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ENG762S2 2016-2017 Deferred Sit Answers

Answer 1

i)
-Montmorillonite, and other layered silicate clays, are naturally
hydrophillic. This makes them poorly suited to mixing and interacting with
most polymer matrices.
-Moreover, the stacks of clay platelets are held tightly together by electrostatic
forces.
-Counter-ions are attracted to the net negative charge within the clay platelets.
-The counter-ions can be shared by two neighbouring platelets, resulting in
stacks of platelets that are tightly held together.
[5]
ii) The spaces between these platelets are called gallery spaces. [1]
iii)

-Under the proper conditions, the gallery spaces can be filled with monomer,
oligomer, or polymer.
-This increases the distance between platelets, swelling the clay.
-Clay platelets swollen with polymer are said to be intercalated

-If the clay swells so much that it is no longer organized into stacks, it is said to
be exfoliated
[8]
iv)
-Usually Na+ ions are present in gallery spaces.
-Replace with larger ions such as K, Mg etc. with have the same valency and can
undergo ion exchange.
[3]

v)
-The structure of the aluminsilicate sheets is perfectly crystalline with no defects
-Defects provide stress concentration sites which can lower tensile strength
[2]

vi)
Inglis showed in 1912 how the stress changes around the hole

3.5

3.0
Max. σ
 yy 1 a 2 3a 4 
= 2 + + 
2  x 
2.5
0 x
2 4

 2.0

1.5

1.0
1 a  3a
2 2
 xx
=  1− 
0.5
0 2  x 2  x 2

0 1 2 3 4 5

X/a
-A hole in a plate gives a stress concentration
-The maximum stress at the edge of the hole is 3 x (applied stress)
-Therefore, an applied stress of 10GPa gives a stress of 30GPa at the edge of the
hole, which is enough to fail the sheet

[6]

Answer 2

A structural element of a sea creature is used to resist compression. This structural


element is a tube geometry consisting of the mineral calcium carbonate.
i) Suggest a possible biomineralization process using a macromolecular
framework. [10 Marks]

•Cells (Cs) form a large cellular assembly [1]


•An insoluble protein matrix is secreted from the Cs [1]
•Envelopes in the matrix allow biomineralization to occur [1]
•Protein acts as a membrane to increase ion concentration locally [1]
•Supersaturation of ions allow formation of mineral walls [1]
•Cells should secrete protein matrix as shown in figure on below, or as a
‘doughnut’ shape if viewed in plan [2]
C C C

[2]
blue is mineral, purple is protein matrix defining the walls of the tube [1].

ii) If the volume of the mineral tube remains constant, suggest three ways in the
tube could be changed to better resist compression. [4 Marks]

-Increase the moment of inertia of the tube by increasing the diameter of the
tube, which will also thin the tube walls. [2]
-Increase the elastic modulus of the tube [1]
-Decrease the length of the tube [1]

iii) The calcium carbonate forming the tube is found to have an elastic modulus of
100 GPa. If the tube is 100 m in diameter, with a wall thickness (t) of 10 m and a
length of 500 m, calculate the Euler critical buckling load. Assume the tube is
fixed at both ends and the moment of inertia for the tube is:

Atube
3
Itube = 3 2
8p t

[11 Marks]

Calculate the moment of inertia. The cross-sectional area of the tube:

Total area = pi. r^2.


r = 50 x 10-6
Total area = 7.8 x 10-9 m2
[2]

Deduct the area due to the hole in the tube.


As the wall thickness is 10 m, the hole diameter is 90 m

Total hole area = pi. r^2


r = 45 x 10-6
Total hole area = 6.4 x 10-9 m2
[2]

The cross sectional area = total area – hole area = 1.4 x 10-9 m2
[1]

Moment of Inertia = (1.4 x 10-9)^3/(8 x pi^3 x (10 x 10-6^2))


= 1.1 x 10-19
[1]

Use Euler buckling theory:

[2]

k=4
[1]

P = ((4 x pi^2)/ 500 m) x 100 GPa x 1.1 x 10-19


= 869 N
[2]

Solution Mark

3(i)

8/11
From Mohr’s circle the principal stresses are:

𝜎1 = −0.25𝑀𝑃𝑎, 𝜎2 = −0.86𝑀𝑃𝑎, 𝜎3 = −2.77𝑀𝑃𝑎

3/11
3(ii Using the findings in (i) the von Mises stress can be calculated
) as:

𝜎𝑦 |𝜎1 − 𝜎2 | |𝜎2 − 𝜎3 | |𝜎1 − 𝜎3 | 2/8


𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑀𝐴𝑋{ , , }
2 2 2 2
|−0.25−(−0.86)| |−0.86−(−2.77)| |−0.25−(−2.77)|
= 𝑀𝐴𝑋{ , , }
2 2 2 2/8
= 𝑀𝐴𝑋{0.305𝑀𝑃𝑎, 0.95𝑀𝑃𝑎, 1.26𝑀𝑃𝑎} = 1.26𝑀𝑃𝑎
2/8
𝜎𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑎 = 2𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2(1.26) = 2.52𝑀𝑃𝑎
2/8

3(ii The material is safe from yielding if the Tresca stress reaches
i) the uniaxial strength:

𝜎𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑎 = 𝜎𝑦 2/6

2.52𝑀𝑃𝑎 < 8𝑀𝑃𝑎 (No Yielding) 2/6

The factor of safety (FS) against yielding is found by


normalizing the yield strength with the Tresca stress:

𝜎𝑦 8𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝐹𝑆 = = = 3.17 2/6
𝜎𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑎 2.52𝑀𝑃𝑎

4(i) The axial compressive strain in the midshaft of the bone will
be:

𝜎 𝐹 2/12
𝜀𝑥𝑥,𝑏 =
=
𝐸 𝐴𝑏 𝐸𝑏
1500𝑁 4/12
𝜀𝑥𝑥,𝑏 = = 166𝜇𝜀
(452.4𝑚𝑚2 )(20𝐺𝑃𝑎)

Whereas for the plate we have:

𝜎 𝐹 2/12
𝜀𝑥𝑥,𝑝 = =
𝐸 𝐴𝑝 𝐸𝑝
4/12
1500𝑁
𝜀𝑥𝑥,𝑏 = = 55.5𝜇𝜀
(140𝑚𝑚2 )(193𝐺𝑃𝑎)

4(ii Because the plate and the bone are held firmly together by
) screws to prevent shear, the strain in both must be equal over
the length of the plate:

𝜀𝑥𝑥,𝑏 = 𝜀𝑥𝑥,𝑝 1/13

𝐹𝑝 𝐹𝑏 2/13
=
𝐴𝑝 𝐸𝑝 𝐴𝑏 𝐸𝑏

𝐹𝑝 𝐴𝑝𝐸𝑝 2/13
(a) 𝐹 = 𝐴 = 2.99
𝑏 𝑏 𝐸𝑏

Furthermore, the sum of the force on the plate and bone is


equal to the total force:

(b) 𝐹 = 𝐹𝑝 + 𝐹𝑏 2/13

Combining (a) and (b):

𝐹𝑏 = 375.9𝑁, 𝐹𝑝 = 1123.9𝑁 4/13

Where the percentage of load carried by bone and plate is:

375.9 1123.9
%𝐹𝑏 = = ~25%, %𝐹𝑝 = = ~75%
1500 1500 2/13
Thus, the bone has been sufficiently ‘shielded’ from axial
stress.