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Session 8

Learning outcome:
 Present Perfect forms and Past Simple
 Pet Reading Workshop Part 5
 Progress Test 3
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE (Page 56)
PAST SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT
Structure Regular verbs Have/Has + past participle
+ I/he/she/it/you/we/they wanted a bike.
- I/he/she/it/you/we/they did not (didn´t) + I/you/we/they have (´ve) eaten the
want a bike. chocolate.
? Did I/he/she/it/you/we/they want a bike? + He/she/it has (´s) eaten the chocolate.

Irregular verbs - I/you/we/they have not (haven´t) eaten the


+ I/he/she/it/you/we/they bought a bike. chocolate.
- I/he/she/it/you/we/they did not (didn´t) - He/she/it has not (hasn´t) eaten the
buy a bike. chocolate.
? Did I/he/she/it/you/we/they buy a bike?
? Have I/you/we/they eaten the chocolate?
To be ? Has he/she/it eaten the chocolate?
+ I/he/she/it was there.
+ You/we/they were there.
- I/he/she/it was not (wasn´t) there.
- You/we/they were not (weren´t) there.
? Was I/he/she/it there?
? Were you/we/they there?
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
PAST SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT
Use For an action that happened in the past and For an action that started in the past, but continues o
is done or finished has an effect today

Time • Yesterday • Just


expressions • Yesterday morning • Already
/Adverbs • Last week • Yet
• Last year • Since
• In 2002 • For
• Six months ago • Ever
• A week ago • Never
• An hour ago

Present Perfect:
Puts emphasis on the result. E.g. She has written 5 letters.
• Expresses an action that is still going on.
E.g. School has not started yet.
• Expresses an action that stopped recently.
E.g. She has cooked dinner.
• Expresses a finished action that has an influence on the present.
E.g. I have lost my key.
• Expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of
speaking.
E.g. I have never been to Australia.
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
• The present perfect (something has happened) always tells us about the situation now.
“ Tom has lost his key” = he doesn´t have his key now.

• The past simple (something happened) tells us only about the past.
If somebody says “Tom lost his key!, this doesn´t tell us whether he has the key now or
not. It tells us only that he lost his key at some time in the past.

• Use the present perfect for new or recent happening:


“I´ve repaired the washing machine. It´s working OK now.” “Oh that´s good”
“Sally has had a baby! It´s a boy.” “That´s great news.”

• Use the past simple (not the present perfect) for things that are not recent or new:
Mozart was a composer . He wrote more than 600 pieces of music. (not has been
…has written)
My mother grew up in Italy. (not has grown)
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

• We use the present perfect to give new information. But if we continue to talk
about it, we normally use the past simple.

A: Ow! I´ve burnt myself.


B: How did you do that? (not have you done)
A: I picked up a hot dish. (not have picked)

A: Look! Somebody has split something on the sofa.


B: Well, it wasn´t me. I didn´t do it. (not hasn´t been…haven´t done)
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
• Do not use the present perfect (I have done) when you talk about a finished time
(for example: yesterday/ten minutes ago/in 2005/when I was a child). Use past
tense:
 It was very cold yesterday. (not has been)
 Paul and Lucy arrived ten minutes ago. (not have arrived)
 Did you eat a lot of sweets when you were a child? (not have you eaten)
 I got home late last night. I was very tired and went straight to bed.

• Use the past to ask when…? Or What time …?


 When did your friends arrive? (not have…arrived)
 What time did you finish work?
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

 It hasn´t rained this week.  It didn´t rain last week.


 Have you seen Anna this morning?  Did you see Anna this morning?
(It is still morning) (It is now afternoon or evening)
 Have you seen Tim recently?  Did you see Tim on Sunday?
 We´ve been waiting for an hour.  We waited (or were waiting) for an
( we are still waiting now) hour. (We are no longer waiting)
A.- Complete the following sentences with simple past or
present perfect (page 57).

1.- We ________ (go) to the movies last night.


2.- Tom _________ (see) that movie three times already.
3.- I _____ (read) yesterday´s newspaper, but I _____________ (read, not)
today´s.
4.- The students _______ (have) eight exams last month.
5.- The students ___________ (have) eight exams this month.
6.- The students ________ (have) eight exams last month.
7.- They ______________(practice) for the concert for over three hours now.
8.- _______ you ever _______ (be) to a professional football game?
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
We can use the Present Perfect with just, already and yet.

 Just= a short time ago. Just comes before the past participle.
“Are you hungry?” “No, I´ve just had lunch”
Hello. Have you just arrived?

 Already = we use it to say that something happened sooner than expected.


Already comes before the past participle.
“Don´t forget to pay your electricity bill” “I´ve already paid it”
“What time is Mark leaving?” “He´s already left.”

 Yet = until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Yet
comes at the end of a question or a negative sentence.
Has it stopped raining yet?
I´ve written the email, but I haven´t sent it yet.
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
• We can use the Present Perfect with for and since.

 FOR = We use for to say how long this period is (for three days).
Vicky has only had that camera for three days.

 SINCE = We use since to say when the period began (since Friday).
Those people have been at the hotel since Friday.
PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
• We can use ever and never with the Present Perfect.

 EVER = “in your whole life up to the present time”.

We use ever in questions:

- Have you ever been to Brazil?

 NEVER = “not ever”

- I´ve never ridden a motorbike in my life.

- You´ve never given me flowers before.

- This is the most expensive hotel we´ve ever stayed in.


PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE
• After It´s/This is the first/second time, we use the Present Perfect.
- This is the first time we´ve been to Scotland, so it´s all new to us.
- This is the second time Rachel has forgotten to give me a message.
- I love this film, I think it´s the fourth time I´ve seen it.

• We use the Present Perfect with today and phrases with this, eg. This morning,
this week, this year.
- We´ve done quite a lot of work today.
- I haven´t watched any television so far this week.
- Have you had a holiday this year?
B.- Unscramble these words to form sentences (Page 57).
1. The secretary/finish/yet/her work

2.- Giuseppe/back/just/from Italy/come

3.- I/a camel/never/ride

4.- The realtor/just my house/sell

5.- That patient/in hospital/a week/be

6.- The student/homework/do/his/already/math


PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

FORM Have/has + V-ed Have/Has + been + V-ing

Expresses an action that is still Expresses an action that is still going


USAGE going on or that stopped on.
recently, but has an influence
on the present.
Puts emphasis on the duration or
Puts emphasis on the result. course of the action.
ADVERBS For, since, already, ever, never, The whole week, all day, for, since,
FREQUENTLY yet, still, etc. recently, lately, etc.
USED

EXAMPLE I have written five letters. I have been playing football since 3
o´clock.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

We use the present perfect simple to say We use the present perfect continuous to
how much, how many or how many times: say how long (for something that is still
happening):
 How much of that book have you read?  How long have you been reading that
 Lisa is writing emails. She´s sent lots of book?
emails this morning.  Lisa is writing emails. She´s been
 They´ve played tennis three times this writing emails all morning.
week.  They´ve been playing tennis since 2
 I´m learning Arabic, but I haven´t learnt o´clock.
very much yet.  I´m learning Arabic, but I haven´t been
learning it very long.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
AND SIMPLE
• Verbs with stative meaning (for example, know, like, believe) are not normally used
in the continuous:
Example:
- I´ve known about the problem for long time. (not I´ve been knowing)
- How long have you had that camera? (not have you been having)

• Both the Present Perfect Simple and the Present Perfect Continuous can be used
to describe an activity that started in the past and continuous up to the present
and possibly into the future.

Example:
- They have been studying English for three years.
- They´ve studied English for three years.
PET READING WORKSHOP PART 5
Remember:

 Read the title and the whole text first


for general understanding and to
understand the context.
 Read the text again and choose the
correct word for each space.
 The words on either side of the gap
are not always enough. You should
 Task Type:
read the whole sentence or even
Multiple choice (A, B, C or D)
paragraph to find the answer.
 Task Format:  Focus in the meaning and in the
grammar.
You choose the correct words to fill ten
spaces in a short text (vocabulary and
grammar)