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MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STATUS OF SECONDARY

STUDENTS AFFECTED BY MARAWI SIEGE: BASIS


FOR PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION

Omerah M. Ampang1 , Nico Frits G. Brioso2 , Mojahid M. Yusoph3


BSEd Biology1 ; omerah.ampang@g.msuiit.edu.ph
BSEd Biology2 ; nicofritz.brioso@g.msuiit.edu.ph
BSEd Biology3 ; mojahid.yusoph@g.msuiit.edu.ph

ABSTRACT
This descriptive-correlational study sought to identify the learning status and the
motivation level to study of the students affected by the Marawi siege before and after the
siege. A total of 300 students affected by Marawi siege were surveyed and the data gathered
were analyzed using various statistical tools. As the result showed, majority of the
respondents got a GPA around 86-90 which consists of 49.67% of the target sample before
the occurrence of the siege, but after the siege majority of the respondents got a GPA of only
around 81-85 which consists of 44.33% of the target sample. It was also found out that the
intrinsic motivation to study among the Marawi siege students declined after the siege. The
researchers concluded, that there is a significant difference between the demographic profiles
of the students and their performance before and after the siege, and there is also a significant
difference in the learning outcomes of students and their level of motivation before and after
the siege.
KEYWORDS: Learning Outcomes, Motivation Level, Marawi Siege, Psychosocial Intervention

I. INTRODUCTION

Terrorism, conflict and violence are just some terminologies that refer to the
unwanted events that could unfortunately happen to a community or society, or even to one’s
self. According to Frey et al. (2007) as cited by Shany (2016), many studies have analysed
the effects of terrorism acts on various aspects of the economy and society. This may affect
an individual emotionally, spiritually, and behaviourally which may lead to inaccurate
functioning of the individual.

Marawi siege is the name incorporated to the clash happened between the Maute
group, known as ruthless terrorists and fighters of Islam in the Philippines, and the Philippine
military. It took place in Marawi City on the 23rd of May 2017.
With regards to the clash or terrorism happened in Marawi City is the effects of this
terrorist attack on the education of the students affected, especially their learning outcomes.
Various studies have dealt with situations similar to the mentioned violent attacks. It has
caused devastating effect on the businesses, the education of students and the residences of
every family (Ledesma, 2017). Violent conflict seems to affect secondary schooling more
critically than primary schooling (Swee 2009, Shemyakina 2006). With this, it can be said
that terror attacks can heavily affect not just the families affected but the students affected as
well. This can be the reason why students despise the desire to study anymore because of the
sudden changes in their schooling.

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In line with these premises that this study was conducted. There were two main
reasons for the conduction of this study. It is the researchers’ aspiration to know the state of
learning of the students affected by Marawi siege and to know their motivation level in
studying. The study could then be a basis for psychosocial intervention to students who will
be affected by any calamity.

The researchers also found this study to be helpful in developing responses in


education crisis during wars, conflict or calamities wherein there are Internally Displaced
Persons (IDP’s). If the reasons were already identified, it could be a basis for the
psychosocial intervention of students.

Statement of the problem


This study intends to answer the following questions: What are the demographic
profiles of the students? What is the Health Status of the Respondents before and after the
siege? What is the learning status of affected students in school before and after the siege?
What coping mechanism do students strategize to cope with the stressful experiences? What
are the levels of motivation to study among the Marawi siege students? Is there a significant
difference in the demographic profiles of the students and their learning outcomes before and
after siege? Is there a significant difference in the learning outcomes of students and their
level of motivation before and after the siege? These questions guided the researchers in
achieving their objectives orderly.

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework on the study of the Motivation


and Learning Status of Secondary Students Affected by
Marawi Siege: Basis for Psychosocial Intervention

Review of related literature


Terrorism has society-wide consequences that extend far beyond the immediate
victims of the violence (Shany, 2016). Many studies have analysed the effects of terrorist acts
on various aspects of the economy and society. However, there are studies that focused on the
way in which terrorism affected survivors’ academic performance, absenteeism and response
to school support. On the other hand, natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, etc. also cause

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people of a community to migrate or evacuate to another place for them to survive the deadly
event.
From a study conducted by Strom, et al. (2016), says that the academic performance
of students after the terror event was worse than it had before the event and also that their
grades were lower than the national grade point average. However, their grades improved in
the last year of high school. According also to Shany (2016) in his study entitled “The effects
of terrorism on Israeli student achievement”, terror attacks affect student performance on
tests mainly through stress that affects the learning process and cognitive acuity during the
exam.

II. METHODOLOGY

Respondents
This study was participated by 300 students. There were 50 respondents for each year
level, from grade 7 to grade 12. The subjects were located from different secondary schools
in Balo-I, Iligan City and areas near Marawi City.

Measures
This study is a descriptive-correlational research. The sampling method used is the
convenience sampling under non-probability samples. It was used because the researchers
dealt with respondents that are not gathered in a particular setting.
In this study, the researchers used survey questionnaire which is a combination of
questionnaires adopted from various sources. These sources have been proven to be reliable
because of the calculated reliability of the questionnaires. The adopted questionnaire used by
the researchers is composed of five parts that are in line with the problem statements.

Data Gathering Procedure


The researchers selected the respondents randomly from different secondary schools
in Balo-I, Iligan City and areas near Marawi City where these respondents were enrolled. The
learning outcomes of these respondents were assessed as per consideration on their grade
point averages and daily performance outputs in their class.
In the actual gathering of data, the researchers asked permission to the principal or the
acting head of the school to conduct the survey. When permitted, the researchers then asked
for the list of transferred students from Marawi City that are currently enrolled in that school.
When the respondents were identified, the researchers surveyed them by distributing the
prepared questionnaires and let them answer it. After the survey the researchers then analysed
the responses of the identified students that were affected by the Marawi Siege.
Data Analysis

In this study the statistical tools used to assess the motivation level and learning status
of secondary students affected by the Marawi siege are the following: Weighted Mean, Mean,
Standard Deviation, Paired t-test and two independent sample t-test, One-Way Anova. The
calculated data were then clearly interpreted.

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III. RESULTS

PART I - Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Figure 2. Proportion of Respondents per Gender.


Figure 2 shows the proportion of respondents who are either male or female. As
shown, majority of the respondents are female which consists of 62.67% of the target sample.
It almost doubled the proportion of male which consists of only 37.33% of the sample
population.

Figure 3. Proportion of Respondents per Age Group.

Figure 3 shows the proportion of the respondents from different age range. Notice
that, majority of the respondents are from 14-17 age range, which consists of 55.67% of the
target sample. Probably because the age of secondary students usually ranges from 14-17
years old. Followed by respondents who are 18-21, and 11-13 years old, which consists of
23% and 19.33 % of the target sample respectively. And lastly, respondents who are 22 years
old or above which only consists of 2% of the target sample. It is understandable, since
students who are 22 years old or above are usually in college already.

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Figure 4. Proportion of Respondents in Private and Public Schools.
Figure 4 shows the proportion of respondents who enrolled in either private or public
school previously and currently. As shown, previously 78.33% of respondents were enrolled
in a public school. But now, currently there is 70.67% proportion of respondents enrolled in
public school. It seems that some of respondents who enrolled in public school previously
transferred to a private school.
Table 1. Students’ GPA Before and After the Marawi Siege.
GPA Before Siege After Siege Remarks
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
96 above 9 3 0 0
Outstanding
91-95 64 21.33 32 10.67
Very
86-90 149 49.67 101 33.67
Satisfactory
81-85 64 21.33 133 44.33 Satisfactory
Fairly
76-80 14 4.67 34 11.33
Satisfactory
Did Not Meet
75 below 0 0 0 0
Expectati ons
Total 300 100 300 100

Table 1 displays the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents’ GPA
before and after the siege. It can be observed that there is a decrease of GPA before and after
Marawi siege. Before, Majority of the respondents got a GPA around 86-90 which consists of
49.67% of the target sample, but after majority of the respondents got a GPA of only around
81-85. Moreover, before 3% proportion of the respondents got a GPA around 96 and above,
but after there is no respondents left who got a GPA around 96 and above. Clearly, Marawi
siege affect student academic performance negatively.

Figure 5. Students’ Monthly Family Income Before and After Marawi Siege.

Figure 5 shows the monthly family income of respondents before and after Marawi
siege. Notice that, before majority of the respondent monthly family income is around 5,000-
20,000 pesos, which consists of 43.33% of the target sample. But after, majority of
respondent monthly family income is now around 5, 000 – below, which consists of 46% of
the target sample. Clearly, there is a decrease of respondent monthly family income.

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Figure 6. Students’ Place of Residence Before and After the Marawi Siege.
Figure 6 shows the respondent place of residence before and after Marawi siege.
Observed that before, majority of the respondent place of residence is their own home, it
consists of 72.67% of the target sample. But after, majority of the respondent is now renting a
house, it consists of 29.33 % of the target sample. Probably, a lot of respondent own house
was ruined after Marawi siege, and end up renting a house, staying at evacuation area and
living with relative for the mean time.

Figure 7. Students’ Mode of Payment on Their Tuitions


Before and After the Marawi Siege.

Figure 7 shows the proportion of students who pays their tuition fee before and after
Marawi siege. As shown, before majority of the respondent tuition fee are paid by their
parents/family support, it consists of 93.67% of the target sample. But after, it seems that
some respondent who relied on their parents/family support to pay their tuition fee before are
now relying on scholarship, others, and to themselves to continue their studies. Since, as you
have observed there is a decrease of respondent whom their parents/ family support pays their
tuition fee after. From 93.67% of the target sample to 90.33%. While those respondent to
whom relies on scholarship, others and themselves before increase a little after Marawi siege.

PART II – Health Status of the Respondents Before and After the Marawi
Siege

Table 2. Assessing Students’ Health Status Before and After the Marawi Siege.
Weighted Weighted
State of Well-being Interpretation Interpretation
Mean (Before) Mean (After)
Physical Well-being 3.34 Very Good 2.89 Good
Mental Well-being 3.33 Very Good 3.01 Good

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Social Well-being 3.20 Good 2.73 Good
Spiritual Well-being 3.24 Good 2.89 Good
Emotional Well-
3.29 Very Good 2.74 Good
being
Mean 3.28 Very Good 2.85 Good
Standard Deviation 0.7 0.81

Table 2 shows the assessment of respondent health status before and after the Marawi
siege. As shown, before Marawi siege, the physical, mental and emotional well-being of
respondent were interpreted as very good. But after the siege, it is now interpreted as good.
Clearly, Marawi siege negatively affected the health of the respondent. Although, the good
thing is that the social and spiritual well-being of the respondent stays what it is.

PART III – Learning Status of the Respondents Before and After the Marawi Siege

Table 3. Assessing Learning Status of Students Before and After Marawi Siege.
Weighted Weighted
Indicator Interpretation Interpretation
Mean (Before) Mean (After)
1 3.22 Good 2.86 Good
2 3.03 Good 2.65 Good
3 3.20 Good 3.02 Good
4 3.31 Very Good 2.98 Good
5 3.33 Very Good 3.02 Good
6 3.44 Very Good 3.14 Good
7 3.28 Very Good 3.04 Good
8 3.33 Very Good 2.92 Good
9 3.32 Very Good 3.02 Good
10 3.13 Good 2.78 Good
11 3.02 Good 2.93 Good
12 3.35 Very Good 3.16 Good
Mean 3.25 Very Good 2.96 Good
Standard Deviation 0.67 0.75

Table 3 shows the assessment of respondent learning status before and after Marawi
siege. It can be observed that before Marawi Siege the mean is 3.25, which fall in the interval
of 3.25 – 4.00, and it is interpreted as very high. This tell us, that respondents before the siege
are doing very great in their studies. Probably because they haven’t experience yet the terror
that will happen next.

PART IV– Coping Strategies of the Respondents in Dealing with the Encountered
Problems in Their Learning Status

Table 4. Assessing Coping Strategies Used by the Students in Dealing with the
Encountered Problems in Their Learning Status.
Indicator Weighted Mean Interpretation
1 2.99 Good
2 2.99 Good
3 3.03 Good
4 2.78 Good
5 3.02 Good

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6 2.99 Good
7 3.22 Good
8 3.14 Good
9 2.92 Good
10 3.07 Good
11 3.09 Good
12 3.25 Very Good
13 3.19 Good
14 2.86 Good
15 2.75 Good
16 2.60 Good
17 3.08 Good
18 2.53 Good
19 3.12 Good
20 3.21 Good
21 3.22 Good
Mean 3.00 Good
Standard Deviation 0.77

Table 4 shows the assessment of coping strategies used by the respondent in dealing
with encountered problems in their learning status. As shown, the mean is equal to 3, which
fall in the interval of 2.5- 3.24, and it is interpreted as high. This suggests, that respondent is
good in dealing with their problems relevant to academics.
PART V – Respondents Motivation Level to Study, Before and After the Marawi Siege

Table 5.1. Assessing Motivation Level (Extrinsic) to Study Before and After the Siege.
BEFORE AFTER
Indicator Weighted Weighted
Interpretation Interpretation
Mean Mean
1 3.22 Good 3.05 Good
2 3.25 Very Good 3.08 Good
3 3.10 Good 2.87 Good
4 3.18 Good 2.91 Good
5 3.22 Good 2.98 Good
6 3.18 Good 3.00 Good
7 3.11 Good 2.82 Good
8 3.04 Good 2.75 Good
9 3.11 Good 2.67 Good
10 3.43 Very Good 3.13 Good
11 3.50 Very Good 3.20 Good
12 3.29 Very Good 3.07 Good
13 1.93 Poor 2.27 Good
14 2.16 Poor 2.35 Good
15 2.16 Poor 2.19 Good
16 3.17 Good 2.96 Good

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17 1.84 Poor 2.10 Poor
18 2.27 Good 2.36 Poor
Mean 2.90 Good 2.77 Good
Standard Deviation 0.31 0.36

Table 5.1 shows the result of the extrinsic motivation of the students to study before
and after the siege. Observe that, the result shows the weighted mean of 2.90 and 2.77, before
and after respectively. Both belong to the interval of 2.50 – 3.24 which is interpreted as high.
Thus, the students remain highly motivated by the external rewards that they can get from
studying.

Table 5.2. Assessing Motivation Level (Intrinsic) to Study Before and After the Marawi Siege.
BEFORE AFTER
Indicator Weighted Weighted
Interpretation Interpretation
Mean Mean
1 3.54 Very Good 3.16 Good
2 3.20 Good 2.86 Good
3 3.32 Very Good 2.91 Good
4 3.04 Good 2.80 Good
5 3.43 Very Good 3.12 Good
6 3.25 Very Good 3.07 Good
7 3.37 Very Good 3.05 Good
8 3.51 Very Good 3.24 Good
9 3.46 Very Good 3.28 Very Good
10 3.27 Very Good 2.93 Good
11 3.33 Very Good 3.09 Good
12 3.25 Very Good 3.01 Good
13 3.38 Very Good 3.14 Good
14 3.34 Very Good 3.17 Good
15 3.12 Good 2.86 Good
16 2.82 Good 2.75 Good
17 2.72 Good 2.78 Poor
18 3.21 Good 3.11 Poor
Mean 3.25 Very Good 3.02 Good
Standard Deviation 0.31 0.36

Table 5.2 shows the assessment of the intrinsic motivational level of the students to
study before and after the siege. Observe that, before the siege the weighted mean is 3.25 that
which is interpreted as very high. This suggests that before the siege the students have very
high inner motivation to learn in school. However, after the siege the result gives a weighted
mean of 3.02 which can be interpreted as high. This suggests that the intrinsic motivation of
the student declines after the siege. Probably, this is because of what they experience during
the siege.

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PART VI – Significant Difference on the Respondents’ Demographic Profiles and
Motivation Level to Their Learning Outcomes

Table 6.1. Assessing Significant Difference in the Demographics Profiles of the Students
and their Learning Outcomes Before Marawi Seige.
Demographic Profiles P-value Decision Interpretation
Sex 0.92 Failed to Reject Not Significant
Age 0.71 Failed to Reject Not Significant
Previous School 0.56 Failed to Reject Not Significant
MFI Before 0.80 Failed to Reject Not Significant
POR Before 0.05 Reject Significant
MPT Before 0.52 Failed to Reject Not Significant
Table 6.2. Assessing Significant Difference in the Demographics Profiles of the Students
and their Learning Outcomes After Marawi Seige.
Demographic Profiles P-value Decision Interpretation
Sex 0.54 Failed to Reject Not Significant
Age 0.98 Failed to Reject Not Significant
Current School 0.84 Failed to Reject Not Significant
MFI After 0.13 Failed to Reject Not Significant
POR After 0.11 Failed to Reject Not Significant
MPT After 0.25 Failed to Reject Not Significant
Legends: MFI – Monthly Family Income; POR – Place of Residence; MPT – Mode of
Payment for Tuition
Consider table 6.1, observe that only the place of residence (POR) of respondent is
significant. This only imply that respondent who live in their own home, who rent a house,
who live in relatives house, and others differs in their learning outcomes (GPA), that is before
Marawi siege. Most likely, the place where respondent resides greatly affect their
performance in school.

Observe now table 6.2, as shown all demographic profiles with regards to GPA after
Marawi siege are not significant. This suggest that the learning outcomes (GPA) of
respondents now does not varies whatever their sex, age, current school, monthly family
income (MFI), place of residence, and who pay their tuition fee.

Table 7. Assessing Significant Difference in the Learning Outcomes of the Students and
their Level of Motivation Before and After Marawi Siege.
Paired Variables P-value Decision Interpretation
GPA Before VS
0.00 Reject Significant
GPA After
Level of Motivation Before VS
0.00 Reject Significant
Level of Motivation After

Table 7 shows that the GPA of the students before the siege vs after the siege is
clearly interpreted as significant. This means that there is a significant difference between
GPA before and after. Recall that in Table 1, the result showed a decrease of the GPA after
the siege. Now, by assessing the level of motivation of the student to learn before and after
the siege, it resulted to be significant as well. This means that the motivation of the students
to learn have been affected because of what they experienced during the siege.

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IV. DISCUSSIONS
On the average, as shown in figure 2, 62.67% of the respondents are female while the
other 37.33% are male. As shown also in figure 3, majority of the respondents are from 14-17
age range, which consists of 55.67% of the target sample. Figure 4 shows that before the
siege, 78.33% of the respondents were enrolled in a public school. But after the siege, there is
70.67% proportion of respondents enrolled in public school. The proportion of respondents
who studied in private schools increased after the siege. In table 1, it is shown that before the
siege, majority of the respondents got a GPA around 86-90 which consists of 49.67% of the
target sample, but after majority of the respondents got a GPA of only around 81-85. Also,
before the siege 3% proportion of the respondents got a GPA around 96 and above, but after
there is no respondents left who got a GPA around 96 and above. There is significant
decrease in the GPA of the students after the siege.
Figures 5, 6 and 7 shows the respondents’ monthly family income, place of residence
and their mode of paying their tuition before and after the Marawi siege, respectively. Before
the siege, majority of the respondents’ monthly family income is around 5,000- 20,000 pesos,
which consists of 43.33% of the target sample, but after the siege majority of the respondent
monthly family income is now around 5,000 – below, which consists of 46% of the target
sample. Clearly, there is a decrease of respondent monthly family income. Before the siege,
72.67% of the target sample live in their own homes, but after the occurrence of the siege
many lived in evacuation centers, rental homes, and relatives’ house especially in Iligan city.
93.67% of the target sample relies on their parents for their payments for their tuitions before
the siege occurred, but after the siege some respondents rely on other mode of payment like
scholarships and others.
The health status of the students after the siege decreased in its level of goodness.
Thus, not only did the siege affect the learning status of the students but it also affected the
health of the students. This is linked to the decrease in their GPAs after the siege. As
manifested in table 2.
Table 3 shows that the mean of the learning status of students before and after the
siege decreased. From very high with the mean 3.25 to only high with a mean of 2.96. This
implies that the learning statuses of the students are negatively affected by the siege.
Some problems encountered by the students in their learning status after the siege
includes adapting to the new environment, learning the foreign dialect (Cebuano), proper
time management, and lack of educational materials. According to the result, the mean of the
coping strategies of the students is 3 which is interpreted as high. This suggests, that the
respondents are good in dealing with their problems relevant to academics. The result showed
that they exerted effort to cope with the problems they have encountered. Such coping
mechanisms include they made learned to adapt to the new environment and the dialect that
is commonly used in the school. The respondents managed their times properly in order to
maintain their good status.
Observe also that in tables 5.1 and 5.2, the weighted mean of the extrinsic motivation
of the students before and after the siege are 2.90 and 2.77 respectively. These are interpreted
as high but not very high, yet it is still good. They have maintained their motivation to study
after the siege. External factors just played roles in their learning status after the siege. Before
the siege the weighted mean of the intrinsic motivation of the students is 3.25 which is
interpreted as very high. This suggests that before the siege the students have very high inner
motivation to learn in school. However, after the siege the result gives a weighted mean of
3.02 which can be interpreted as high. This suggests that the intrinsic motivation of the

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student declines after the siege. Probably, this is because of what they experience during the
siege.
Table 6.1 and 6.2 shows that, there is a significant difference in the demographic
profiles of the students and their performance before siege, like for instance the respondents
lived in their own homes before the siege and their grades during that time are significantly
high. While after the siege, their place of residence is no longer significant and their grades
decreased. This simply implies that when students live in their own homes they have the
capability to focus more on their studies.
Lastly, table 7 manifests that, there is a significant difference in the learning outcomes
of students before and after the siege. This means that there is a significant difference
between GPA before and after. From the result, it showed a decrease of the GPA after the
siege. Thus, the siege had a negative effect to the students learning outcome. There is a
significant difference in the level of motivation of students before and after the siege. This
means that the motivation of the students to learn have been affected because of what they
experienced during the siege. As a result of the siege, the level of motivation to study among
the students decreased.

V. CONCLUSION
Based from the results of the study, Marawi siege had negatively affected the
displaced students due to the armed conflict. Their GPA decreased after the siege had
occurred. Marawi students have enrolled in other parts of the country (Arguillas, 2017).
Aspects of being a transfer student, such as a phenomenon called “transfer shock”, may also
affect a student’s performance (Stewart & Martinello, 2012). Transfer Shock refers to the
drop in grade point average (GPA) after a student transfers (Young, 2013). Also, the
traumatic situation of the children caused by the war affect the academic success of war
victims (Ulum, Ö. G. & Kara, Ö. T., 2016). Ulum and Kara added, that the psychological
damage leaves children to carry the burden of their war-torn childhoods especially in their
education process. Qazi, Z., et.al. (2017) pointed out that educational performance such as
focus and concentration in class, learning abilities, level of participation, test and exam
performance are affected due to internal displacement.

Recommendations:

This study also aimed to identify the possible psychosocial interventions that should
be given to the affected students of war or military conflicts and other disastrous phenomena
that would somehow posed a traumatic effect on the affected individuals.
The recommendations are as follows:
1. Based from the result of the study, their place of residence affected the students’
learning outcomes. In times of crisis and after the crisis students must still feel at
home regardless of where they are currently residing.

This can be achieve by:


a. Organizing an event that would let the students socialize with other students or
residents in the evacuation area.
b. Providing parlor games to the students and their families.

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c. Teaching arts and handicrafts that they usually see do in their previous residents.
2. The livelihood of the family of the respondents were affected since their previous
residences were devastated by the armed conflict. Therefore they need alternative
source of income. This could be achieve by providing them livelihoods that they are
capable of doing. Such livelihoods may include handicrafts that still manifest their
culture. Like a community livelihood of making “banig” or delicacies native to their
tribe. This would also help them feel that they are still at home, since what they are
doing is connected to their culture and they can enjoy doing. If they are enjoying
doing something, they might easily cope up with the trauma of an adversary.
3. Affected individuals must still exercise their professed faithful beliefs. Thus they must
be provided with areas wherein they could do a joint praise and worship.
4. Motivation of the students decrease after the Marawi siege. It would be better if
schools, where the affected students are currently enrolled, develop an action plan to
address the motivation needs of the affected students. Schools could also organize a
committee that focuses on guidance and counselling of the students, to boost back
their motivation towards studying.
5. A focused group discussion with some experts would help address the psychosocial
and emotional needs of the affected students.
6. Learning performance and outcomes of the affected students must be continually
monitored until it is sure that they have fully recovered from the trauma of the adverse
event they had experienced.
7. Results of the study also showed that many students received scholarships after the
siege. This might help them to be more motivated in their study. It is also better that
scholarship grants continue until they graduate, perhaps in college if possible, or if not
until such time that they could be considered stable especially in their financial aspect.

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