheme
It rhymes as “ABAB CDCD EFEF GHGH.”
b. Ballade
It contains 3 stanzas with the rhyme scheme of “ABABBBCBC.”
c. Monorhyme
It is a poem in which every line uses the same rhyme scheme.
d. Couplet
It contains two-line stanzas with “AA” rhyme scheme, which often appears as “AA BB CC and DD.”

e. Enclosed Rhyme
Uses “ABBA” rhyme scheme.

f. Limerick
Uses five lines with “AABBA” rhyme scheme.

Example # 1: (Neither Out Far Not in Deep by Robert Frost)

The people along the sand (A)

An autumn and look one way (B)
They turn their back on the land (A)
They look at the sea all day (B)
As long as it takes to pass (C)
A ship keeps raising its hull (D)
The wetter ground like grass (C)
Reflects a standing gull. (D)

* Alternate Rhyme

Example # 2: (A Monorhyme for the Shower by Dick Davis)

Lifting her arms to soap her hair (A)

Her pretty breasts respond – and there (A)
The movement of that buoyant pair (A)
Is like a spell to make me swear. (A)

* Monorhyme
Example #3: (A Poison Tree by William Blake)

I was angry with my friend (A)

I told my wrath, my wrath did end (A)
I was angry with my foe (B)
I told it not, my wrath did grow (B)
And I watered it in fears (C)
Night and morning with my tears (C)
And I sunned it with smiles (D)
And with soft and deceitful wiles. (D)

* Couplet

Exercise 1:
Motive Question: How does the persona deal with circumstance he is in?


Sonnet 29
(George Santayana; 1863-1952)

What riches have you that you deem me poor,

Or what large comfort that you call sad?
Tell me what makes you so exceedingly glad:
Is your earth happy or your heaven sure?
I hope for heaven, since the starts endure
and bring such tidings as our fathers had.
I know no deeper doubt to make me mad,
I need no brighter love to keep me pure.
To me the faiths of old are daily bread;
I bless their hope; I bless their will to love,
And my heart still meaneth what they said.
It makes me happy that the soul is brave
And being so much kinsman to the dead,
I walked contented to the peopled grave.

Comprehension Questions:
1. What does the opening of the poem mean?
2. Who is being addressed by the poet?
3. Why does the poet consider the faiths of old his daily bread?
4. What makes the persona happy?
5. How do you view the persona’s circumstance?

Exercise 2: Music to my Ears

Use the first column to write the last word of each line in Sonnet 29. Write on the second column the rhyme
scheme used by the poet. The first one is done for you. Lastly, answer the questions on the last column.
RHYME SCHEME What is the main message of the octet or the 1st 8 lines?
Poor A

RHYME SCHEME What is the main message of the setset or the last 6 lines?


1. Theme – the general idea of a story.

2. Setting – where the story occurs and the time of the story.
3. Plot – sequence of events.
4. Point of view – the different angle to see the subject.
5. Character – person, animals who play in the story.
6. Mood – wakes certain feeling or atmosphere of a literary piece.


1. Lines – referred to line of writing.

2. Stanza – a group of lines separated by a space from another group of lines.

I love to write day and night
What would my heart do
But cry, sigh and be blue
If I could not write

Writing feels good

Who could have knew
That what I do
Is write, write, write.

3. Figures of Speech – expression that is not mean to be read literally.

a. Simile – using word such as like or as to compare seemingly unlike things.
She is like an angel.

b. Metaphor – direct comparison without using like or as.

You might be a bag full of hard green tomatoes.

c. Personification – attributes human like characteristics to an animal, object or idea.

A spider sewed at night.

d. Hyperbole – exaggeration for emphasis or humorous effect.

“You’ve asked me a million times!”
e. Rhyme – the repetition of the same vowel sound and any succeeding sounds in two or more words.
f. Rhythm – the pattern of sound created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line.
g. Meter – pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables which sets the overall rhythm of certain poems.
h. Tone – a reflection of the poet’s attitude toward the subject of a poem.
i. Mood – the atmosphere/feeling that the poet creates.


Haiku – unrhymed poem that contains 17 syllables, arranged in 3 lines of 5, 7, 5 syllables each.
Ballad – arranged in quatrains with rhyme scheme ABAB.
Villanelle – nineteen-line poem with 2 rhymes throughout, consisting of 5 tersets and quatrain.
Limerick – five-line poem, usually meant to be funny.

Exercise 1: Choose in the word pool the correct figures of speech for each item.


Hyperbole metaphor



__________________ 1. John is as big as an elephant.

__________________ 2. Life is a dream.
__________________ 3. Mary’s voice is a music to my ears.
__________________ 4. I must have walked a hundred miles.
__________________ 5. The car danced across the icy road.
Exercise 2: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
______ 6. It is when and where the story takes place.
a. Plot b. mood c. theme d. setting
______ 7. What happens in the story of the sequence of events.
a. Plot b. mood c. theme d. setting
______ 8. Lines repeated in the same way that repeat regularly in the poem.
a. Repetition b. refrain c. meter d. stanza
______ 9. A five-line poem, usually meant to be funny.
a. Limerick b. villanelle c. ballad d. sonnet
______ 10. A 19-line poem with 17 syllables.
a. Villanelle b. limerick c. ballad d. sonnet

Parallelism – uses similar structures to express similar ideas.
Parallel: I like singing, kayaking and dancing.
Not parallel: I like singing, kayaking and to dance.
Exercise 1: One item in each of the groups is not parallel to the others. Cross it out and then substitute it with an item that
is parallel with the rest of the group. Number 1 is done for you.
1. Swimming 2. Carefully 3. To cook 4. Watched
Biking slowly to read ate
Paddle (Paddling) quickly jogging slept
Running stand to sleep walk
5. Asserting 6. Clean
Pressing sweep
Visit cook
Acting looked
Exercise 2: Write P if the statement is parallel and NP if it is not parallel.

________ 1. Good health requires eating right and exercise regularly.

________ 2. She likes cooking, jogging and reading.
________ 3. She helps her teachers to clean, sweep and to arrange the classroom.
________ 4. The guy not only wants fame but also wants money.
________ 5. Liam is studying dance, music and art this summer.

Conditionals – a statement that is logical which it expresses something that depends on the other half.
- Often uses “if”.
If you will not study your lesson, surely you will not pass the test.

Exercise 1: Complete the conditional sentences with your own ideas.

1. If someone stole my car, ________________________________________.
2. English would be easier to learn if, ______________________________________________.
3. If I won a lot of money ____________________________________________.
4. The world would be a better place if _________________________________________________.
5. If I could have my life again ________________________________________.
Exercise 2: Put the verb in brackets into gaps. Form conditional sentence. Only use will – future in the main clause.
6. If I [to study], I [to pass] the exams.
7. We [to walk] into the town if the sun [to shine].
8. If they [to go] to the disco, they [to listen] to loud music.
9. If we [to travel] to London, we [to visit] the museums.
10. She [to fly] to New York if she [to earn] a lot of money.