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Andrew T. Oribiana, S. Th. L.

Topics in the Series

Talk 1: The Meaning of ‘Worship’

Talk 2: ‘Worship’ and the ‘Holy Spirit’

Talk 3: ‘Worship’ and ‘Liturgy’

Talk 4: ‘Worship’ and ‘Service’

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Talk 3: ‘Worship’ and ‘Liturgy’

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TALK 3: Worship and Liturgy


 A. Review on ‘Worship’ and the Holy Spirit

 B. Meaning of Liturgy
 C. History of Liturgy
 D. Connection between ‘Worship’ and Liturgy

A. Review on ‘Worship’ and ‘Holy Spirit’

The Role of the Holy Spirit - The Holy Spirit guides all worship. He marks the
covenant member, uniting the members with integrity and liberty, to create a community
of authentic worshippers.

Every worship service should be preceded by a prayer to the Holy Spirit to guide
and inspire the congregation.

Here 15 elements that have been part of worship services that we found in the Bible
and in history.

• Scripture - It should always involve the Word of God so that participants can
listen to God speaking to them.

• Music - Singing and instrumental music are helpful elements in worship services.

• Environment - The environment to creates a greater awareness of the sacred.

• Assembly Participation - Be sure to involve the assembly as a whole in the

prayer, not just those taking the Leader or Reader roles. Be aware of what the
assembly is doing.

• Nonverbal Elements - Consider the elements of movement and gesture

(procession, bowing, venerating the Bible, outstretching hands, laying on hands,
blessing) and of symbols (water, oil) as well as of silence.

• Verbal Elements - Follow and borrow from the prayer of the Church (Roman
Missal, Liturgy of the Hours): introductory rites, psalm responses, antiphons,
penitential acts, collects, intercessions, and blessings. These prayers are rich
and evocative and therefore, powerful.

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• Liturgical Feasts and Seasons - Pay special attention to the time of the
liturgical year (Advent, Lent, feasts, solemnities) when selecting themes and

• Knowledge about the Assembly - Consider the age level of your assembly and
their faith development as well as their level of maturity.

• Preparation - Be sure of your focus, theme, and goal. Select Readers and
assign roles ahead of time. If possible, rehearse with those chosen to read.
Envision the prayer, feel the flow, get a sense of space, time, sound, silence, and
so on.

• Silence - Our lives are noisy already. Much of our prayer is too wordy. Allow for
periods of silence. Be sure to include silence during the prayer service, perhaps
after a prayer or a reading.

• Giving Instructions Beforehand - Giving instructions during the worship service

will cause interruption which may not be helpful to the members of the group.

• Creativity - Consider using appropriate visuals (video, DVD, slides, PowerPoint,

and so on).

• Spontaneous Prayer - Not everyone is comfortable with spontaneous prayer,

but it is a form of prayer that needs to be taught and fostered.

• Proclamation/Preaching - Throughout the prayer service speak clearly and

slowly. Speaking in this way will help to involve the participants. Proclamation is
more than merely reading the text and less than a dramatic performance. As you
speak, try not to bury your head in the text; look at the assembly as much as

• Move With Reverence - Moving with reverence means moving not too quickly or
slowly, and not stiffly, but with ease and regard for what you are doing.



• laos = people
• ergon = work
• Leitourgia -A public service, duty, or work.

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In Scripture - it refers to the religious duties to be performed by priests and Levites in
the Temple, especially those related to the Sacrifice; in Christian use among the
Eastern Churches it means the Eucharistic Sacrifice.

In Present Day Usage, Liturgy is the official public worship of the Church and is thus
distinguished from private devotion

Official - it is authorized by and takes place in communion with the local bishop
according to the norms approved by the Roman See.

Public - it is the activity of an assembly of believers visibly gathered

A Theological Viewpoint - the liturgy is the exercise now on earth of Christ's

priestly office, as distinct from his role as teacher and ruler of his people. Christ
performs this priestly office as Head of his Mystical Body, so that Head and members
together offer the sacred liturgy (cf. SC 7).

Because it is the exercise of Christ’s priestly office, the Second Vatican Council
affirms that “liturgy is the summit towards which the activity of the Church is directed,
and the fountain from which all her power flows” (cf. SC 9-10; CCC 1074).

Twofold Function of Liturgy –

 to give honor and praise to God, which is worship,

 and to obtain blessings for the human race, which is sanctification

Liturgy in the Proper Sense In the Roman Catholic Church

 The Liturgy of the Mass

 The Divine Office
 The Sacraments


Eucharist makes present the Paschal Mystery of our Lord Jesus Christ-his
Passion, Death, Resurrection, Ascension, and the sending of the Holy Spirit (SC 5).

The church believes that in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus lies the
power of salvation for all seeking communion with God. THE EUCHARIST IS THE

Sacrosanctum Concilium #14: “Mother Church earnestly desires that all the
faithful should be led to that full, conscious, and active participation in liturgical
celebrations, which is demanded by the very nature of the liturgy…”

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The Church holds in highest esteem the rich variety of liturgies, both of the
Western and of the Eastern Churches (cf. SC 37; EO 6).

Latin Catholic Church

Roman Rite, in which the historical forms of the Mass are usually classified as

Pre-Tridentine Mass (the various pre-1570 forms)

The Tridentine Mass (1570–1969), the 1962 version of which is still permitted as
an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite as confirmed by Summorum Pontificum

The Mass of Paul VI, since 1970 the ordinary form of the Roman Rite (1970–

Latin Catholic Church

Ambrosian Rite (in Milan, Italy and neighbouring areas)

Aquileian Rite (defunct: northeastern Italy)
Rite of Braga (in Braga, Portugal)
Durham Rite (defunct: Durham, England)
Gallican Rite (defunct: 'Gaul' i.e. France)
Mozarabic Rite (in Toledo and Salamanca, Spain)
Celtic Rite (defunct: British Isles)
Sarum Rite (defunct: England)

Latin Catholic Church

Catholic Order Rites

Benedictine Rite
Carmelite Rite
Carthusian Rite
Cistercian Rite
Dominican Rite
Norbertine Rite

Eastern Christian Churches

 Eastern Orthodox Church
 Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (Byzantine Rite)
 Divine Liturgy of St. Basil the Great (Byzantine Rite)
 Liturgy of St. James (Byzantine Rite)
 Liturgy of St. Mark (Byzantine Rite)
 Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts or Liturgy of St. Gregory Dialogist (Byzantine

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 Liturgy of St. Tikhon (Western Rite Orthodox)
 Liturgy of St. Gregory (Western Rite Orthodox)
 Liturgy of St. John The Divine (Western Rite Orthodox)
 Liturgy of St. Germanus (Western Rite Orthodox)

Eastern Christian Churches

 Oriental Orthodox Churches

 Liturgy of St. James (West Syriac Rite)
 Liturgy of St. Mark, or Liturgy of St. Cyril (Alexandrian Rite)
 Liturgy of St. Basil the Great (Alexandrian & Armenian Rites)
 Liturgy of St. Gregory the Theologian (Alexandrian Rite)
 Liturgy of St. Gregory the Illuminator (Armenian Rite)

Eastern Christian Churches

 Assyrian Church of the East

 Liturgy of Addai and Mari (East Syriac Rite)
 The Hallowing of Nestorius
 The Hallowing of Theodore of Mopsuestia

Eastern Christian Churches

 The Eastern Catholic Churches

 Alexandrian liturgical tradition; 2 rites
 Coptic Rite
 Ethiopic Rite
 Antiochian (Antiochene or West-Syriac) liturgical tradition; 3 rites
 Maronite Rite
 (West) Syriac Rite
 Syro-Malankara Rite
 Armenian Rite; 1 rite
 East Syriac or Chaldean liturgical tradition; 2 rites
 Chaldean Rite
 Syro-Malabar Rite
 Byzantine (Constantinopolitan) liturgical tradition (very uniform except in language);
14 rites
 Albanian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Greek, Hungarian, Italo-Albanian,
Macedonian, Melkite, Romanian, Russian, Ruthenian, Slovak, Ukrainian Rite

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Protestant churches

 While some Protestant churches see no need for set liturgies, many of these
churches have retained them.

Reformed Churches

 Protestant Reformation-era ministers of the Reformed tradition used set

liturgies which emphasized preaching and the Bible.
English Puritans and separatists moved away from set forms in the 17th-
century, but many Reformed churches retained liturgies and continue to use
them today.

Lutheran Churches

 Church of Denmark
 Church of Norway
 Church of Sweden
 Church of Finland
 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
 Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
 Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod
 Divine Service


Liturgy of the Word

• Jewish-Christians were excluded from the synagogues, but they continued to

develop a form of worship modeled on the Jewish service: a reading from
Scripture with interpretation, preaching, prayer and praise.

• Assembly was presided over by an apostle, a prophet or a member specially

gifted by the Holy Spirit.

• Prayers were completely free.

Liturgy of the Eucharist

• Jewish-Christians continued to meet for the breaking of the bread at the Lord’s

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• Private homes became inadequate, so sectional meals were tried, which leads to
the danger of disunity.

• Adoption of the ceremonial Eucharisitic meal instead of the community supper.

Justin Martyr (~150 AD)

-all who are in the towns and in the country gather together fro a communal celebration

-memoirs of the Apostles or the writings of the Prophets are read

-presider gives an address, urging hearers to practice these teachings

-all stand up together and recite prayers, written by prominent leaders

-bread and wine mixed with water offered with prayers and thanksgivings

-people chime in with ‘Amen’ - distribution of them, and the deacons bring a portion to
the absent

-those who are well-to-do give whatever they will. What is gathered is deposited with
the one presiding, who therewith helps orphans and widows

4th Century : House to Basilica


Christian population rose to a vast majority all over the Western world

Abandoned house liturgies for worship in larger public buildings

The emperor and his family erected great buildings for worship after the fashion of
imperial buildings, palaces and halls.

Material Creation

To offset Gnosticism (all material things and creations are evil, including the human
nature of Christ), the material element of the sacrifice, the gifts of bread and wine, was
now stressed, thus developing the Offertory of the Mass.

The altar became the center of attention, instead of the bishop himself

7th Century : Common Liturgy

- A definite framework used by all developed through tradition

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- Liturgical texts and regulations were gradually prescribed

- The Roman liturgy eventually became the liturgy of the whole Western Church in
preference to those from Alexandria, Antioch, Byzantium.

Liturgical Reforms

- Community vs Personal Devotion

- Non-Roman, non Latin-speaking people evangelized

- Celts developed penance prayers to keep themselves occupied; Gauls created

prayers of affection to pass the time at Eucharist

- Worshippers lost a sense of community at Mass

- Protestants introduced vernacular liturgies and hymns that everyone could sing

Council of Trent (1563)

-In reaction to the Protestant movement, the Council reformed the liturgy by precisely
outlining the rubics, texts and behavior to be expected

- A commission composed a missal that standardized the prayers and rituals of the
Mass - Insisted on good preaching at Mass and urged people to receive communion on

- Saint Pius V established the Congregation of Rites, a clerical commission to watch

over liturgical behavior in the Church

- Froze the form of worship that had tradition going for it, but left no room for the pulse
of the people

Pius X (1903-14)

- encouraged the use of Gregorian chant and called for writing of new Church music in
the spirit of the liturgy

- asked all Catholics to go to Communion frequently, thus drawing their attention to a

sacrament as a major source of spiritual growth

- lowered the First Communion age from 12 or 13 to 7 or 8

Vatican Council II (1962-65)

- Local language is used (vs all Latin)

- Prayers and rituals are simplified to get back to their original intent

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- Priest communicates directly with the congregation (vs facing the tabernacle)
- Scriptural readings are given great importance - Congregation participates through
spoken responses and song (vs minimal singing)
- Communion is often received in the forms of bread and wine (vs bread only)
- Introduced lay readers and lay ministers of Communion
- Designed to celebrate Jesus present among the community of believers


While worship is an internal experience that takes place in human beings. Liturgy
consists of the external forms and rituals believers use in their worship ceremonies.

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