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May 20, 1964
RELEASE NO: 64-113


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration

will launch the sixth Saturn I flight vehicle (SA-6)
from Cape Kennedy, Fla., no earlier than May 26.

Main purpose of the flight is to qualify the launch

vehicle further and develop the technology necessary to
build the more powrful Saturns needed for manned lunar
landings and other space exploration.


SA-6 will carvy into Earth orbit the first unmanned

"boilerplate" model of the Apollo spacecraft which is being

developed to carry three American astronauts to the iloon

before the end of this decade.

An active guidance svstem will be used on a Saturn

Cor the first time to steer the second stage of the Saturn I

and the attached Apollo spacecraft into an orbit ran-in6

froo L0C) to 140 statute n,'les above the Earth. The SA-6

satellite, consisting of tici second stage (S-IV), an instru-

ment unit and the Apollo spacecraft will weigh 37,300


The weight-in-orbit record is held by tne fifth

Saturn I (SA-5) launch which put 37,700 pounds in orbit

Jan. 29. This orbiting package consists of the S-IV

stage, instrument unit and a sand-filled nose cone. An

"open loop guidance"., or autopilot system, was used in the

SA-5 flight.

Other primary missions of the SA-6 flight are to

test propulsion additionally, structure and flight con-
trcil systems and to prove the technique for separating the
second stage from the 7irst stage.


Secondary missions include determining structural

characteristics of the launch escape system, operational

suitability of Atlantic Missile 1lange ground tracking sta-

tions, launch escape system jettison characteristics, and

demonstrating the compatibility of spacecraft research

and development instrumentation and communication systems

with launch vehicle systems.

Five Saturn I's, each generating 1.3 million pounds

thrust or more and weighing a million pounds have been

successfully launched.

The first four (Block I) rockets had only the boos-

ter stage live. Beginning with the Block II Saturn SAG-1

all Saturn I's have powered second stages and are capable

of placing about 20,000 pounds of useful payload into

Earth orbit.

SA-6 and later vehicles in the series carry early,

unmanned models of the Apollo command and service Modules.

The last three Saturn I flights (SA-9, SA-8, SA-10) will

carry meteoroid detection satellites.

SA-6 is 190 feet tall and will weigh about ',130,000

pounds at liftoff, It consists of four elements: S-I

stage, S-IV stage, instrument unit, and an Apollo space-

craft ("boilerplate" Command Module, dummy Service Module

and insert/adapter, plus launch escape system).


The S-Iv and the irn crument unit are being flown

for the second time. Thie S-I is undergoing its second

flight test in this (Block II) configuration.

Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for

Manned Space Flight, at NASA Headquarters, is in charge of

all NASA manned space effort, including the development of

the Saturn vehicle and Apollo spacecraft. The three cen-

ters sharing responsibility in the Apollo moon program

are the Marshall Space Flight Center, vehicle developer;

Manned Spacecraft Center, spacecraft developer; and Ken-

nedy Space Center, t1-. launching organization. The cen-

ters, reporting directly to Mueller, are headed by Dr.

Wernher von Braun, Dr. Robert Gilruth and Dr. Kurt Debus,


In the SA-6 launching, the centers will be assisted

by three firms, Chrysler Corp., Douglas Aircraft Co., and

North Americaun Aviation, principal contractors for the

Saturn I first and second stages and the Apollo spacecraft,




Flight Sequence........... ........................... 6

The SA-6 Sal 'llite . . .................... * 8
Measuring Program. .......................... . . ... . 10
Apollo Spacecraft .............. ............... 12
Vehicle Background and Description
,.. 17
Launch Complex.................. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 31
Launch Preparations ............................... 33
Optical Systems . ..........
.. ................... 36
Tracking Networlc. .......................... . . 40
Saturn/Apollo Industrial Participation ............... .42

After ignition the SA-6 will be held to the launch

pedestal until all engines are operating smoothly. Liftoff

normally occurs about three seconds after ignition.

SA-6 will be fired on an azimuth of 90 degrees, but

after the first few seconds it will "roll into" its flight

azimuth of 105 degrees. The tilt program will begin after

15 seconds of flight. The rocket will continue to tilt

until the 134th second of flight when it will be inclined

at 67 degrees from the launch vertical.

About 70 seconds after liftoff the rocket will pass

through the region of maximum dynamic pressure (max Q)

when the aerodynamic pressures exerted on the rocket's

structure are Greatest. This will occur about 3.5 statute

miles In range and 7.5 statute miles in altitude.

Soon nifer the 100th second of flight there begins a

critical series of actions concerning the separation of the

two stages and the ignition of the S-IV. The steps are as


(1) At 107 seconds, S-IV (second stage) engine hydro-

gen prestart flow begins, lasting 4ll seconds (until S-IV


(2) At 134 seconds the S-I (first stage) propellant

level switches, which will sense a low level of propellant

and initiate the liquid oxygen (LOX) prestart flow in the

S-IV, are armed.

(3) At 138 S-IV LOX prestart flow begins.

(4) The inboard engines will be cut off at 140 seconds

and the outboard engines will be cut off by an automatic

timer (program device) six seconds later. At S-T outboard

engine cutoff the vehicle will be traveling about 5,900

statute miles per hour at an altitude of about 43 miles and

a range of about 56 miles,

(5) Within two seconds, the following sequence takes

place: The S-IV's four solid propellant ullage motors

begin their three-to-four-second firing; separation command

is given and the explosive bolts attaching the two stages

are fired; the instrument unit (IV) control rate gyro signals

are introduced into the S-IV control system; the S-I's four

solid propellant .etrorockets begin their two-second firing

period; and the S-IV stage engines are ignited (1.7 seconds

after the separation signal) about 1118 seconds following

lif toff .

Some 12 seconds after' S-[/tS-Iv separlat.ion, the launch
escape tower and the S-LV ullage motor cases are Jettisoned.

Active guidance employing the ST-12 1 1 platform, used for the

first time on SA-6, will start about 16 seconds after S-IV

engine ignition. The guidance system will determine contin-

ually during flight the most efficient steering commands

which will result in the requLred conditions for insertion

into orbit. The S-IV engines will operate about 4175 seconds,
almost eight minutes. At that time, 10.5 minutes after
liftoff, the S-IV with the instrument unit and unmanned

Apollo will go into orbit.

At Insertion, the SA-6 satellite will be traveling at

about 16,500 statute miles per hour. Insertion will occur

about 1,300 statute miles downrange from the launcri site.


The length of the portion to be orbited is 80 feet,

slightly less than half the length of the entire vehicle.

The payload will not be separated from the second stage

and instrument unit and there will be no reccvery. The

orbiting body and weights of components include:


Spent S-IV stage -- 14,200 lbs.

Instrument Unit -- 6,1co lbs.

Payload (Insert/Adapter
Apollo Command Module and
Apollo Service Module)--17,000 lbs.

Total 37,300 lbs.

(Initially the orbiting body will have an additional 1,700

pounds of weight - propellant residual in the S-IV stage

which will gradually evaporate).

It is expected that the orbit will have a perigee of

about 110 statute miles and an apogee of about 140 statute

miles. The planned orbital lifetime of the payload is less

than a week.

The satellite will have an orbital period of about 88

minutes and may tumble slowly. When the satellite is in

sunlight and the viewer in shadow, it will be easily visible

from Earth. Its visibility will vary with altitude, but it

will usually appear about the magnitude of Venus, the even-

ing star.

If the vehicle is launched about mid-morning, as planned,

the satellite will not be visible to the North American

continent on the first evening. It may be visible the next

morning in the southern Uniced States.


A minitrack transmitter in the instrument unit will

be operating on a frequency of 136.650 m.c. The system

has one battery which should assure operation for the

vehicle's lifetime.

The telemetry system is expected to operate through

one orbit, providing signals which will be tracked by

other ground stations.

The SA-6 flight will allow a test of the major ground

tracking networks of the U.S. NASA, the Department of

Defense and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory will

take part in a global ground tracking exercise. NASA's

Goddard Space Flight Center will coord4nate this operation.

Early "quick look" tracking and data reduction to determine

orbital characteristics will be conducted at the Marshall

Space Flight Center with assistance from several stations.


SA-6 will telemeter to the ground during flight some

1310 measurements, as follows: S-I stage, 630; S-IV, 355;

Instrument Unit, 210; and spacecraft, 116. Block I Saturns,

with only one stage live and carrying no instrument unics,

had about 600 flight measurements. SA-5 made about 1200

measurements. In addition to the flight measurements, 220

"blockhouse measurements" are scheduled to be received in

the control center during countdown. These measurements will
end with lifto(ff. -more-
The vehicle has 13 flight telemetry systems: six

on the S-I, three on the S-IV and four in the instrument

unit (excluding minitrack). The payload has three.

The telemetry systems transmit such measurements as

engine turbine temperature; propellant pump rpm; poistions
of valves; temperature of engine bearings, heat exchanger
outlets, tall skirts, turbine exhaust and nitrogen pressur-
ization tanks and payload, pressures in combustion chambers,
propellant tanks and payload; strain and vibration through-
out the vehicle; stabilized platform position; velocity;
motion of control actuators; propellant level; battery
voltages and currents; inverter frequency.

Optical systems which are being carried for the second

time on Saturn. Eight motion picture cameras and two tele-
vision cameras will record vital functions of rocket opera-
tion. Similar optical systems were highly successful on the
SA-5 flight.

NASA also will record acoustic, vibration, blast

effects and other measurements of the launching. About 400
measurements will be made at Launch Comple;: 37, at other
locations on Cape Kennedy,, on Merritt Island and on the
Florida Mainland up to a distance of about 15 miles from
toe launch site. This program is being conducted by the
John IF.Kennedy Space Center, NASA.

- 12 -


The SA-6 vehicle will carry an early, "boilerplate"

model of the Apollo Con-and and Service Modules, plus the

insert/adapter which is located beneath the Service Module.

The total Apollo weight in orbit will be about 17,000 pounds,

more than 5:000 pounds of which will be lead ballast.

The launch escape system, to be Jettisoned during S-IV

powered flight, weighs about three tons and consists of an

inert pitch control motor, an inert launch escape motor and

nozzle skirt, a spacecraft escape tower with separation

mechanism, and necessary instrumentation sensors and wiring.

mounted within the nose will be a "Q-ball," a dynamic pres-

sure sensor used to measure the angle of the vehicle in


Pitch Control Motor, simulated for this mission, is

nine inches in diameter, 22 inches long, and weighs 35 pounds.

Tower Jettison Motor is a solid propellant motor, 26

inches in diameter, 47 inches long. it will have a bolt

flange at the aft end to attach it to the forward end of the

launch escape motor. The motor has two thrust nozzies,

canted at 30 degrees from the motor centerline. Its gr)as

wtight is 55 pounds including interstage structures. T:
tower Jettison motor develops 33,000 pounds of thrust fo.'
one second and burn-out occurs at 1.3 seconds.
- more -
13 -

Launch Escape Motor, simulated for this mission, weighs

approximately 4,900 pounds, is 26 inches in diameter and

is 183 inches long.

Tower Structure is composed of welded tubular titanium

alloy with truncated rectangular cross-section. It is 120

inches long with a base 46 by 50 inches. The tower forms
the intermediate structure between the Command Module and

escape motor. A structural skirt is used to attach the

escape mctor co the tower. The tower will be covered with

an ablative material.

Tower Separation System Consists of explosive bolts in

each of four tower legs. In addition to the conventional
internal explosive charge, an independent linear shaped

charge is provided at a flattened section on each bolt. Each

dhaige is triggered by a separate initiator. This system pro-
vides a redundant means of tower separation.

Command Nodule on SA-6 is a boilerplate aluminum struc-

ture simulating size, weight, shape and center of gravity of

the manned operational spacecraft. It is covered with cork

insulation material to protect the structure from overheating.

- more -
Crew Compartment in the boilerplate Command Module

uses frame stiffeners of the exterior shell structure to

attach mountings for instrumentation, electrical power sys-

tem and ballast required to maintain proper weight and cen-

ter of gravity. Also included are a main hatch (aluminum

alloy structure) for access to the compartment and a forward

access way (tubular structure of aluminum) welked to the for-

ward bulkhead. This access is provided with a bolted-on cover.
Aft Heat Shield on the boilerplate is similar in shape

to the operational heat shield. It is composed of an inner

and outer layer of laminated glass over an aluminum honey-

comb core and attached to the Commane Module by four struts.

Forward Compartment Cover on the SA-6 mission, is a

sheet metal fabricated cover and fiberglass honeycomb radome

assembled together and bolted to the Command Module.

Communications and Instrumentation Systems will handle

116 measurements to be telemetered to ground stations.

Environmental Control System provides cool air in a

continuous flow to maintain Command Module ambient temperature

at 80 degrees F., plus or minus 10 degrees. The system con-

sists of a storage tank, pump, cold plates, heat exchanger,

fan thermal control valves, and quick disconnect valves.

Power for this unit is supplied by the electrical power system.

- more -
- 15 -

Electrical Power System consists of two instrumentation

batteries, two pyro-batteries, two logic batteries, a power

control box, and a Junction box. The instrumentation bat-

teries are 120 ampere/hour units and the pyro batteries are

five ampere/hour units.

Launch Escape System Sequencer serves primarily as the

arm/de-arm mechanism for the pyro system. It does not

initiate any sequence in the SA-6 flight. The tower sepa-
ration and Jettison motor firing signal is provided by the

Saturn instrument unit flight sequencer to the launch escape

system sequencer. The launch escape system sequencer for-

wards this signal to the tower sequencer firing circuits.

The sequencer includes two independent and identical sections

that perform the same functions. Each section contains

separate pyro and logic batteries and busses, and individual

pyro and logic arm/de-arm motor switches.

Service Module and Insert are aluminum structures 154

inches in diameter. The Service Module, 124 inches long and

the insert, 52 inches long, are bolted together. The Ser-
vice Module is attached to the Command Module by an insert,

or non-functioning separation system, bolted to the adapter.

The active umbilical system, instrumentation sensors, associ-

ated cabling and ballast are contained in the Service Module.

- more -

Also included are reaction control system quadrant packages

having the same weight, shape, location and aerodynamic

characteristics as live service module reaction control

system packages.

Spacecraft Adapter is an aluminum structure bolted to

the S-IV stage. It is 154 inches in diameter, 92 inches

long, and contains an air conditioning barrier, instrumen-

tation sensors and associated cabling.



Saturn SA-6 is a two-stage 190 feet high vehicle.

Liftoff weight is approximately 1,130,000 pounds.

Elements of the SA-6 are the S-I first stage, the

S-IV second stage, an instrument unit and a boilerplate

Apollo payload.

This two-stage vehicle -- second of the Saturn I

Block II configuration -- is capable of placing into a

low Earth orbit about 20,000 pounds of useful payload.

(In the case of SA-6, the total weight is greater, but this

includes the spent S-IV stage, the instrument unit and the

payload adapter, which in a normal mission, would not or-

bit with the payload.)

Some 1310 measurements throughout the vehicle will

be monitored during prelaunch and flight.


The Saturn I program -- of which SA-6 is the sixth

flight vehicle -- grew out of studies made by a group

headed by Dr. Wernher von Braun in 1957. Initial objective

of the study was to demonstrate with ground tests the

feasibility of building a large rocket using a cluster of

small, available engines. In slightly more than a year,
a flight program, including the development of high-energy

upper stages, was started.

Saturn I has had a remarkably successful test pro-

gram and has led to the development of two larger space

vehicles, the Saturn IB and Saturn V. The Saturn I, will

not be used for manned Apollo flights, NASA, in October,

1963, cancelled the four manned flights which had been

planned for Saturn I.

Saturn IB uses virtually the same first stage as the

Saturn I,but for its second stage, it uses the 200,000-

pound-thrust S-IVB. Originally the S-IVB was designed

only as the third stage of the Saturh V moon rocket. Using
it in the Saturn IB permits an increase over the Saturn I

payload capability by 50 per cent without the expense of

starting a new development program.

The Saturn I program will end with the 10th flight.

issions of the remaining four vehicles will be to contrib-

ute to the development of the Saturn IB and Saturn V; to

launch unmanned Apollo boilerplate command and service

modules (SA-7); and to place into Earth orbit large satel-

lites (having wingspan of 100 feet) to detect the presence

and determine the size of meteoroids (SA-9, SA-8, and SA-l1.)


S-I STAGE DESCRIPTION -- SA-6ts first stage -- the

S-1 -- is a 1.5-million pound thrust booster which is

21-1/2 feet in diameter and 80 feet long.

Weight at liftoff of the S-I is some 960,000 pounds.

About 850,000 pounds of this weight is propellant.

Major areas of the big stage are the "boattail" (or

engine) area, propellant containers and the spider beam


Eight liquid oxygen-kerosene (RP-1) Rocketdyne H-1

engines, each developing 188,000 pounds thrust, are moun-

ted in the "boattail" area to power the S-I stage. Total

nominal thrust is 1,504,000 pounds.

In the first four Saturn I launchings, the H-1 engines

were operated at 165,000 pounds thrust, giving the stage

a total oi 1.3 million pounds thrust. SA-5 was the first

flight test of the propulsion system at its designed rat-

ing. The few internal engine changes necessary to increase

performance primarily increased the flow rate of propellants

into the combustion chamber. Rocketdyne is uprating the

H-1 engine to operate at 200,000 pounds thrust.


Four inboard engines of S-I are rigidly mounted to

the thrust structure in a square pattern around the cen-

terline of the vehicle and are canted outward at a three-

degree angle. The outboard engines (six degree cant angle)

are gimbal-mounted to permit turning for control. purposes

during the first stage powered flight,

A television camera mounted in the number two engine

compartment will provide for the first time real-time

coverage and a permanent record of the operation of com-

ponents on a flight engine. The camera begins operating

just before liftoff and continues until the stage falls

into the ocean. It will monitor the operation of propel-

lant wrap-around lines, the gas generator, the heat ex-

changer, hydraulic actuator arms and flexible flame cur-


Nine tanks feed the eight H-1 engines. Clustered

in a circle about a large center tank 105 inches in diame-

ter (Jupiter size) are eight 70-inch diameter (Redstone

size) tanks.

The center tank and four outer ones contain liquid

oxygen, the alternate outer tanks hold kerosene fuel.

Kerosene tanks are pressurized by gaseous nitrogen carried

in spheres atop the tanks and the liquid oxygen tanks are

pressurized by gaseous oxygen obtained by passing the

-21 -*

liquid oxygen through heat exchangers that are part of

each engine package.

SA-6 propellant containers, as have all Block II

vehicle propellant containers, have been lengthened to

provide some 100,000 pounds of additional propellants,

At liftoff the LOX in the stage is approximately 600,000

pounds and the fuel load is about 250,000 pounds,

Each engine uses 737 pounds of propellant per sec-

ond and the total propellant consumption per second is

5,900 pounds. There are 320 valves and control devices

governing the propellant flow in the stage.

S-I's spider beam area, while structurally support-

ing the forward end of the stage, adapts the stage to the

S-IV and transmits thrust to the S-IV stage. This assem-

bly also provides mounting for retro rockets, film and

television cameras, a LOX/SOX (liquid oxygen/solid oxygen)

disposal system, which includes five sets of high pressure

pneumatic triplex spheres, and various measuring and con-

trol components.

The LOX-SOX disposal system prevents unintentional

ignition of cool-down LOX, SOX or both, which falls from

the thrust chambers of the S-IV stage engines during the


chiildown period prior to the S-IV stage ignition. Gase-

ous nitrogen is channeled from storage tanks through six

dispersal manifold rings into the RL-10 thrust chamber

areas. This gaseous nitrogen keeps the liquid oxygen

from freezing during chilldown and allows the gaseous

oxygen to escape into the atmosphere.

Eight tail fins (four large and four stubs) on the

S-I provide support and hold-down points for launch and

increase aerodynamic stability during flight. Span of the

larger fins -- which measure some nine feet across -- is
about 40 feet.

Eight of the 10 S-I flight stages are being assembled

and tested by the Marshall Center. The two other first

stages, S-I-8 and S-I-10, and all first stagesfor the

Saturn IB are being produced by the Chrysler Corp. at

MSFC's Michoud Operations, New Orleans, La,

SA-6's first stage structural fabrication took

approximately 27 weeks. Final assembly was completed in

some 17 weeks.

Fifty-three miles of wiring and 73,000 connections

were used to join the S-I's 1,708 electrical and elec-

tronic components.


SA-6's first stage was static fired twice during

May and June, 1963, at the Marshall Center: a short dura-

tion firing of 30 seconds and a full duration firing of

nearly 2.5 minutes.

S-IV SECOND STAGE -- The S-IV sta'e is a 90,000-pound-

thrust stage powered by six Pratt and Whitney RL-10A3

engines, each developing 15,000 pounds thrust. The engines

burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, a high-energy com-

bination which produces more than a third more thrust per

pound of propellants than conventional fuels. The use of

super-cold hydrogen (it boils at -423 degrees F) presented

several problems, the solutions to which represent a con-

siderable advancement in the art of rocketry.

S-IV is 18 1/2 feet in diameter, 41 1/2 feet long and

weighs about 13,500 pounds empty. It carries about 100,000

pounds of propellant -- enough for about eight minutes of
propelled flight.

Douglas Aircraft Co.'s Missiles and Space Division

was awarded the S-IV Development contract in July, 1960.

Manu:acturing is done at Santa Monica, Calif., and static

testing at Sacramento, Calif.


The RL-10 engine is the country's pioneering hydro-
gen power3d rocket. Its design was begun by Pratt and
Whitney Division of United Aircraft in 1958. It under-
went its first in-space operation in a Centaur rocket

late in 1963. It has been ground tested to an unusual

degree and has been shown to be a very reliable engine in

these tests. The engines functioned perfectly in flights

of Centaur AC2 and SA-5.

S-IV is a self-supporting structure designed to per-

mit ground handling without pressurization. Basically

the S-IV is a two-section tank structure which has an in-

sulated coamrLn-n bulkhead dividing the tank structure into a

forward liquid hydrogen tank and an aft LOX tank.

Unusual techniques used in S-IV include a common

bulkhead to separate propellant tanks, internal insula-

tion in the liquid hydrogen tank, a helium heater, stor-

ing helium gas in titanium bottles immersed in the liquid

h arogen fuel and use of a new system to corntrol pro-

pellant use.

The common bulkhead separating the large liquid hy-

drogen tank from a smaller liquid oxygen tank is made up

of two aluminum domes with fiberglass honeycomb bonded

to each to form a rigid "sandwich". The bulkhead mini-

mizes heat losses from the liquid oxygen, at -297 degrees F.

to the liquid hydrogen, at -423 degrees F.


The extremely low boiling point of the liquid

hydrogen requires that the fuel tank be insulated to

minimize loss through boil-off. Inside surfaces of the

liquid hydrogen container have 3/4-inch polyurethane

foam bonded to the walls. Glass cloth, 1/10-inch thick,

coated with a polyurethane sealant, covers the foam.

The interior of the tank is machine-milled in a waffle-

like pattern to reduce weight.

Helium gas which pressurizes the liquid oxygen tank

during flight is stored at liquid hydrogen temperature

to take advantage of the resultant large weight savings.

The titanium bottles, in addition, have improved material

properties at this super low temperature. The helium is

passed through the helium heater to raise its temperature

and expand it prior to entering the liquid oxygen tank.

The RL-10 engine resembles other engines externally

but internally it contains many advances, Most rocket
engines use propellant-burning gas generators to drive the

pumps which feed propellants to the thrust chamber.

In the RL-10, liquid hydrogen from the pump enters

the cooling jacket surrounding the thrust chamber to cool

the engine, Combustion temperature inside the chamber is

6,ooo degrees F. In the cooling jacket the hydrogen


becomes gaseous and then, still very cold, it passes through

a venturi. It expands and drives a turbine which pro-

vides power to pump more of the liquid hydrogen into the 4

cooling jacket. The turbine also provides power to pump

liquid oxygen.

S-IV's six engines are mounted on the thrust struc-

ture canted six degrees outward from the vehicle's center

line and can be gimballed through about four degrees. The

S-1V stage is controlled by gimballing the six engines in

response to signzls from the vehicle instrument unit.

The SA-6 second stage was static tested once, for

459 seconds, at Douglas Aircraft's test facility near

Sacramento, Calif., on Nov. 22, 1963.

INSTRUMENT UNIT -- The SA-6 vehicle maintains sta-

bility and alters its flight path by changing the direction

of the thrust vectors of the S-I's four outboard engines

or the six engines of the S-TV. Commands for engine gim-

balling as well as inflight sequencing of vehicle systems

originate in the Instrument Unit (IU).

The IU is located between the S-IV stage and the pay-

load. It has five temperature and pressure-controlled areas

for environmental control of the electrical/electronic



The unitfs overall height is approximately 91 inches

and the outside fairing height is 58 inches. The 154-

inch diameter unit weighs some 6,100 pounds.

The SA-6 IU houses the vehicle guidance and control

system, seven tracking sub-systems and four telemetry

sub-systems. Other systems include the power supply and

distribution system, the cooling system arid the gaseous

nitrogen air bearing supply system,

Four 40-inch diameter tubes arranged at 90 degrees

around a vertical 70-inch diameter center hub make up

the environmentally-controlled portions of the IU. Most

of the unit's instrumentation is housed within the five

temperature and pressure controJbd tubes. Antennas,

horizon sensors, and the umbilical panel for use in ground

checkout and servicing are located on the outside skin.

The liquid nitrogen cooling system is attached to the in-

side of the structure.

SA-6's guidance and control system is adaptive. It

will not try to adhere to a predetermined trajectory but

will adapt itself to any foreseeable situation. It con-

sists of the ST-124 stabilized Dlatform, the platform

electronic box, guidance signal processor, and digital com-



On SA-6 the "closed-loop" guidance function

is pro-
vided by the combination of the stabilized
platform (ST-
124) system, the guidance signal processor
(GSP-24) and
the digital computer (ASC-15). The ST-90
stabilized plat-
form active on previous Saturn I flights
will provide the
timed tilt program and roll maneuver during
S-I flight,
The program device sequences the switch
over between the
two stabilized platforms, and shortly thereafter
the com-
puter introduces signals to guide the S-IV/Apollo

The instrument unit also has two control

ters which are used to measure the vehicle's
lateral ac-
celeration in the pitch and yaw planes during
the portion
of S-I flight where significant aerodynamic
forces exist.
The purpose is to bias the vehicle into
the wind direction
and thus reduce engine swivel angle and
This reduces structural loading. The control accelerometers
were first flown active on SA-4., replacing
the local angle-
of-attack meters used previously.

Several other systems that were flown on

SA-4 and SA-5
are being tested again, These include a
radar altimeter
and a Q-ball transducer.


Seven separate on-board tracking systems will in-

clude subsystems, that, together with subsystems being
flown on other SA-6 stages will be used in determining
trajectory for range safety purposes and for vehicle per-
formance evaluation. Four of the tracking systems are
operational and used for flight evaluation. The other
three systems are in the developmental stage.

A tape recorder will record transmitted data of

one of the IU telemetry systems at critical time periods
(S-I/S-Iv Separation and around S-IV cutoff) for later
transmission to ground stations.

Some 210 measurements will be transmitted through the

four IU telemetry links to ground stations during the

SA-6 TRANSPORTATION -- All major sect-ions of the 190

foot tall SA-6 arrived at Cape Kennedy late in Februray.

The Saturn I booster and instrument unit made the

2,000-mile 11-day trip to the Cape aboard the Marshall
Space Flight Center barge "Promise".

The S-IV stage was flown from the Douglas Aircraft

Co. test facility at Sacramento, Calif., aboard a modified
Stratocruiser known as the "Pregnant Guppy!".


The Apollo spacecraft boilerplate, complete with

launch escape system, Command Module, Service Module and

related ground service equipment and insert/adapter, was

flown to Florida aboard the "Pregnant Guppy" and Air Force

planes from North American Aviation, Inc., Downey, Calif.,

the prime contractor.



SA-6, will be launched from the 120-acre Launch Complex

37 at Cape Kennedy. Complex 37 is just north of Complex 34
where the first four Saturns (Block I) were launched. Con-
struction of the $6 5-million facility was begun in 1961 and

completed in 1963. Its first use was for the launch of SA-5
in Jan. 29, 1964.

Complex 37 has dual launch pads and associated facili-

ties. The two pads, 1,200 feet apart, are designated "A"

and "B". Pad B was completed in time for the launch of SA-5

and is being used again for SA-6. Work is still underway on

Pad A.

Each pad has its own umbilical tower, launch pedestal

and automatic ground control station. A single launch con-

trol center and mobile service structure serve both pads.

The pads also share a central propellant storage and trans-

fer system.

The umbilical towers are 268 feet high with a 32 foot-

square base. The towers can be heightened to 320 feet if
necessary for future programs.


The pads of Complex 37 are served by the Launch

Control Center 1,000 feet away. It is a half-sphere 110
feet in diameter and 37 feet high. It's dome is more

than 12 feet thick. More than 3,000 cubic yards of con-

crete and 400 tons of steel were used in its construction.

Complex 37 has a 328 foot-tall 7,000,000-pound service

structure which rolls between Pads A and B to provide access

for technicians and scientists who check out the Saturn
rocket. Atoo is a derrick with a mast 60 feet high. It can

lift as much as 60 tonse.

The service stbrcturet s 120 foot-square base rides on

72 wheels along its tracks at 40 feet per minute. In work-
:tng position at either pad, the service structure's weight
is removed from the wheels by hydraulic arms lowered onto
foundation assemblies and locked into place.

The SA-6 will be launched from a pedestal 47 feet

square. In the center of the pedestal a 12-sided, 32 foot-
diameter ring allows engine exhaust to escape during launch.
Triangular platforms on top of the pedestals provide a
work area around the base of the rocket.

Complex 37 has a complete fuel storage and transfer

system for both liquid oxygen/RP-l and liquid oxygen/
liquid hydrogen engines. (Complex 34 had no liquid hydrogen

facilities but is being modified to include them.) Among

the facilities on Complex 37: a 125,000 gallon storage

unit; a 28,000 gallon replenishing tank for storing RP-1

(kerosene) fuel; and a 125,000 gallon storage tank{ for

liquid hydrogen.

A high-pressure gas facility provides nitrogen and

helium for purging fuel lines, actuating hydraulic systems,

etc. for both Complex 37 and nearby Complex 34.


Preparations for the launch phase of SA-6 began with

the arrival by barge of the S-I first stage at the John F.

Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Feb. 18. The booster was moved
Feb. 19 to Launch Complex 37B and was erected in the ser-

vice structure. The Apollo spacecraft arrived at Cape

Kennedy Feb. 19 and was taken to Hangar AF for checkout.

The SA-6 S-IV second stage arrived Bef. 22 and also was

taken to Hangar AF for inspection and weighing.

The S-IV was mechanically mated to the S-I booster

March 19. The instrument unit which was brought to the

Cape with the booster, was erected March 23.

The Apollo spacecraft was mated April 2 and electrical

mating of the S-I, S-IV and IU was accomplished April 3.

On April 24, radio frequency (RF) checks were made

of the integrated launch vehicle and on May 7 cryogenic

tanking tests were conducted on both the S-I and S-IV


A simulated flight test was conducted on T-6 days.

The S-I stage will be loaded with RP-1 (fuel) on T-2 days.

The 18-hour launch countdown begins on T-l day. The

first part of the count, about seven hours long, includes

battery installation, propulsion system checks, ordnance

installation and connections.

Part two of the countdown requires 11 hours. Major steps are:

T-10 hours -- radio frequency (RF) checks

T- 9 hours -- internal power test

T- 8 hours -- final propulsion preparation, S-I and S-IV stages

T- 7 hours -- begin liquid oxygen loading, S-I

T- 6 hours -- destruct system connections

T- 4 hours, 30 minutes -- begin liquid oxygen loading, S-IV

T- 3 hours -- remove service structure

T- 2 hours, 30 minutes -- begin final phase liquid oxygen

loading, S-I
T-ll0 minutes -- seal launch control center doors

T-105 minutes -- begin liquid hydrogen tanking, S-IV

T- 60 minutes -- terminal count begins, pneumatic system

to flight pressure, complete liquid
hydrogen tanking

T- 24 minutes -- telemeters on

T- 20 minutes -- C-band, MISTRAM and UDOP on

T- 15 minutes -- range safety command transmitter on

T- 13 minutes -- final phase internal power test begins

T- 10 minutes -- telemetry calibration

T- 5 minutes -- ignition arming on

T- 4 minutes -- range clearance

T- 3 minutes -- arm destruct system

T- 2 minutes, 33 seconds -- firing command, automatic

sequence begins

T- 3 seconds -- ignition


SA-6 will carry eight motion picture cameras and two

television cameras to view the interiors of two oxygen tanks,

S-IV stage separation, retrorocket firing and S-IV stage

ullage rocket and propulsion system operation. All motion

picture cameras, mounted on the perimeter of tY- spider bean,

are slanted outward for ejection. All will cary color film
except those monitoring the interior of the oxygen tanks.

This is the second time such an elaborate optical in-

strumentation has been carried on a launch vehicle -- the

first being SA-5. The cameras will record events in several

critical areas of the rocket, especially the activities in-

volved in the separation of the S-I and S-IV stages and in

the ignition of the six RL-10 engines of the S-IV stage.

Similar camera systems will be carried on SA-7.

Advantages of photography include high picture resolution,

in color if desired, and filming at a high frame rate for later

viewing in "slow motion.' A chief advantage of in-flight

television is that the information is acquired in real-time

and might eventually be used as a basis to make decisions.

Motion Picture System

Two film cameras will view the interiors of two LOX

tanks, the center and one outer, through optical-fiber bundles.

- more -

Four cameras will view forward along the outside of the

vehicle to monitor retrorocket and ullage rocket firing,

coasting, aerodynamic flutter of one blowout panel and firing

of the S-YV stage. A third interior camera will view sepa-

ration of the stages and engine number four of the S-IV, and

the last camera uses an optica:-fiber bundle to monitor the

operation of the solid oxygen-gaseous oxygen disposal system.

The two ameras viewing LOX tank interiors will start

at ignition. Five others will start about 40 seconds before

stage separation and will run for about one minute. The

camera recording panel flutter will operate for 90 seconds

beginning 30 seconds after liftoff

Each camera is enclosed in a capsule whicn has an op-

ticany clear quartz window at the forward end. Images are

recorded on 16mm film. The cameras are powered by 28 volts

d.c. supplied by the booster's electrical system.

One camera, equipped with a battery pack, will continue

taking pictures for some 25 seconds after separation of stages

even though the camera will have been ejected at 20 Seconds

after separation. The capsule will have no special stabili-

zation system to keep it trained on the booster. However,

tests have shown that the camera's move off target is so slow

that the booster will be photographed for several seconds

after capsule ejection.

- more -
All film cameras will be ejected at about 300,000 feet
altitude from individual ejection tubes 20 seconds after
stage separation about 87 miles downrange. Capsules
re-enter the atmosphere at more than 7,000 mph and impact
in the Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles from the launch

At 1,000 feet altitude a paraballoon will be inflated

to serve as a stabilizer and to decelerate the capsule's
falll.ng speed to about 90 feet per second before impact.
of the balloons are alternately international orange
coated with white glass beads. Upon contact with water, a
yellow-green flourescent dye will be released. Packed
a radio transmitter atop the balloon is a high-intensity
flashing light which produces a flash every two seconds.

Ships and airplanes will be stationed in the impact

to watch for the falling capsules and make speedy recovery.
Para-divery of the USAF Air Rescue Service will attach
ditional floatation devices to the capsules when they
reached. The primary recovery aid is a SARAH beacon.

Of the ei.ght camera capsules ejected from SA-5, seven

were recovered.

Telavision System

The television system will provide real-time visual

formation on the functioning of selected items and
a permanent


visual record for future study and analysis. The cameras

will operate at 30 frames per second from liftoff until S-I

impact. The television cameras will not be ejected. Images

will be recorded on video tape at the ground monitoring

stationand a kinescope record will be kept as a backup to

the tape.

One camera is mounted forward on the spider beam to

monitor staging and ejection of two motion picture camera

capsules. The other is mounted in the number two engine com-

partment of the S-I to view the wrap-around lines, gav gener-

ator, heat exchanger, engine curtain and actuator arms.

Video signals are preamplified in the camera and passed

on for amplification in the control unit. The control unit
provides aperture correction and focusing control of the

camera, generates the sweep signals for the camera vidicon

and introduces the blanking signals to the video output. A

synchronizing generator in the control unit keeps the opera-
tiLon of components in sequence.

The transmitter's carrier signal is 860 me. Input power

required is 50 watts, and nominal output is five watts. A
separate power supply will provide voltage for transmitter

operation. The ground receiving, monitoring and recording

station consists of an antenna system, a parametric amplifier,

tape recorder, kinescope recorder, viewing unit and a monitor

for the flight cameras.

- more _


The Saturn SA-6 orbital vehicle will be tracked by a

combination of tracking and data acquisition facilities in-

cluding portions of the manned space flight network and the

STADAN (Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network),

supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Net-

work and elements of the Department of Defense national


The Smithsonian network will supply orbital tracking in-

formation through the use of Baker-Nunn cameras.

DOD participating stations are -- Hawaii, Point Arguello,

Calif.; White Sands, N.M.; Cape Kennedy, Fla., and others of

the Atlantic Missile Range such as Patrick Air Force Base,

Ascension Island and Antigua.

Manned space flight network stations involved include

those at Bermuda; Woomera, Australia; and NASA's new dual-

purpose tracking station at Carnarvon, Australia. These

stdions will record telemetry for one orbit and "skin-track"

with C-band and S-band radar for an indefinite period. The

precount, countdown and first two orbits will be treated in

a manner similar to the Mercur--Atlas missions, with the net-

work under the control of a network director at the space

operations control center at Goddard Space Flight Center.

-more -

Although the air-to-ground voice links and command

subsystems will not be used, standard operations procedures
will be employed. Radar data will be transmitted to Goddard
in real time and the standard station-to-station voice com-
munication network will be used.

The S-IV second stage, the instrument unit and the

boilerplate Apollo spacecraft in an orbit of about 110
statute miles perigee and 140 statute miles apogee will give
the radars a good target. The telemetry beacons of the launch
vehicle may operate for one complete orbit. Beyond this,
radar look angle data will be computed at GSFC and determina-
tion of daily individual station tracking assignments will
be made.

A minitrack beacon on board the payload will permit

the STADAN stations to continue tracking for the lifetime of
the vehicle, and computers will periodically update the look

- more -



Thirty-nine industrial firms hold 130 active research,

development and production contracts totaling more than
$500,000 per firm in the Saturn program. In addition, other
firms hold 44 contracts valued at between $100,000 and
$500,000. Of this 174 total, 29 contracts concern Saturn I
only, seven combine work on Saturns I and IB, three concern
IB and V, 47 are for I and V, 13 cover all three configura-
tions, two are for IB only and 73 are for Saturn V only.

Contracts were awarded directly to the firms by the

NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, technical manager of
Saturn development. Hundreds of other companies are parti-
cipating to a lesser degree, most being subcontractors.

Five major firms hold a total of 20 contracts valued

at $1,770,875,523 for work in the Saturn I, IB and V programs.
Each firm has contracts totaling more than $100 million.

North American Aviation's Rocketdyne Division. Canoga

Park, Calif. and Space and Information Systems Division
Downey, Calif. head the list with eight contracts totaling
$484,807,766. The contracts are for H-1 engines for Saturn
I and IB and for F-2 and J-2 engines for the Saturn V (all
Rocketdyne), and the Saturn V second stage, S-II (SISD).


The Boeing Co. of Seattle, holds two contracts listed

at $469,394,362. Boeing is manufacturing S-IC stages for

the mammoth Saturn V Moon rocket at the NASA Michoud Opera-

tions plant in New Orleans.

Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. holds four

contracts totaling $400,723,917 for S-IV stages for Saturn I

and S-IVB stages for Saturn IB and V.

Chrysler Corp., Detroit, has three contracts with a

total value of $303,407,591 for manufacturing first stages

for Saturn I and IB at the Michoud plant.

United Aircraft Corp.'s Pratt and Whitney Aircraft DJ-

vision. West Palm Beach, Fla. and East Hartford, Conn. has

three contracts in support of the Saturn I program. P & W

supplies RL-10 engines for the S-IV stage. These contracts
total $112,541,525.

Mason-Rust Co., New Orleans, is sixth largest with three

contracts totaling $29,826,624 for facility maintenance and

support services at the Michoud plant.

Bendix Corp., Teterboro, N.J. has five contracts totaling

$25,516,097 in support of Saturn I, IB and V. Bendix is pro-

ducing stabilized platform systems for the three rockets.

more -

International Business Machines Corp., Rockville, Md.

has six contracts adding up to $23,431,186 for flight com-
puters, data adapters and other electronic equipment for
Saturns I, IB and V.

Brown Engineering Co., Huntsville, Ala. is next largest

with 10 contracts totaling $23,367,674. Brown is furnishing
research and development engineering services and fabrication
manpower in the Saturn I and V programs.

Hayes International Corp 0 , Birmingham and Huntsville,

Ala. has seven contracts totaling $14;642,734 to provide
R & D engineering services and for fabrication and related

Federal Mogul Bower Bearings, Inc.'s Arrowhead Products

Division, Long Beach, Calif. is designing and testing items
of S-IC ducting in the Saturn V program under a contract for

Radio Corp. of America, Van Nuys, Calif. as four con-

tracts totaling $10,349,689 providing for ground computer
stations, display and console systems and data channels for
Saturn I.

Spaco, Inc., Huntsville, has five contracts totaling

$4,307,357 for R & D engineering and fabrication services.

- more -
Lockheed-Georgia Co., Marietta, Ga. and Lockheed Mis-

siles & Space Co., Sunnyvale, Calif. and Huntsville, Ala.

hold six contracts valued at $3,474,835 covering design of

an advanced telemetry system, R&D support on structural com-

ponents, and gaidance and control systems, and for mission

support services.

Other contractors, contract amounts and the services or

products being provided are:

Republic Aviation Cor , Farmingdale, N.Y., $3,283,234,

fabrication of S-I components, ground support and test


AVCO Corp., Cincinnati, 0. and Nashville, Tenn..,

$2,953,730, provide digital decoders and other electronic

equipment and components.

Calumet and Hecla, Inc., Flexonics Division, Bartlett,

Ill., $2,909,827, manufacture of propellant feed lines and


Ryan Aeronautical Co. and Ryan Electronics, San Diego,

Calif., $2,616,843, design and fabrication of radar alti-

meters and fabrication of bulkhead segments for S-IC fuel


- more -

Whittaker Controls, Iran Nuys, $2,519,950, provide fuel

and LOX prevalves for Saturn V booster stage.

Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y.

$2,45C,312, base heating studies on Saturn stsages.

Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, $2,378,085, vibration


Progressive Welder and Machine Co., Pontiac, Mich.

$2,124,116, tooling and fabrication of major fixtures for

S-IC construction.

Martin-Marietta Corp., Baltimore, Md. $2,115,884,

manufacture of horizon sensors and associated power supplies

and for designing, manufacturing, and testing high pressure

helium storage bottles.

Electronic Communications of St. Petersburg, Fla.

$1,876,826, development and fabrication of prototype flight

control computers.

AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corp., Phoenix,

Ariz. $1,796,299, development of S-IC fuel and LOX pre-valves.

Noithrop Corp. Hawthorne, Calif. and Huntsville,

$1,714,066, R&D engineering and mission support services.

Nortronics Division Hawthorne, and Norwood, Mass. $1,056,061,
fabrication of hermatically sealed gyros and rate gyro pack-

ages and repair and modification of a prototype Q-ball trans-


Telecomputing Corp., yl,013,118, operation of com-

puter facility at Slidell, La.

ARINC Research Corp., Huntsville, $966,368, R & D

engineering services.

Edwards Air Froce Base, Calif. $800,000, study of

blast hazards of rocket propellant.

General Dynamics/Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Tex.,

$673,930, fabrication of honeycomb sections.

Redstone Machine and Tool Co., Huntsville, $659,691,

engineering and fabrication services.

Auburn Research Foundation, Auburn, Ala., $636,670,

research on radio frequency systems and analytical study of

thrust vector control on large space vehicles.

Moog Servo Controls, Aurora, N.Y. $627,610, fabrication

of prototype mechanical feedback servo-actuators.

Parker Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, $589,537, R & D

valves and pre-valves.

Greer Hydraulics, Los Angeles, $588,136, fabrication

of a hydraulic system and fabrication and installation of

a fluid power system, Saturn V.


Goodyear Aercspace Corp., Akron, 0. $514,804, R & D

of materials for Saturn heat shield curtains and honey-

comb bonded sandwich structure.

Aerojei eneral, Downey, Calif. $511,959, study of deto-

nation of solid propellants and exploding bridgewire ignition


Minneapolis-Honeywell, $501,540S, fabrication of rate

gyros (Boston), fire detection system. for Saturn (LOB Angeles).
Apollo Command and Service Modules

Thirty-one industrial firms hold active research,

development and production contracts totaling more than

$500,000 in the Apollo program. An additional 11 firms

hold contracts valued at between $100,000 arid $500,000.

Some of these contracts were awarded directly to the

firms by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, which has

management responsibility for the Apollo program, while

others were awarded through the principal contractor,

North American Aviation, Inc.'s Space and Information Sys-

tems Division.

Major contractors for the Apollo Command and Service

Modules are:

North American Aviation Space and Information Systems

Division, Downey, Calif., principal contractor, $934I,000,000

Aero jet-General Corp2, Space Propulsion Division,
Sacramento, Calif., Service Module propulsion motor,


,A Manufacturing Corp., Middlatown, Ohio, honey-
comb panels, `4,000,000.

AVCO Corp., Research and Advanced Development Division,

Wilmington, Mass., ablative heat shield, $18,000,000.

Avien Inc., Woodside, N.Y., main communications an-

tenna systems, $2,800,o000

Beech Aircraft Corp., Wichita, Kan., super critical

gas storage system $8,700,000.


Bell Aerosystems Co., Buffalo, N.Y., positive expul-

sion tanks for reaction control system, ;5,700,000.

Beckman Instruments Inc., Fullerton, Calif., data
acquisition equipment, $1,000,000.

Collins Radio Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, communications

and data, '45,000,000.
Elgin National Watch Co., Elgin, Ill., central timing

system, $1,,000,000.
Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., Micro Systems, Inc.

(subsidiary), temperature and pressure transducer instru-

mentation, $1,000,000.

Garrett Corp., Air Research Manufacturing Division,

Los Angeles, Cal:f., environmental control system,

General Motors Corp., Allison Division, Indianapolis,

Ind., fuel and oxidizer tanks, $3,000,000.

General Precision, Inc., Link Division, Binghamton,

N.Y., mission simulator trainer, $12,000,000.

Giannini Controls, Duarte, Calif., reaction control

gaging system, $4,700,000.

Honeywell, Minneapolis, Minn. stabilization and con-

trol, $53,000,000.

ITT-Kellogg, Chicago, Ill., in-flight test, $1,600,000.

Lockheed Propulsion Co., Redlands, Calif., launch es-

cape and pitch control mctors, $6,400,000.



1'iotorola Inc., Scottslale, Ariz., up-data link digital,


Marquardt Corp., Van Huys, Calif., reaction control

motors (service module), qll,3O0,000.

Northrop Corp., Ventura Division. Newbury Park, Calif.

earth landing system, $131,000,000.

Radiation Inc., Melbourne, Fla., automated tele-

metry data processing system (during vehicle testing),


RCA Electronics, Astron Division, Princeton, N.J.,

television cameras, 2,000,000.

Simmonds Precision Products, Tarrytown, N.Y., pL7o-

pellant gaging mixture ratio control, 'La,100,000.

Thiokol Chemical Corp. , Elkton Division, Elkton, Md.,

escape system jettisoi motor, :,2,200,00C.

'ransco Products_, Inc, Venice, Calif., telemetry an-

tenna system (research and development), 4i1,000,000.

United Aircraft Corp. , Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Divisicn

East Hartford, Conn., uel cell, 4J9,(7'C,

.Ie2tinghou32 El-c tric Corp., Aer.space Electrical

Dlvi:;isLn, Lima, Ohio, s.atic invertcr conversion unit,


Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., Long Beach, Calif., aircraft

mcdiication of the C-133, .563o,oo0.

-more -

Daystromr, Inc., Weston Instr'lments and Electronics

Division, Newark, N.J., in-flight instrumentation for
Earth orbital phase, G600,000.
Lear Siegler, Inc., Power Equipment Division, Elyria,
Ohio, test point disconnect couplings, $500,OOO.









4 1
- I,530,000 LOS.