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Problem 8.21 (Coulson and Richardson Vol.

1 Solutions Manual)

600 litres/s of water at 320 K is pumped in a 40 mm i.d. pipe through a length of 150 m in a horizontal direction
and up through a vertical height of 10 m. In the pipe there is a control valve which may be taken as equivalent
to 200 pipe diameters and other pipe fittings equivalent to 60 pipe diameters. Also in the line there is a heat
exchanger across which there is a loss in head of 1.5 m of water. If the main pipe has a roughness of 0.0002 m,
what power must be delivered to the pump if the unit is 60% efficient?

Answer: NRe = 1.9 x 104; Total head = 13.06 m; Power = 128 kW

Problem 11.3 (Coulson and Richardson Vol.2 Solutions Manual)

A mixture of water and ethyl alcohol containing 0.16 mole fraction alcohol is continuously distilled in a plate
fractionating column to give a product containing 0.77 mole fraction alcohol and a waste of 0.02 mole fraction
alcohol. It is proposed to withdraw 25 per cent of the alcohol in the entering stream as a side stream containing
0.50 mole fraction of alcohol.

Determine the number of theoretical plates required and the plate from which the side stream should be
withdrawn if the feed is liquor at its boiling point and a reflux ratio of 2 is used.

Answer: Distillate = 13.55 kmol; Bottoms = 78.45 kmol; N = 8 plates; 4th plate from the top

Problem 15.3 (Coulson and Richardson Vol.2 Solutions Manual)

10 Mg of a solution containing 0.3 kg Na2CO3/kg solution is cooled slowly to 293 K to form crystals of
Na2CO3·10H2O. What is the yield of crystals if the solubility of Na2CO3 at 293 K is 21.5 kg/100 kg water and
during cooling 3 per cent of the original solution is lost by evaporation?

Answer: R = 2.7; y = 6536 kg

Problem 4.3 (Coulson and Richardson Vol.1 Solutions Manual)

Hydrogen is pumped from a reservoir at 2 MN/m2 pressure through a clean horizontal mild steel pipe 50 mm
diameter and 500 m long. The downstream pressure is also 2 MN/m2 and the pressure of this gas is raised to 2.6
MN/m2 by a pump at the upstream end of the pipe. The conditions of flow are isothermal and the temperature of
the gas is 293 K. What is the flowrate and what is the effective rate of working of the pump? Viscosity of
hydrogen = 0.009 mN s/m2 at 293 K

Answer: NRe = 6.2 x 105; mass flowrate = 0.213 kg/s; Power = 113 kW
Problem 7.7 (Coulson and Richardson Vol.1 Solutions Manual)

Tests on a small scale tank 0.3 m diameter (Rushton impeller, diameter 0.1 m) have shown that a blending
process between two miscible liquids (aqueous solutions, properties approximately the same as water, i.e.
viscosity 1 mN s/m2, density 1000 kg/m3) is satisfactorily completed after 1 minute using an impeller speed of
250 rev/min. It is decided to scale up the process to a tank of 2.5 m diameter using the criterion of constant tip-

What speed should be chosen for the larger impeller?

What power will be required?

What will be the blend time in the large tank?

Answer: N = 0.346 Hz or 20.8 rev/min; Power = 9.8 W; t = 1.15 min

Problem 16.7 (Coulson and Richardson Vol.2 Solutions Manual)

0.126 kg/s of a solid product containing 4 per cent water is produced in a dryer from a wet feed containing 42
per cent water on a wet basis. Ambient air at 294 K and of 40 per cent relative humidity is heated to 366 K in a
preheater before entering the dryer from which it leaves at 60 per cent relative humidity. Assuming that the
dryer operates adiabatically, what must be the flowrate of air to the preheater and how much heat must be added
to the preheater? How will these values be affected if the air enters the dryer at 340 K and sufficient heat is
supplied within the dryer so that the air again leaves at 340 K with a relative humidity of 60 per cent?

Answer: Case 1 Volume of air required = 3.16 m3/s; Heat required in the preheater = 276 kW

Case 2 Volume of air required = 0.66 m3/s; Heat required in the preheater = 31 kW

Total Heat Required = 242 kW


Example 9 – 3 (Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science)

A waste is being discharged into a river that has a temperature of 10℃. What fraction of the maximum oxygen
consumption has occurred in 4 days if the BOD rate constant, k, determined in the laboratory under standard
conditions is 0.115 day−1? (Note: All rate constants are base e.)

Answer: 0.12
Example 9 – 7 (Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science)

The town of Aveta discharges 17,360 m3 · day−1 of treated wastewater into the Tefnet Creek. The treated
wastewater has a BOD5 of 12 mg · L−1 and a BOD decay constant, k, of 0.12 day−1 at 20◦C. Tefnet Creek has a
flow rate of 0.43 m3 · s−1 and an ultimate BOD, Lo, of 5.0 mg · L−1. The DO of the river is 6.5 mg · L−1 and the
DO of the wastewater is 1.0 mg · L−1. Compute the DO and initial ultimate BOD, Lo, after mixing.

Answer: DO = 4.75 mg · L−1; ultimate BOD = 26.6 mg · L−1; Lo = 12 mg · L−1

Initial oxygen deficit = 6.58 mg · L−1

Example 9.9 (Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science)

A stream containing no biochemical oxygen demand (this is a hypothetical situation and rarely occurs) has a
DO of 5.00 mg · L−1 and a flow rate, Q, of 8.70 m3 · s−1. The temperature of the stream is 18◦C. The average
velocity in the stream is 0.174 m · s−1. The average depth, H, of the stream is 5 m. Determine the reaeration
coefficient, kr, and the rate of reaeration.

Answer: kr = 0.139 day-1; rate of reaeration = 0.632 mg L-1 day-1

Example 9.10 (Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science)

Determine the deoxygenation rate constant for the reach of Tefnet Creek (Examples 9–7 and 9–8) below the
wastewater outfall (discharge pipe). The average speed, u, of the stream flow in the creek is 0.03 m · s−1. The
depth, h, is 5.0 m and the bed-activity coefficient, ŋ, is 0.35. What is the rate of deoxygenation, in units of mg ·
L−1 · day−1?

Answer: Rate of deoxygenation = 0.408 mg L-1 day-1

Example 9 – 11 (Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science)

A city of 200,000 people disposes of 1.05 m3 · s−1 of treated sewage that still has a BODu of 28.0 mg · L−1 and
1.8 mg · L−1 of DO into a river. Upstream from the outfall, the river has a flowrate of 7.08 m3 · s−1 and a
velocity of 0.37 m · s−1. At this point, the BODu and DO in the river are 3.6 and 7.6 mg · L−1, respectively. The
saturation value of DO (at the temperature of the river) is 8.5 mg · L−1. The deoxygenation coefficient, kd, is
0.61 day−1, and the reaeration coefficient, kr, is 0.76 day−1. Assume complete mixing and that the velocity in the
river is the same upstream and downstream of the outfall.

1. What is the oxygen deficit and the BODu just downstream from the outfall (just after mixing, before any
reaction can occur)?

2. What is the DO 16 km downstream?

Answer: 1.6 mg L-1 day-1, 6.75 mg L-1 day-1, 5.9 mg L-1 day-1
1. Calculate the critical time and distance.

2. What is the minimum DO?

Answer: 1.07 days; 34.2 km; 5.7 mg L-1