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Sequencing Bio-Reactor (SBR)

M. Kumaraguru, Vice President


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

ENVIROVISION 2013
INDIAN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATION
SBR
Sequencing Bio-Reactor
Sequential Batch Reactor
Cyclic Activated Sludge Process
CONCEPT OF SBR
Concept of SBR

• SBR is an Aerobic Biological treatment process

• It is a Suspended growth process – Similar to Activated Sludge


Process, Extended Aeration etc.

• The waste is degraded by Biomass (bacteria and other living


organisms) that feed on the waste.

• It is a batch process where Aeration, settling/clarification happens


in a single tank.
Concept of SBR

• In an Activated Sludge Process (ASP), the treatment process is


sequenced in space.

o The wastewater flows continuously through multiple tanks like


Aeration tanks, Secondary Clarifier, where Aeration and settling
takes place respectively.

• In a SBR, the treatment process is sequenced in Time.

o The wastewater flow in an SBR is intermittent and Aeration and


Settling happens in a single tank at different time periods

o The operations like aeration, settling etc., are repeated over and
over again in the same tank in a sequence and hence it is called as
SBR.
Concept of SBR

• The SBR that is described in text books is called “Generic SBR”

• The design of “Generic SBRs” is complex as compared to ASP

• There are no mass produced standardized SBR components as in case


of ASP

• The Generic SBR designs have been improved upon and the modified
processes have been patented by different Technology Companies

• These companies have developed SBR components to suit their


technology/variant
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Process description

The typical process steps in a generic SBR are;

1. Filling
2. Aeration or React
3. Settling
4. Decanting or Draw
5. Idle
Filling
• This is the addition of waste water in the SBR basin. Filling
can be;
 Static fill – No mixing or aeration
 Mixed fill – Only mixing (by mechanical means)
 Aerated fill – Only aeration

• The time period is variable and depends on the flow rate

• The filling time will be adequate to handle the peak flows

• Anoxic condition prevails – to aid Denitrification

• The biomass in the basin starts degrading the BOD in the


waste water
Aeration or React
• The inflow of waste water in the SBR basin is stopped and
diverted to another basin
• The time period is fixed
• Air is introduced for the biomass to breathe
• Aeration is carried out either by diffused aeration or by
mechanical means
• Aeration capacity is designed for peak load demand
• Aerobic condition prevails – to aid Nitrification
• The biomass in the basin completes the degradation of
BOD in the waste water as well as converting Ammonia
into Nitrates
Settling

• The mixing and aeration are turned off


• The settling time period is fixed
• The biomass settles in quiescent conditions
• Compared to a conventional Secondary Clarifier, there is no
uplfow of water when the biomass settles.
• The SBR provides optimum settling conditions and
eliminates hydraulic influences as compared to continuous
flow systems
Decanting or Draw

• The mixing and aeration remain turned off


• The Decanting time period is fixed
• The clear water from above the biomass sludge layer is
removed from the top
• The decanting rate ensures that the settled biomass is not
disturbed
• Different types of decanting devices are available
• Excess sludge is wasted from the basin and taken for
dewatering
Idle
• This is the buffer time provided where a SBR basin “waits”
till another basin completes filling.
• Normally happens in low flow conditions
• The Idle time is flexible
• The filling, mixing and aeration remain turned off
• This is not a productive time and hence not followed by
most designs
Typical SBR cycle
Typical 2 basin SBR cycle
Typical cycle times of Generic SBRs
Total Cycle time : 4 - 6 hours

Idle
60 min (Variable)

Filling
120 min
(Variable)
Decanting
60 min

Settling Aeration
60 min 60 min
Typical cycle times of Generic SBRs
Total Cycle time : 4 - 6 hours

Filling ON

Filling OFF
Components in an SBR
• SBR basin in RCC
• Aeration system
• Mechanical mixers

• Decanters

• Surplus Activated Sludge pumps

• Instruments – Dissolved Oxygen, Level indicator etc.

• Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based automation

• Automatic Valves and Gates


Typical PFD of SBR based STP

RAW SEWAGE INLET GRIT


SCREENS
SUMP & CHAMBER CHAMBER
PUMP HOUSE

TREATED SBR
SEWAGE CHLORINATION BASINS

SLUDGE
(for disposal) CENTRIFUGE
PFD of SBR based STP with Power generation
Raw Inlet Screen Grit
Sewage Chamber Chamber Chamber

Primary SBR Chlorination Treated


Clarifier Basin tank sewage

Sludge Sludge

Sludge Sludge for


Thickener Digester
Centrifuge disposal

Biogas

Additional Gas Gas


Electricity
units holder engine
PFD of a Textile CETP
LIME, ALUM, POLYMER

RAW EFFLUENT EQUALISATION CLARIFIER pH CORRECTION


SUMP & TANK
PUMP HOUSE

SLUDGE TO
CENTRIFUGE

TREATED SBR
EFFLUENT CHLORINATION BASINS

SLUDGE
(for disposal) CENTRIFUGE
ADVANTAGES OF SBR
Advantages of SBR over other technologies

Better performance :

Parameter SBR Other technologies


BOD < 10 ppm < 20 ppm

Suspended solids < 10 ppm < 30 ppm

Total Nitrogen < 10 ppm No treatment

Total Phosphorous < 1 ppm No treatment

Note : Performance in STPs


Advantages of SBR over other technologies
Lower foot print

Area Requirements ASP MBBR SBR UASB+EA MBR WSP

2
Average Area, m per MLD
Secondary Treatment + 900.00 450.00 450.00 1000.00 450.00 6000.00
Secondary Sludge Handling

2
Average Area, m per MLD
Tertiary Treatment + Tertiary 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00
Sludge Handling

2
Total Area, m per MLD
Secondary + Tertiary 1000.00 550.00 550.00 1100.00 450.00 6100.00
Treatment

Source : Ganga Basin River Management Plan by IIT


Typical area requirement of SBR STPs of various capacities
SI. Capacity of Plant Unit Area Required
No. (Hectares)
1 1 per MLD 0.16
2 2 per MLD 0.2
3 5 per MLD 0.4
4 10 per MLD 0.7
5 15 per MLD 0.75
6 20 per MLD 0.8
7 25 per MLD 1.0
8 30 per MLD 1.25
9 40 per MLD 1.6
10 50 per MLD 1.75
11 60 per MLD 1.9
12 75 per MLD 2.25
13 100 per MLD 2.4
14 125 per MLD 3.0
15 150 per MLD 3.5

Source : Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran’s Schedule of Rates


• Completely underground plant with park/playground above it

22.8 MLD SBR STP


West Lake, Vietnam
• Multi storied structures

100 MLD SBR STP – 4 storied


Bangkok, Thailand
• Location in the middle of residential zone
• Fit within a limited and irregularly shaped plot

30 MLD SBR STP


Pimpri, Pune
Advantages of SBR over other technologies

Completely automatic
• The regular time based changes in operation necessitates
automation
• Automation includes;
o Opening and closing of Gates, Valves
o Operation of Pumps, Decanters
o Dissolved Oxygen control through VFD based blower operation
• Plant can be remotely monitored
• Plant operation is independent of operator capability
• Conventional plants like ASP, MBBR, UASB are normally manually
operated. Lack of qualified manpower affects performance
Advantages of SBR over other technologies
Lower power consumption
Power Costs ASP MBBR SBR UASB+EA MBR WSP
Avg. Technology Power, kWh/d/MLD
180 220 150 120 300 2
Secondary Treatment

Avg. Technology Power, kWh/d/MLD


1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Tertiary Treatment

Avg. Non‐Technology Power,


4.5 2.5 2.5 4.5 2.5 2.5
kWh/d/MLD - Secondary Treatment
Avg. Non‐Technology Power,
0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
kWh/d/MLD - Tertiary Treatment

Total Daily Power, kWh/d /MLD 185.7 223.7 153.7 125.7 302.5 5.7

Daily Power Cost (@Rs. 6.0 / KWh),


Rs./MLD/h (Including Standby power 46.43 55.93 38.43 31.43 75.93 1.43
cost)

Yearly Power Cost, Rs.lacs pa/MLD 4.07 4.9 3.37 2.75 6.65 0.49

Rank 4 5 3 2 6 1

Source : Ganga Basin River Management Plan by IIT


Advantages of SBR over other technologies
Lower treatment cost
• Treatment cost takes into account both the Capital cost as well as the Net
Present Value of the O&M cost over a 15 year period.

ASP MBBR SBR UASB+EA MBR WSP


Present (2010) Treatment
Cost, paisa / L 0.32 0.33 0.29 0.28 - 0.11
upto Secondary Treatment

Rank 4 5 3 2 6 1

Source : Ganga Basin River Management Plan by IIT


Advantages of SBR over other technologies
Can be adopted for all flows

Source : Ganga Basin River Management Plan by IIT


SBR VARIANTS
SBR variants
SBRs are broadly classified into 2 types;

1. Intermittent feed and intermittent decant

2. Continuous feed and intermittent decant


Intermittent Feed and Intermittent Decant SBR
 This is similar to the Generic SBR where the inlet is stopped during
settling and decanting

 This is the most widely used system

 Better performance

 Lesser volumes

 Basin geometry is not critical


Continuous Feed and Intermittent Decant SBR
 The inlet remains ON even during settling and decanting. A baffle wall is
provided in the inlet area and the waste water is fed from the bottom

 Possibility of deterioration of outlet quality due to contamination of


untreated feed especially during peak flows

 Larger volumes are required

 Basin geometry is critical. Important to maintain sufficient distance


between the inlet and decanter

 Possible to construct a single basin SBR as inlet need not be diverted


during settling and decanting, leading to lower costs
Other variants of Generic SBR
 Simultaneous Filling and Aeration instead of filling first followed by
aeration

 Elimination of Idle time

 Reduction of Cycle time leads to lower SBR basin volume

Decanting
45 min

Filling +
Aeration Total Cycle time : 3 - 4 hours
90min
Settling
45min
Other improvements to Generic SBR design
 Incorporation of a Biological Selector compartment for improving the
settleability of sludge thereby achieving better outlet quality

 Oxygen Uptake Rate control to achieve energy savings

 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification for Nitrogen removal


within the SBR basin

 Enhanced Biological Phosphorous removal for removal of Total


Phosphorous
SBR variants based on type of Decanter
Mechanically operated
Description Valve arrangement Floating decanters
decanter

Valves are positioned at The decanter floats on The decanter is pushed


different levels in the water due to buoyancy down by a top mounted
tank’s side and these are and the treated water motor driven gearbox in a
Operation type opened sequentially from leaves the tank through a precise manner by PLC
the top to the bottom flexible rubber hose

The outlet quality is poor The outlet quality is poor Very good and consistent
and inconsistent as the and inconsistent as the outlet quality as the
Outlet quality decanting rate is not decanting rate is not decanter descent rate is
controlled. controlled. controlled
SBR variants based on type of Decanter
Mechanically operated
Description Valve arrangement Floating decanters
decanter
Not available Not available A scum guard is present to
prevent the scum from
Scum removal mixing with the treated
sewage
Used in small Used in small and Used in both small and large
Installations installations medium installations installations

Mechanical problems Buoyancy problems lead The SS construction results


Plant life and related to valve and to decanter sinking in good plant life and lesser
maintenance issues actuators require regular maintenance problems.
maintenance

This is an on-off This is an on-off The decanter operation is


operation and cannot be operation and cannot be controlled by the PLC and
used for precise control used for precise control the operator can set a
Automatic operation of water withdrawal of water withdrawal precise withdrawal rate
through the SCADA system

Low High Highest


Cost
Selection of SBR technology
The selection of a suitable SBR variant depends on the following;
• Capacity of the plant

• Outlet quality required

• Criticality / consistency of outlet quality required

• Plot area available and its geometry

• Level of automation

• Service support – Most of the SBR technologies are sourced from abroad. So local
service support is important.

• Budget
BASIC PROCESS DESIGN
PARAMETERS
Basic process design parameters
• Flow
o Average flow
o Peak factor
o Duration of peak flow
• Quality – Inlet and desired outlet
o pH
o BOD
o COD
o Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
o Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
o Total Phosphorous (TP)
• Industry specific data – Cyanides, Phenols, Sulfides, Alkalinity etc.
• Location data – Temperature, Altitude
Basic process design parameters
• Process parameters

o Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS)

o Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS)

o Solids Retention Time (SRT)

o Food to Micro-organisms ratio (F/M)

o Sludge Volume Index (SVI)

o Sludge yield

o Cycle time

o Decant depth
SPECIFIC DESIGN PARAMETERS
Specific design parameters
Parameters Units Value

F/M ratio d-1 0.05 - 0.3


Sludge Age d 4 - 20
Sludge Yield kg dry solids/ kg BOD 0.5 – 0.85
MLSS mg/L 2,500 – 5,000
Cycle Time h 2.5 – 6
Settling Time h > 0.5
Maximum Decant Depth m 2.5

Fill Volume Basis - Peak Flow


Process Oxygen
- BOD kg O2/kg BOD 1.1
- TKN kg O2/kg TN 4.6
Air Calculations
- Alpha - 0.65
- Beta 0.95
TYPICAL DESIGN CALCULATIONS
Typical design calculations
 A detailed process calculation based on reaction kinetics is described in
“Wastewater Engineering by Metcalf & Eddy” and it is too complicated to be
covered in this program
 The design methodology is as follows;
1. Based on plant capacity and type of waste water, suitable Reaction kinetic
coefficients, SVI, Basin depth, number of basins, Decant depth etc., are
selected
2. Determine SBR operating cycle times
3. Determine fill fraction based on peak flow
4. Determine overall Hydraulic Retention Time
5. Determine Solids Retention Time
6. Determine MLVSS concentration
7. Check the degree of Nitrification to meet outlet requirement
8. Determine required Aeration / reaction time
Typical design calculations
9. Determine Excess sludge generation
10. Blower capacity is calculated based on Oxygen demand for BOD and TKN
11. Calculate F/M and BOD loading rates
12. Calculated SRT, F/M, MLSS values are cross checked against
recommended values
13. Calculation is repeated till the above values are within accepted norms.
This is an iterative process.
PREFERRED MATERIAL OF
CONSTRUCTION
Preferred material of Construction
 SBR basin in RCC. Internal surface protection by epoxy,
silicate etc. is recommended.
 Prefabrication in MS or FRP is possible in smaller SBRs.
Suitable surface protection of MS is a must
 Aeration system
• Fine bubble diffusers
o Silicone / Polyurethane / EPDM
• Diffuser air grid
o UPVC / SS
• Diffuser air grid supports
o SS-316
• Jet Aerators, Aspirators, Aerators
o Wetted parts in SS
Preferred material of Construction
 Decanters
o Stainless steel – Preferred and most widely used
o FRP

 Submersible pumps
o Casing - CI
o Impeller - SS

 Air piping (wetted)


o SS-304 – Preferred
o UPVC

 Air piping (non wetted)


o SS-304 – Preferred
o MS
Preferred material of Construction
 Sludge pipes
o DI – Preferred
o CI

 Cable trays
o FRP - Preferred
o GI

 Hand railing
o SS - Preferred
o GI

Note : The grade of Stainless steel (304/316/316L) is decided depending on


Chloride levels in the waste water. Typically, for sewage, SS-304 is
used.
CASE STUDY
Case Study
Location : Kharghar, Navi Mumbai Parameter Inlet Outlet
BOD, ppm 200 <5
Capacity : 25 mld
COD, ppm 400 < 50
Operation since : 2008 TSS, ppm 200 < 10
Total N, ppm TKN -35 < 10
Total PO4, ppm 7 <1
Performance of 25 MLD SBR plant at Kharghar, Navi Mumbai in Jan ‘09
10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0
TSS
6.0
PPM

5.0

4.0 BOD

3.0
TN
2.0

1.0 TP

0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Day, Jan ‘09


SELECTED REFERENCES
Selected list of SBR plants in India
Name of User Location Capacity
Municipal Sewage
Greater Noida Development Authority Greater Noida 137 MLD
Madurai Municipal Corporation Avaniapuram, Madurai 125 MLD
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corpn. Nerul, Navi Mumbai 100 MLD
Coimbatore Municipal Corpn. Ukkadam, Coimbatore 70 MLD
Hyderabad Water Supply and Sewerage Board Hyderabad 51 MLD
Pune Municipal Corporation Mundhwa, Pune 45 MLD
Public Works Department Panjim, Goa 12.5 MLD
Punjab Water Supply and Sewerage Board Samana, Punjab 10 MLD
Uttarakhand Peyjal Nigam Rishikesh, Uttarakhand 3 MLD

Industrial
Gujarat Eco Textile Park Ltd. Surat 100 MLD
Jawaharlal Nehru Pharma City Vizag 3.5 MLD
Hindustan Petroleum Corpn. Ltd. Mumbai 7.2 MLD
Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited Mangalore 15 MLD
SBR plants
Thank you.