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27‐11‐2016

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR WEEK 1


At the end of this week, you will:
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any 
means without the prior written permission of the author. • Understand important physical properties such
as density and viscosity
• Understand why the location of the velodrome
is important for world hour records in cycling
• Understand why turbulent flows are so complex,
and why there is not yet a good definition of turbulence
• Understand boundary layers, including the special
case of the atmospheric boundary layer, in which
Sports & Building Aerodynamics take place
 This week provides the basic background for the rest of the course

CONTENTS OF WEEK 1 MODULE QUESTION


1. Fluid properties – Part 1 (velocity, pressure, temperature) A cyclist is riding in still air. The wind is only caused by the movement of the cyclist.
2. Fluid properties – Part 2 (density) Where on the body does the dynamic pressure reach a maximum?
A) At the sides of the arms, torso and legs
3. Fluid properties – Part 3 (viscosity) B) At the front of arms, torso and legs
4. Flow properties – Part 1 C) At the back of arms, torso and legs
D) Nowhere, it is zero at all positions on the body
5. Flow properties – Part 2
6. Fluid statics, kinematics, dynamics
7. Boundary layers – Part 1 U
“The roots of education are bitter,
but the fruit is sweet.” 8. Boundary layers – Part 2
9. Boundary layers – Part 3
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), Greek
philosopher and polymath 10. The atmospheric boundary layer

LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 1 Fluid: from Latin fluidus: “fluid, flowing, moist”, and fluere: “to flow” Fluids include liquids, gases and plasmas.

At the end of this module, you will: A fluid is a substance that continually deforms under shear stress.

• Understand the fluid properties velocity, pressure and temperature A fluid is a substance whose molecules move freely past one another.

• Understand the difference between static pressure, dynamic pressure and total A fluid is a substance that has the tendency to assume the shape of its container.
pressure A fluid is a substance that can flow, has no fixed shape, and offers little resistance to
• Understand the velocity distribution around a cyclist shear stress.

• Understand the static and dynamic pressure distribution around and on a cyclist
27‐11‐2016

Liquid: Gas: Liquid (water)  Hydrodynamics (υδρο (water) + δυναμική (dynamics))


• Particles move freely among each other but are not separated, instead held together by • Particles move freely among each other and are separated, yielding perfect mobility. Gas (air)  Aerodynamics (ἀήρ (air) + δυναμική (dynamics))
intermolecular bonds.
• No definite volume and no definite shape, disperse to fill any space available,
• Definite volume but not a definite shape, does not disperse to fill the space available. irrespective of their quantity.

Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical Continuum assumption: Continuum assumption implies that the fluid is considered to be continuous, rather than
system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …). composed of discrete molecules. It is continuously distributed and fills the entire space that
A fluid consists of a large number of molecules that are in constant motion and undergo
it occupies.
collisions with each other and the solid boundaries. It is therefore discrete.
Etymology:
Accurate when the size of the flow system is much larger than the mean free path of
A continuum is a bulk material that can be subdivided into infinitesimally small volumes,
molecules (= 5 x 10-8 m for air at standard atmosphere).
Velocity Latin velocitas: “speed”, velox: “fast” the properties of which are those of the bulk material.
As a result, fluid properties such as velocity, pressure, temperature, density and
Pressure Latin pressura: “a pressing, pressure” Discrete fluid Continuum viscosity are assumed to vary continuously from one point to the next.

Temperature Latin tempero: “I temper”

Density Latin densitas: “thickness”, densus: “thick, dense”

Viscosity Latin viscum: “ something sticky, birdlime made from


mistletoe, mistletoe“, Late Latin viscosus: “sticky”

Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical Velocity is the rate of change of the position of an object. It is the vector quantity whose
system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …). system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …). magnitude is the speed and whose direction is the direction of motion.

Etymology: Etymology: Symbol: v (vx = u; vy = v; vz = w)


Unit: meter per second (m/s)
Velocity Latin velocitas: “speed”, velox: “fast” Velocity: Latin velocitas: “speed”, velox: “fast” kilometer per hour (km/h)

Pressure Latinmodule
This pressura: “a pressing,
(Module 1) pressure” Pressure: Latin pressura: “a pressing, pressure”

Temperature Latin tempero: “I temper” Temperature: Latin tempero: “I temper”

Density Latin densitas:


Module 2 “thickness”, densus: “thick, dense”

Viscosity Latin viscum:


Module 3 “ something sticky, birdlime made from
mistletoe, mistletoe“, Late Latin viscosus: “sticky”
27‐11‐2016

Velocity is the rate of change of the position of an object. It is the vector quantity whose Pressure is force per unit area applied normal to the area: Static pressure is the pressure at a nominated point in a fluid. Static pressure can always
magnitude is the speed and whose direction is the direction of motion. be defined, whether the fluid is in motion or not.
F
Example: cyclist in time-trial position riding at 15 m/s (54 km/h) in still air p  Dynamic pressure is kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid particle:
A 1 2
Velocity vector field in vertical center plane Wind speed contours (m/s) in vertical center plane
p dyn  ρV
2
Symbol: p Total pressure is the sum of static and dynamic pressure.

Unit: Pascal (Pa) (1 Pa = 1 N/m²)


Bar (bar) (1 bar = 105 Pa)
Standard atmosphere (atm) (1 atm = 101,325 Pa)

Standard atmosphere is approximately equal to typical air pressure on earth at


mean sea level.

Static pressure is the pressure at a nominated point in a fluid. Static pressure can always MODULE QUESTION Static pressure
be defined, whether the fluid is in motion or not.
A cyclist is riding in still air. The wind is only caused by the movement of the cyclist. Example: static pressure on cyclist in time-trial position riding at 15 m/s (54 km/h) in still air
Dynamic pressure is kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid particle. Where on the body does the dynamic pressure reach a maximum?
Example: cyclist in time-trial position riding at 15 m/s (54 km/h) in still air A) At the sides of the arms, torso and legs 150 Pa
B) At the front of arms, torso and legs
100
50 200
C) At the back of arms, torso and legs
50
40
Static pressure (Pa)
175
Dynamic pressure (Pa) D) Nowhere, it is zero at all positions on the body Static pressure (Pa)

under‐ 0
30
over‐ 150
20 pressure -50
pressure
10
125 Dynamic pressure is kinetic energy per
-100
0 100 unit volume of a fluid particle
-10 75
U -150

-20
1 2 -200

50
-30 p dyn ρV
-40
25

0
2 -250

-50 -300
[note: colorbars are cut off at upper and lower end, actual pressures are larger than the colorbar limits] [note: colorbars are cut off at upper and lower end, actual pressures exceed the colorbar limits]

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object or In this module, we have learned about: In the next module, we will focus on:
system.
• The fluid properties velocity, pressure and temperature • The fluid property density
Symbol: T
• The difference between static pressure, dynamic pressure and total pressure • How density changes as a function of temperature and pressure
Unit:
- Kelvin • The velocity distribution around a cyclist • How air density changes as a function of altitude
- Degrees Celsius (0°C = 273.15 K) • The static and dynamic pressure distribution around and on a cyclist • How cycling aerodynamics is influenced by temperature and altitude
- Degrees Fahrenheit (1°F = 9/5(T in °C) + 32) (0°C = 32°F; 20°C = 68°F)
 This week provides the basic background for the rest of the course

Mexico City
T

(CC0 1.0) (CC BY-SA 3.0; Nicola)


27‐11‐2016

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any 
means without the prior written permission of the author.

MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 2 Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical
system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …).
If an elite cyclist wants to establish a new world hour record on an At the end of this module, you will:
indoor velodrome, which location should (s)he choose? Etymology:
• Understand the fluid property density
A) Eindhoven, The Netherlands (35 m above mean sea level) Velocity Latin velocitas: “speed”, velox: “fast”
B) Högvalen, Sweden (835 m above MSL) • Understand how density changes as a function of temperature and pressure
C) Mexico City (2,250 m above MSL) • Understand how air density changes as a function of altitude Pressure Latin pressura: “a pressing, pressure”
D) La Paz, Bolivia (3,640 m above MSL) Module 1
• Understand how cycling aerodynamics is influenced by temperature and altitude
(CC BY-SA 3.0; Nicola) Temperature Latin tempero: “I temper”
Eindhoven Högvalen Mexico City La Paz
Density Latinmodule
This densitas: “thickness”,
(Module 2) densus: “thick, dense”

Viscosity Latin viscum:


Module 3 “ something sticky, birdlime made from
mistletoe, mistletoe“, Late Latin viscosus: “sticky”
(Cycloteam.com) (www.hogvalen.se) (CC0 1.0) (CC BY; Mark Goble)

Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical Density is mass per unit volume Density of air influences the air resistance:
system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …).
m D = Drag force (N)
ρ 
Etymology: V A = Frontal area (m²)
ρU 2
D  ACD CD = Drag coefficient (-)
Density: Latin densitas: “thickness”, densus: “thick, dense” where  is the density, m the mass and V the volume. 2  = Air density (kg/m³)
Unit: kg/m³ U = Relative air speed (m/s)

Typical values:
ACD = 0.211 m² (time-trial position)
U = 15 m/s (= 54 km/h)
 = 1.1 kg/m³  D = 26.1 N
 = 1.2 kg/m³  D = 28.5 N
 = 1.3 kg/m³  D = 30.9 N
27‐11‐2016

Density changes with temperature and pressure. Density changes with temperature and pressure. Density of water at 1 atm pressure, as a function of temperature
 Increasing the pressure decreases the volume and thus increases the density  Increasing the pressure decreases the volume and thus increases the density 1005
 These changes are small for liquids, large for gases.  These changes are small for liquids, large for gases. 1000
995
 Air resistance of a cyclist changes with temperature and pressure
990

Density (kg/m³)
Compressing a liquid Compressing a gas 985
980
975
970
965
0.4 % change
p     960 for T = 30°C
955
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Temperature (°C)

Density of air at 1 atm pressure, as a function of temperature Density of air as a function of temperature: implications for cycling Density of air as a function of temperature: implications for cycling

D = Drag force (N) Drag force D at 1 atm and U = 54 km/h


A = Frontal area (m²)
ρU 2 35
D  ACD CD = Drag coefficient (-) 34
2  = Air density (kg/m³) 33
U = Relative air speed (m/s) 32

Drag force (N)


31
30
29
Typical values:
28
10 % change ACD = 0.211 m² (time-trial position)
27
for T = 30°C  = 1.225 kg/m³ (15 °C and 1 atm) D = 29.1 N
26
U = 15 m/s (= 54 km/h)
25
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
 Next: considering variations in temperature and pressure Temperature (°C)

Density of air as a function of temperature: implications for cycling Density of air also changes with pressure. Density of air changes with pressure and therefore also with altitude.
Theoretical time gain over 50 km at 1 atm Temperature T (in K) at altitude h (m above sea level):

150 T  T0  L h T0 = Standard temperature = 288.15 K (= 15°C)


L = Temperature lapse rate = 0.0065 K/m
100
Time gain over 50 km (s)

50 Compressing a liquid Compressing a gas Pressure p (in Pa) at altitude h:


0 gM p0 = 1 atm = 101,325 Pa
-50
 Lh  RL g = Gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s²
p  p 0 1   M = Molar mass of dry air = 0.029 kg/mol
T0 
-100
-150  R = Ideal gas constant = 8.314 J/(mol.K)
-200
60 s difference p     Density  (in kg/m³) at altitude h:
-250
for T = 10°C
-300
pM
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 ρ 
Temperature (°C) RT
27‐11‐2016

Density of air as a function of altitude: implications for cycling Density of air as a function of altitude: implications for cycling Density of air as a function of altitude: implications for cycling
Drag force D at U = 54 km/h Drag force D at U = 54 km/h
Cycling speed U including altitude
oxygen uptake effects
1.30
30 59
1.20 28 After acclimatization
D D

Cycling speed (km/h)


Density (kg/m³)
1.10 26

Drag force (N)


58
24
1.00
22 U
0.90 57
20
0.80
18
Before acclimatization
0.70 16 56

0
0
0
0
10 0
12 0
14 0
16 0
18 0
20 0
22 0
24 0
26 0
28 0
30 0
32 0
34 0
36 0
00
00
00

0
0
0
0
10 0
12 0
14 0
16 0
18 0
20 0
22 0
24 0
26 0
28 0
30 0
32 0
34 0
36 0
38 0
40 0
00
20
40
60
80
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

20
40
60
80
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
38
40
Altitude (m) Altitude (m)

MODULE QUESTION A) Eindhoven, The Netherlands (35 m above MSL) In this module, we have learned about:
B) Högvalen, Sweden (835 m above MSL)
If an elite cyclist wants to establish a new world hour record on an C) Mexico City (2,250 m above MSL) • The fluid property density
indoor velodrome, which location should (s)he choose? D) La Paz, Bolivia (3,640 m above MSL)
Assumption: Boardman biomedical characteristics • How density changes as a function of temperature and pressure
A) Eindhoven, The Netherlands (35 m above MSL) 30 59
• How air density changes as a function of altitude
B) Högvalen, Sweden (835 m above MSL) 28
C) Mexico City (2,250 m above MSL) • How cycling aerodynamics is influenced by temperature and altitude

Cycling speed (km/h)


Mexico City: 58.1 km 26
D) La Paz, Bolivia (3,640 m above MSL)

Drag force (N)


58
La Paz: 57.6 km 24
(CC BY-SA 3.0; Nicola)

22
Eindhoven Högvalen Mexico City La Paz Högvalen: 57.3 km 57
20

Eindhoven: 56.4 km 18

16 56

0
0
0
0
10 0
12 0
14 0
16 0
18 0
20 0
22 0
24 0
26 0
28 0
30 0
32 0
34 0
36 0
38 0
40 0
00
20
40
60
80
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(Cycloteam.com) (www.hogvalen.se) (CC0 1.0) (CC BY; Mark Goble)
Altitude (m)

In the next module, we will focus on:

• The fluid property viscosity


• How viscosity changes as a function of temperature
• How viscosity influences cycling aerodynamics

(CC BY; Koldora)


27‐11‐2016

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 3

If a cyclist would be cycling in an inviscid medium (with zero viscosity) instead of At the end of this module, you will:
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any 
in viscous air, his/her aerodynamic resistance would: • Understand the fluid property viscosity
means without the prior written permission of the author.
A) Be zero
B) Decrease • Understand how viscosity changes as a function of temperature
C) Remain the same
• Understand how viscosity influences cycling aerodynamics
D) Increase

Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical Physical property is any measurable property that describes the state of a physical Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …). system (mass, volume, density, position, velocity, …).

Etymology: Etymology:
γ γ
Velocity Latin velocitas: “speed”, velox: “fast” Viscosity: Latin viscum: “something sticky, birdlime made from τ  μ or τ  ρν
mistletoe, mistletoe”, Late Latin viscosus: “sticky” t t
Pressure Latin pressura:
Module 1 “a pressing, pressure”

Temperature Latin tempero: “I temper”


Viscosity is related to the internal friction of a moving fluid.
Density Latin densitas:
Module 2 “thickness”, densus: “thick, dense”
Symbols and units:  (kinematic viscosity) (m²/s)
Viscosity Latinmodule
This viscum:(Module
“ something
3) sticky, birdlime made from  (dynamic viscosity) (Pa.s or kg/(m.s))
mistletoe, mistletoe“, Late Latin viscosus: “sticky”

Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. Viscosity explained by a simple analogy: Viscosity explained by a simple analogy:
High viscosity  high resistance
Low viscosity  low resistance
 u + du
v
Example:
 u
air = 17.4 × 10−6 Pa.s (at 0°C)
water = 1.0 x 10-3 Pa.s (at 20°C)
motor oil = 250 x 10-3 Pa.s (at 20°C)
Exchange of momentum in x-direction:
 mu from yellow to blue wagon
 m(u+du) from blue to yellow wagon
Nett exchange: mdu from blue to yellow, -mdu from yellow to blue  “friction”
(CC BY; Koldora)
27‐11‐2016

Viscosity explained by a simple analogy (assuming laminar flow): Newtonian fluid is a fluid that behaves according to Newton’s law in which viscosity is Non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not behave according to Newton’s law in which
independent of the shear stress or rate of deformation. viscosity is independent of the shear stress:

Shear thickening: µ increases with


γ γ /y. Example: self-compacting
τ  μ or τ  ρν concrete, …
t t
Shear thinning: µ decreases with
/y. Example: ketchup, blood,
μ  constant ν  constant paint, …

Exchange of momentum by
Examples: water, air, …
exchange of molecules between
fluid layers = (molecular) viscosity.

Viscosity of water at 1 atm as a function of temperature Viscosity of air at 1 atm as a function of temperature Viscosity of water and air at 1 atm as a function of temperature
 For water (liquids): viscosity decreases as a function of temperature
2.0 2.5
θ µ ν θ µ ν  For air (gases): viscosity increases as a function of temperature

Viscosity (Pa.s x 10-5) or (m²/s x 10 -5)


Viscosity (Pa.s x 10-3) or (m²/s x 10 -6)

-3 -6
(° C) (Pa.s)x10 (m²/s)x10 1.8 (° C) (Pa.s)x10
-5
(m²/s)x10
-5

100 0.282 0.290 1.6 100 2.181 2.306 2.0 water air
90 0.315 0.326 80 2.094 2.094 µ
1.4
80 0.355 0.365 60 2.017 1.890
70 0.404 0.413 1.2 40 1.913 1.697 1.5
60 0.467 0.475 1.0 20 1.821 1.511
50 0.547 0.553
0.8  0 1.720 1.330 1.0
40
30
0.653
0.798
0.658
0.801 0.6
-50
-100
1.465
1.178
0.955
0.595 
20 1.002 1.004 -150 0.860 0.308 0.5
0.4
10 1.307 1.307
5
0
1.519
1.787
1.519
1.787
0.2
µ
0.0 0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)

Viscosity of gases at normal pressure: Viscosity of liquids and gases at high pressure: Inviscid fluid is a fluid that has no viscosity: µ =  = 0.
 Molecules are not densely packed T   Molecules are rather densely packed γ γ
 Collision of molecules with each other and walls  Molecule motion less pronounced τ  μ τ  ρν
or                                                   =   0
 Travel distance increases with temperature
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐>  Molecule layers “brush” against each other t t

Inviscid fluid is a fluid that cannot support shear stress ( = 0) and flows without energy
dissipation.
 Train analogy: viscosity is caused by momentum exchange between fluid layers
 Momentum exchange increases with travel distance  At higher temperatures, kinetic energy and molecule
Also called: ideal fluid, perfect fluid.
 Viscosity increases with increasing temperature movement increase
 Reduction of brushing effect
 Viscosity decreases with increasing temperature
27‐11‐2016

Inviscid fluid is a fluid that has no viscosity: µ =  = 0. MODULE QUESTION If a cyclist would be cycling in an inviscid medium (with zero viscosity) instead of
in viscous air, his/her aerodynamic resistance would decrease by 50%.
Example: flow close to a wall
If a cyclist would be cycling in an inviscid medium (with zero viscosity) instead of Reason is twofold:
in viscous air, his/her aerodynamic resistance would: 1. Air resistance (drag) = form drag + skin friction drag.
A) Be zero For the cyclist in time-trial position: form drag = 93% and skin friction drag = 7%
B) Decrease 2. Zero viscosity changes separation points and pressure distribution over the body.
C) Remain the same
D) Increase 2.  50% lower aerodynamic drag if  = 0

In this module, we have learned about: In the next module, we will focus on:
• The fluid property viscosity • The difference between viscous and inviscid flow
• How viscosity changes as a function of temperature • The difference between compressible and incompressible flow
• How viscosity influences cycling aerodynamics • The difference between confined and open flow
• The difference between steady and unsteady flow
• The difference between stationary and non-stationary flow

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  MODULE QUESTION


A circular cylinder is exposed to a uniform laminar approach-flow with constant
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any  velocity. The flow Reynolds number is 1000.
means without the prior written permission of the author.
27‐11‐2016

MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 4 Viscous versus inviscid flow: inviscid flow is strictly the flow of a non-viscous fluid. It can
A circular cylinder is exposed to a uniform laminar approach-flow with constant also be defined as the flow of a viscous fluid in which viscous effects can be neglected.
velocity. The flow Reynolds number is 1000. Which statement is correct for this At the end of this module, you will:
Example: flow close to a wall:
symmetrical flow problem? [red is high and blue is low velocity magnitude]
A) The steady flow (1) is the correct solution • Understand the difference between viscous and inviscid flow
B) The steady flow (2) is the correct solution • Understand the difference between compressible and incompressible flow
C) The unsteady flow (3) is the correct solution
• Understand the difference between confined and open flow
(1) (2) (3)
• Understand the difference between steady and unsteady flow
• Understand the difference between stationary and non-stationary flow

For flows around bluff bodies (e.g. Sports & Building Aerodynamics),
viscosity cannot be neglected!

Compressible versus incompressible flow: Compressible versus incompressible flow: Confined versus open (unconfined) flow: a confined flow is a flow with prescribed and
fixed boundaries. An unconfined flow is a flow with a free surface.
A fluid is incompressible if its density does not change with pressure. A fluid is incompressible if its density does not change with pressure.
 Liquids are almost incompressible.  Liquids are almost incompressible. Examples:
 Gases are compressible.  Gases are compressible, but for speeds < 100 m/s (Mach numbers lower than 0.3) Confined flow: flow in a tube where the tube cross-section is completely filled with fluid.
the fractional change of absolute pressure in the flow is small. Open flow: flow in a tube where the tube cross-section is only partially filled with fluid.
Compressing a liquid Compressing a gas
Confined flow Open flow

p    

 For flows around bluff bodies (e.g. Sports & Building Aerodynamics),
we will generally neglect the compressibility of air.

Confined versus open (unconfined) flow: a confined flow is a flow with prescribed and Steady versus unsteady (transient) flow: Steady versus unsteady (transient) flow:
fixed boundaries. An unconfined flow is a flow with a free surface.
Steady flow is a flow in which all fluid properties at a point in the system do not change Turbulent flows are by definition unsteady (see Module 5).
Examples: over time. This implies that the local time derivatives are zero. But a turbulent flow can be statistically stationary.
Confined flow: flow in a tube where the tube cross-section is completely filled with fluid.
Open flow: flow in a tube where the tube cross-section is only partially filled with fluid. Examples: cross-sectional view of flow around a circular cylinder

Confined flow Open flow


wind tunnel Steady flow Transient flow

River Dee
(CC-BY; Alden Chadwick)
27‐11‐2016

Stationary versus non-stationary flow: a statistically stationary flow is a flow in which Stationary versus non-stationary flow: a statistically stationary flow is a flow in which MODULE QUESTION
all statistics (such as mean and rms) are invariant under a shift in time. all statistics (such as mean and rms) are invariant under a shift in time. A circular cylinder is exposed to a uniform laminar approach-flow with constant
velocity. The flow Reynolds number is 1000.
Stationary Non-stationary Stationary
u
u U u
U U
For a stationary process,
the time average is equal
u’ u’ to the ensemble average.
t t t

Average variable U(t) is the ensemble avg.


Average variable U is the time mean: resulting from a collection of experiments: Average variable U is the time mean:
t0 t
1 1 N i 1 0
U  lim  u(t) dt  u (t) t 0 0
U(t)  U  lim u(t) dt
t 0  t t 0 
0 0 N i 1

MODULE QUESTION In this module, we have learned about: In the next module, we will focus on:
A circular cylinder is exposed to a uniform laminar approach-flow with constant
velocity. The flow Reynolds number is 1000. Which statement is correct for this • Viscous versus inviscid flow • The difference between laminar and turbulent flow
symmetrical flow problem? [red is high and blue is low velocity magnitude] • Compressible versus incompressible flow • How the simple train analogy explains the concept of turbulent viscosity
A) The steady flow (1) is the correct solution
B) The steady flow (2) is the correct solution • Confined versus open flow • The main features of a turbulent flow
C) The unsteady flow (3) is the correct solution
• Steady versus unsteady flow • The two (very) different definitions of turbulence intensity
(1) (2) (3) • Stationary versus non-stationary flow

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any 
means without the prior written permission of the author.
27‐11‐2016

MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 5 Laminar versus turbulent flow
Streamlines obtained by a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the
viscous, subsonic, compressible flow around an airfoil (Re = 100,000; M = 0.5; At the end of this module, you will: Most flows encountered in engineering practice and in nature are turbulent.
zero angle of attack) This certainly holds for sports aerodynamics…
Which statement is correct: • Understand the difference between laminar and turbulent flow
A) Both flows (1) and (2) are laminar flows • Understand how the simple train analogy explains the concept of turbulent viscosity
B) Flow (1) is laminar and flow (2) is turbulent
C) Flow (1) is turbulent and flow (2) is laminar • Recognize the main features of turbulent flow
D) Both flows (1) and (2) are turbulent flows
• Understand the two (very) different definitions of turbulence intensity
(1) (2)

Figures from: Anderson JD, Jr. 1995. Computational Fluid Dynamics: the basics with applications. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
(Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, US)

Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow

Most flows encountered in engineering practice and in nature are turbulent. Experimental research by Osborne Reynolds (1883): Experimental research by Osborne Reynolds (1883):
This certainly holds for sports aerodynamics... and for building aerodynamics.

Osborne Reynolds
(1842 – 1912)

Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow
Experimental research by Osborne Reynolds (1883): Possible definitions of turbulence: Possible definitions of turbulence:

Encyclopedia Britannica: Encyclopedia Britannica:


Test by Osborne Reynolds (1883):
introducing dye into the flow through a
Turbulent flow: “A type of fluid (gas or liquid) flow in which the Turbulence: “In fluid mechanics, a flow condition (see turbulent
glass tube of constant section. For low
fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations, or mixing, in contrast to flow) in which local speed and pressure change unpredictably
velocities, the dye flowed through the
laminar flow, in which the fluid moves in smooth paths or layers. as an average flow is maintained. Common examples are wind
tube without significant mixing with the
In turbulent flow the speed of the fluid at a point is and water swirling around obstructions, or fast flow (Reynolds
surrounding water flow. At higher
continuously undergoing changes in both magnitude and number greater than 2,100) of any sort. Eddies, vortices,
velocities and/or further downstream,
direction.” and a reduction in drag are characteristics of turbulence.”
mixing occurred.
(Modified from Binder 1953)
27‐11‐2016

Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow
Possible definitions of turbulence: Possible definitions of turbulence: Possible definitions of turbulence:

Lewis Fry Richardson (1922): Horice Lamb (1932): Marcel Lesieur (1987):

“Big whirls have little whirls that feed on their velocity, "I am an old man now, and when I die and go to heaven “Turbulence is a dangerous topic which is at the origin of
and little whirls have lesser whirls and so on to viscosity.” there are two matters on which I hope for enlightenment. serious fights in scientific meetings since it represents
One is quantum electrodynamics, and the other is the extremely different points of view, all of which have in
turbulent motion of fluids. And about the former I am common their complexity, as well as an inability to solve the
rather optimistic”. problem. It is even difficult to agree on what exactly is the
problem to be solved.”
L. F. Richardson H. Lamb M. Lesieur
(1881 – 1953) (1849 – 1934) French professor in fluid
English mathematician, British applied mathematician mechanics @ Institut
physicist, meteorologist Polytechnique de Grenoble
and phsychologist

Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow
Possible definitions of turbulence: Possible definitions of turbulence: Definition based on Reynolds number?

Peter Bradshaw (1994): Peter Bradshaw (1994): Ratio of inertia


VL
Re  forces to viscous
“Turbulence was the invention of the Devil on the seventh “Perhaps the biggest fallacy about turbulence is that it ν forces
day of creation, when the Good Lord wasn’t looking” can be reliably described (statistically) by a system of
equations which is far easier to solve than the full time- where V= characteristic velocity of the flow
dependent three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.” L= characteristic length scale of the flow
= kinematic viscosity of the fluid

P. Bradshaw P. Bradshaw Two main problems in using Re number to determine whether a flow is turbulent or not:
English professor in English professor in (1) Choice of V and L in flow field.
engineering, aeronautics engineering, aeronautics
& astronautics @ & astronautics @
(2) The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not always occur at the same
Stanford University Stanford University Reynolds number, nor at a fixed Reynolds number.

Laminar versus turbulent flow Laminar versus turbulent flow MODULE QUESTION
Streamlines obtained by a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the
Often used definition: Definition is easy? viscous, subsonic, compressible flow around an airfoil (Re = 100,000; M = 0.5;
Laminar flow = “flow in “laminae”; layers. Smooth flow where only molecules are zero angle of attack)
exchanged between the different fluid layers.”  (molecular) viscosity Which statement is correct:
A) Both flows (1) and (2) are laminar flows
B) Flow (1) is laminar and flow (2) is turbulent
C) Flow (1) is turbulent and flow (2) is laminar
D) Both flows (1) and (2) are turbulent flows

Turbulent flow = “Chaotic flow where fluid parcels are exchanged between different fluid (1) (2)
layers.”  turbulent viscosity

Figures from: Anderson JD, Jr. 1995. Computational Fluid Dynamics: the basics with applications. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
(Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, US)
27‐11‐2016

This is the result of a numerical experiment performed with Computational Fluid Laminar versus turbulent flow Turbulent flow: Reynolds decomposition and turbulence intensity
Dynamics (CFD).
Conclusion: In turbulent flow, the instantaneous fluid speed is a function of space and time. It can be
CFD allows the user to switch between “laminar” and “turbulent” settings.
decomposed into a mean and a fluctuating component: the “Reynolds decomposition”.
There is no generally accepted definition of turbulence. Best definition might be
Figure 1: laminar, separated and unsteady flow (streamlines are a “snapshot” of summarizing the properties of turbulent flows (Ferziger & Peric 1997): u(x,y,z,t) = U(x,y,z) + u’(x,y,z,t)
the unsteady flow at a given instant in time). u
1. Turbulent flows are highly unsteady (“appear” random) v(x,y,z,t) = V(x,y,z) + v’(x,y,z,t)
Figure 2: turbulent, attached and steady flow U
2. They are 3-dimensional (even if mean flow is 2D) w(x,y,z,t) = W(x,y,z) + w’(x,y,z,t)
3. Large amount of vorticity present
4. Conserved quantities are stirred, mixed: turbulent
(1) (2) diffusion (exchanging parcels of fluid) A measure of the turbulence in the flow is the root u’ time
5. Mixing is a dissipative process (kinetic energy to mean square (rms) of the turbulent fluctuations:
internal energy)
T
6. Coherent structures are present 1 Standard deviation of turbulent fluctuations in x-direction
T 0
7. Fluctuations occur on a broad range of length and time σu  (u' ) 2 dt in one point in space
Figures from: Anderson JD, Jr. 1995. Computational Fluid Dynamics: the basics with applications. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
(Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, US) scales (large range of “eddies”)

Turbulent flow: Reynolds decomposition and turbulence intensity Turbulent flow: Reynolds decomposition and turbulence intensity Turbulent flow: Reynolds decomposition and turbulence intensity
A measure of the turbulence in the flow is the root mean square (rms) of the turbulent Definition of turbulence intensity based on the mean “streamwise” fluid speed U: Definition of turbulence intensity based on each velocity component (U, V, W):
fluctuations:

T σ u (x, y, z) σ u (x, y, z)
1 I u (x, y, z)  Turbulence intensity in x-direction in I u (x, y, z)  Turbulence intensity in x-direction in

T 0
σu  (u' ) 2 dt Standard deviation of turbulent fluctuations in
U(x, y, z) one point in space U(x, y, z) one point in space
x-direction in one point in space

σ v (x, y, z) σ v (x, y, z)
1
T
Standard deviation of turbulent fluctuations in I v (x, y, z)  Turbulence intensity in y-direction in
I v (x, y, z)  Turbulence intensity in y-direction in

T 0
σv  (v' ) 2 dt y-direction in one point in space U(x, y, z) one point in space V(x, y, z) one point in space

σ w (x, y, z) σ w (x, y, z)
1
T
Standard deviation of turbulent fluctuations in I w (x, y, z)  Turbulence intensity in z-direction in I w (x, y, z)  Turbulence intensity in z-direction in
U(x, y, z) W(x, y, z)
T 0
one point in space one point in space
σw  (w' ) 2 dt z-direction in one point in space

Some additional comments on laminar versus turbulent flow Some additional comments on laminar versus turbulent flow In this module, we have learned about:
• Laminar flows can be steady or transient • Turbulent flows are always transient but can be stationary (e.g. if the mean • The difference between laminar and turbulent flow
approach-flow conditions are constant)
• How the simple train analogy explains the concept of turbulent viscosity
Steady laminar flow Transient laminar flow
• The main features of turbulent flow
u
• The two (very) different definitions of turbulence intensity
U

u’
t
27‐11‐2016

In the next module, we will focus on:


• Some basic concepts of fluid statics
• Some basic concepts of fluid kinematics
• Some basic concepts of fluid dynamics
• The differences between the Navier-Stokes equations, the Euler equations
and the Bernoulli equation

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 6

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any  In fluid kinematics, a pathline is the trajectory of a particle as it travels through time At the end of this module, you will:
and space. A streamline is the line that, a one certain moment in time, is tangential
means without the prior written permission of the author. • Understand some basic concepts of fluid statics
to the velocity vector in each of its points. What is shown in the animation below?
• Understand some basic concepts of fluid kinematics
A) Pathlines
B) Streamlines • Understand some basic concepts of fluid dynamics
C) Neither pathlines, nor streamlines
• Understand the differences between the Navier-Stokes equations, the Euler
equations and the Bernoulli equation

(1935 test conducted at NASA Langley Research Center's 2 foot Smoke Flow tunnel. The video
shows footage of the stream flow over the body in the tunnel and similar smaller tunnels)

Fluid statics is the study of fluids at rest. Fluid statics is the study of fluids at rest. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a liquid (water) in rest.
.
Fluid kinematics is the study of fluids in motion without considering the forces that bring Etymology: Hydrostatic law states that the pressure in a point in a fluid is given by the sum of the
about this motion.. external pressure and the pressure caused by the fluid column above the point.
Statics: Greek στατικός: “to cause to stand”
Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids in motion considering the forces that bring about this pC  p 0  ρg h
motion. p0

where p0 = external pressure (Pa) h


= density (kg/m³)
g= gravitational acceleration (m/s²) C
h= height of water column above point C (m)
Vessel filled with liquid, in
which point C is submerged.
27‐11‐2016

Atmospheric pressure under isothermal conditions can be given by the barometric Atmospheric pressure under isothermal conditions can be given by the barometric Law of Pascal states that the pressure in a point in a static fluid is the same in all
formula: formula: directions and only dependent on the density of the fluid and the depth of the point below
the fluid surface.
 Mgz   Mgz 
p(z)  p(0) exp   p(z)  p(0) exp   120000
 RT   RT  F1  p1A  F2  p2A
100000

where M= molar mass of (dry) air (0.02896 kg/mol) 80000

Pressure (Pa)
g= gravitational acceleration (m/s²)
F1 A
z= height above sea level (m) 60000
R= universal gas constant for air (8.31436 J/(mol·K))
40000 F2
T= temperature (K) Pressure p can not be C
20000 indicated with arrows.
Pressure is a scalar, not a
0 Vessel filled with liquid, in
vector. Force F is a vector. which point C and surface A
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
are submerged.
Altitude (m)

Archimedes’ principle or the law of buoyancy states that a body immersed in a fluid is Fluid kinematics is the study of the motion of fluids without considering the forces that Lagrangian versus Eulerian approach
buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. bring about the motion.

Etymology:
Farch  ρ water g V Kinematics: Greek κίνημα: “motion”
Joseph Louis, comte de Leonhard Euler
Lagrange (1707 – 1783)
(Giuseppe Lodovico
Volume of 
Equal  Lagrangia) Swiss mathematician and
water at 
volume of  (1736 – 1813) physicist
object in  Kinematics only focuses on the location, speed, acceleration and time of fluid elements.
equilibrium
water
Italian mathematician and
astronomer

Lagrangian approach: tracking the movement of a particular particle in space and time. Substantial derivative in continuum fluid mechanics is the total rate of change of a Substantial derivative in continuum fluid mechanics is the total rate of change of a
variable a(x,t) subjected to a velocity field v : variable a(x,t) subjected to a velocity field v :
Eulerian approach: focusing on fixed points in space and studying the fluid motion as a
function of time of the particles that flow through this point. Da a  Da a 
  v .a   v .a
Dt t Dt t
Lagrangian approach Eulerian approach
where D indicates the substantial derivative
 indicates the partial derivative convective rate of change, due to convection of a fluid particle
from one location to another where the value of a is different.
and x= position
t = time
local rate of change at a given fixed point (Eulerian frame)
v= velocity vector
= gradient operator (when a is a scalar)
total rate of change: following a fluid particle in its path through space and time
Particle Field Also called: total derivative, Lagrangian derivative, material derivative, particle derivative. (Lagrangian frame)
description description
27‐11‐2016

Pathline of a fluid particle is the trajectory of a given fluid particle over a period of time. Streamline is a line that, a one certain moment in time, is tangential to the velocity vector Streakline is the whole of locations at a certain moment in time, of all particles that have
in each of its points. passed a certain point before this moment in time  determined by injection smoke or dye
 Lagrangian approach: following the movement of one particle in its path through  Eulerian approach: focusing on the movement of different particles at one moment in into the flow at a fixed point for an interval of time.
space and time. time.

(1935 test conducted at NASA Langley Research Center's


2 foot Smoke Flow tunnel. The video shows footage of the
stream flow over the body in the tunnel and similar smaller
tunnels) bhhsc.org

MODULE QUESTION Streamtube is a tube formed by streamlines originating and ending on a closed surface. Conservation of mass: the continuity equation
These surfaces form the inlet and the outlet of the stream tube. There is no flow through
In fluid kinematics, a pathline is the trajectory of a particle as it travels through time the walls of a streamtube (see definition of streamline). Incoming mass in a outgoing mass out Increase of mass in the
and space. A streamline is the line that, a one certain moment in time, is tangential volume during dt - a volume during dt = volume during dt
to the velocity vector in each of its points. What is shown in the animation below?
Streamlines
ρ 
A) Pathlines Velocity vectors
A2 In differential form:  divρ v   0
B) Streamlines t
C) Neither pathlines, nor streamlines At a certain instance in time (for transient 
flow), conservation of mass applies for For a steady flow: div ρ v   0
the streamtube.

For an incompressible flow: div v  0
A1
(1935 test conducted at NASA Langley Research Center's 2 foot Smoke Flow tunnel. The video
shows footage of the stream flow over the body in the tunnel and similar smaller tunnels)

Fluid dynamics is the study of the effect of forces on the motion of fluids and vice versa. Navier-Stokes equations Navier-Stokes equations for a homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible, Newtonian fluid:

The equations describing the dynamic behavior of viscous fluids are the Navier-Stokes u  p
 ρ div u v   G x 
Etymology:
equations, named after the Frenchman Navier and the Irishman Stokes that developed the ρ  μ 2u
equations at about the same time but independent of each other.
t x
Dynamics: Greek δυναμικός: “powerful”
v  p
ρ  ρ div v v   G y   μ 2v
Claude-Louis Navier George Gabriel Stokes t y
(1785 – 1836) (1819 – 1903)
w  p
ρ  ρ div w v   G z   μ 2w
t z
where u, v, w = instantaneous fluid velocity components (m/s)
p= instantaneous pressure (Pa)
Gx, Gy, Gz = body forces in x, y and z direction (N/m³)
27‐11‐2016

Navier-Stokes equations for a homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible, Newtonian fluid: Euler equations (homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible, inviscid fluid): Euler equations (homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible, inviscid fluid):

u  p u  p
ρ
 u
 ρ div u v   G 
 p
 μ  2
u ρ  ρ div u v   G x   μ 2u ρ  ρ div u v   G x   μ 2u
 t
x
 x t x t x
v  p v  p
ρ  ρ div v v   G y   μ 2v ρ  ρ div v v   G y   μ 2v
Local change Change in velocity due to Body force Pressure Dissipative t y t y
in velocity due movement in the fluid change viscous forces
w  p w  p
 ρ div w v   G z   ρ div w v   G z 
to change in from one place to another
time ρ  μ 2w ρ  μ 2w
t z t z

Acceleration Forces
where u, v, w = instantaneous fluid velocity components (m/s) where u, v, w = instantaneous fluid velocity components (m/s)
p= instantaneous pressure (Pa) p= instantaneous pressure (Pa)
Gx, Gy, Gz = body forces in x, y and z direction (N/m³) Gx, Gy, Gz = body forces in x, y and z direction (N/m³)

Bernoulli equation Bernoulli equation for steady flow, inviscid fluid, along a streamline with gravity as only Bernoulli equation applied to horizontal section of a column in cross-flow:
external force:
ρ V2
ρ V2 P  ρgh   const.
P  ρgh   const. 2
Daniel Bernoulli 2 P1, A1, V1
(1700 – 1782)
P2, A2, V2 Streamlines • Steady, non-separated flow around a cylinder in a
horizontal cross-section.
Swiss mathematician
static h2 • Streamlines are illustrated  along a streamline, Bernoulli
and physicist
pressure equation is valid.
1
dynamic h1 2
pressure
ρ V12 ρ V22
where P= pressure (Pa) ρ V12 ρ V22 P1  ρ g h 1   P2  ρ g h 2 
h= height (m) P1  ρ g h 1   P2  ρ g h 2  2 2
2 2
V= speed (m/s)

Bernoulli equation applied to horizontal section of a column in cross-flow: Bernoulli equation applied to horizontal section of a column in cross-flow: Bernoulli equation applied to horizontal section of a column in cross-flow:

ρ V2 ρ V2 ρ V2
P  ρgh   const. P  ρgh   const. P  ρgh   const.
2 2 2
Streamlines • Steady, non-separated flow around a cylinder in a Streamlines Speed Static pressure Streamlines Speed Static pressure
horizontal cross-section.
• Streamlines are illustrated  along a streamline, Bernoulli
equation is valid.
1 1 1
2 • Streamline spacing indicates velocity changes  High 2 2
density of streamlines indicates high local speed and low
pressure, and vice versa
Streamline spacing indicates velocity changes There is something “potentially” very wrong with this figure.
 High density of streamlines indicates high local speed
What? See next Modules…
 High density of streamlines indicates low pressure
27‐11‐2016

In this module, we have learned about: In the next module, we will focus on:

• Some aspects of fluid statics • The concept of the boundary layer

• Some aspects of fluid kinematics • The difference between a laminar and a turbulent boundary layer
• How skin friction is influenced by the type of boundary layer
• Some aspects of fluid dynamics

• The differences between the Navier-Stokes equations, the Euler equations and the
Bernoulli equation

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any 
means without the prior written permission of the author.

“The roots of education are bitter,


but the fruit is sweet.”

Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), Greek


philosopher and polymath

MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 7 References


A ball with a smooth surface is launched in the air. First with a flow Reynolds At the end of this module, you will: Part of the information in this Module was obtained from the following text books, which
number that yields laminar flow in the boundary layer, next with a flow Reynolds are recommended reading material:
number that yields turbulent flow in the boundary layer. In which case is the friction • Understand the concept of the boundary layer
at the surface the highest? • Kundu P.K., Cohen, I.M., 2004. Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition, Elsevier
• Understand the difference between a laminar and a turbulent boundary layer
A) In the laminar case • White F.M., 2007. Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill
B) In the turbulent case • Understand how skin friction is influenced by the type of boundary layer
C) Equal in both cases
.
27‐11‐2016

Paradox of d’Alembert Paradox of d’Alembert Boundary layer concept

Bernoulli equation applied to horizontal section of a column in cross-flow: Pressure distribution around the circumference of a column in horizontal cross-flow: • Ludwig Prandtl, German Engineer

ρ V2 1
P  ρgh   const. U 
2 P-P < 0
0
Streamlines Speed P P
Streamlines
²
0.5ρU∞
P-P > 0
U
-1 P-P > 0

DLR CC-BY 3.0


-2 P-P < 0
Ludwig Prandtl
(1875-1953)
Streamline spacing indicates velocity changes -3  Resulting force = 0
 High density of streamlines indicates high local speed 0° 45° 90° 135° 180°
 Contradiction with experiments
 High density of streamlines indicates low pressure Angle  (° from upstream stagnation point)

Prandtl kanal Boundary layer concept Boundary layer concept

Prandtl’s research water • 1904: Ludwig Prandtl: presentation in important paper “Uber • Hypothesis: for low viscosity, the viscous forces are negligible
tunnel in Hannover. Flüssigkeitsbewegung bei sehr kleiner Reibung” (“On the everywhere in the flow around an object except close to the
motion of fluids with very little friction”) at the third International solid boundaries where the no-slip condition applies.
Congress of Mathematicians in Heidelberg, Germany, on
August 12, 1904.

DLR CC-BY 3.0 DLR CC-BY 3.0

Ludwig Prandtl Ludwig Prandtl


(1875-1953) (1875-1953)

Boundary layer concept Boundary layer concept Definition of the boundary layer (thickness)
• Hypothesis: for low viscosity, the viscous forces are negligible • Thickness of these boundary layers approaches zero as the viscosity goes to Can be based on u = 0.99U thickness: 99
everywhere in the flow around an object except close to the zero.  Distance from the wall where the longitudinal velocity reaches 99% of the
solid boundaries where the no-slip condition applies. free-stream velocity.
• Outside the boundary layer the flow is essentially inviscid.  Arbitrary definition
• Explains drag, flow separation, etc.

DLR CC-BY 3.0 99


Ludwig Prandtl
(1875-1953)
27‐11‐2016

Variation of boundary layer thickness with flow Re number Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate
Rex,cr is the flow Reynolds number based on the downstream Rex,cr is the flow Reynolds number based on the downstream
δ 1  
distance x and the undisturbed approach-flow speed U: , distance x and the undisturbed approach-flow speed U: ,
~  
L Re Laminar  Sporadic vortexlike instabilities  Fully turbulent (more rapid growth)

Where
δ is the average thickness of the boundary layer over the length of the body in the
flow
L is the characteristic streamwise length of the body direction (over which the
streamwise flow speed changes considerably) (Figure shows boundary layer (Figure shows boundary layer
Re is the flow Reynolds number based on L and the free-stream speed U height but not to scale) height but not to scale)

 Thickness of boundary layer decreases with increasing Re

Example: heat transfer from the skin

Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate Structure of the turbulent boundary layer Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate
Laminar versus turbulent boundary layer:
• Different velocity profile outer layer
• Different boundary layer growth rate (fully turbulent)
• Different shear stress (skin friction)
Log-law layer
inner layer
(viscous effects present) Buffer layer
Linear sub-layer (viscous layer)

Linear sub-layer (viscous layer): very close to the wall: viscous effects dominate the
(u/y)turb > (u/y)lam flow
(w)turb > (w)lam
Buffer layer: intermediate layer between the linear sub-layer and the log-law layer where
the viscous and turbulent effects are about equally important
w = (u/y) Log-law layer: inertial effects are dominant over viscous effects
LAMINAR TURBULENT http://fdrc.iit.edu/research/images/TurbulentBoundaryLayer.jpg

Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate: transition to turbulence
Turbulent boundary layer Near-wall region of a turbulent Rex,cr varies widely with:
(flow from left to right) boundary layer with low-speed • surface roughness (Rex,cr decreases if roughness increases)
Visualized with Laser-Induced streaks • intensity of fluctuations in the free-stream flow (Rex,cr decreases if fluctuations
Fluorescence (LIF) (flow from left to right) increase)
Visualized with Laser-Induced • shape of the leading edge
Fluorescence (LIF)

Courtesy of Gad-el-Hak, School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth Courtesy of Gad-el-Hak, School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth
University, http://www.people.vcu.edu/~gadelhak/ University, http://www.people.vcu.edu/~gadelhak/
27‐11‐2016

Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate: transition to turbulence Drag coefficient (skin friction) over a flat plate Drag coefficient (skin friction) over a flat plate
Re < 6 x 104: laminar boundary layer; irrespective of disturbances As a function of Re number (based on L): Re = UL/ As a function of Re number (based on L): Re = UL/
Lower curve: for laminar boundary layer over entire length of the plate Lower curve: for laminar boundary layer over entire length of the plate
Re > 4 x 106: turbulent transition is complete (usually already much earlier) Upper curve: for turbulent boundary layer over entire length of the plate Upper curve: for turbulent boundary layer over entire length of the plate
Transition in figure is at 5 x 105 Transition in figure is at 5 x 105
-210 -210
THIS IS FOR A FLAT PLATE!
CD =  With zero thickness
. ² 5 x 10-3 5 x 10-3

CD CD

2 x 10-3 2 x 10-3

10-3 10-3
105 106 107 108 109 105 106 107 108 109
Re (w)lam < (w)turb Re

MODULE QUESTION MODULE QUESTION In this module, we have learned about:


A ball with a smooth surface is launched in the air. First with a flow Reynolds A ball with a smooth surface is launched in the air. First with a flow Reynolds • The concept of the boundary layer
number that yields laminar flow in the boundary layer, next with a flow Reynolds number that yields laminar flow in the boundary layer, next with a flow Reynolds
number that yields turbulent flow in the boundary layer. In which case is the friction number that yields turbulent flow in the boundary layer. In which case is the friction • The difference between a laminar and a turbulent boundary layer
at the surface the highest? at the surface the highest?
• How skin friction or skin friction drag (not form drag!) is influenced by the type of
A) In the laminar case A) In the laminar case boundary layer
B) In the turbulent case B) In the turbulent case
C) Equal in both cases C) Equal in both cases

(w)lam < (w)turb

In the next module, we will focus on:

• The concept of flow separation


• How flow separation is influenced by the type of body (bluff versus streamlined)
• How flow separation is influenced by the type of boundary layer (laminar versus
turbulent)
• How the flow around a circular cylinder changes as a function of the Reynolds
number
• Two interesting counter-intuitive aspects on boundary layers and flow separation
27‐11‐2016

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 8


Two movies of separated flow around a circular cylinder at a certain (but not yet
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any  communicated) Reynolds number. Which statement is correct? At the end of this module, you will:
A) Flow (1) and (2) are both laminar
means without the prior written permission of the author. • Understand the concept of flow separation
B) Flow (1) and (2) are both turbulent
C) Flow (1) is laminar and flow (2) is turbulent • Understand how flow separation is influenced by the type of body (bluff versus
D) Flow (1) is turbulent and flow (2) is laminar streamlined)
(1) (2)
• Understand how flow separation is influenced by the type of boundary layer
(laminar versus turbulent)

Velocity magnitude
• Understand how the flow around a circular cylinder changes as a function of the
Reynolds number
• Understand two interesting counter-intuitive aspects on boundary layers and flow
separation

Flow separation Flow separation Flow separation: adverse pressure gradient


Module 7 on flow over the flat plate was for zero pressure gradient in external flow. Flow separation depends on: A steep pressure gradient leads to fast separation (see bluff body: building/cyclist)
For example in case of a curved surface, positive and negative pressure gradients can • Adverse pressure gradient A weak pressure gradient can delay separation: therefore trailing sections should get a
occur. These pressure gradients influence the boundary layer profile. streamlined shape (gradual reduction in size).
• Geometry of the flow
 decelerating flow, boundary layer Inflection point • Whether the boundary layer is laminar or turbulent dP/dx >> 0 dP/dx > 0
thickness increases rapidly and point dP/dx > 0
of inflection occurs (²U/y² = 0).
x
 Reverse direction and backward
flow (= separation) downstream of
point S where shear stress is zero:
(U/y)wall = 0.
Separation Reverse
point flow

Flow separation: adverse pressure gradient Flow separation: adverse pressure gradient Flow separation: adverse pressure gradient
For bluff bodies with sharp edges (such as buildings) flow separation occurs at these For bluff bodies without sharp edges (such as cyclists), flow separation occurs For streamlined bodies (such as airplane wings), flow separation can be absent (except
edges: somewhere on the surface: in special cases – e.g. angles of attack)

(1935 test conducted at NASA


Langley Research Center's 2
foot Smoke Flow tunnel. The
video shows footage of the
stream flow over the body in
the tunnel and similar smaller
tunnels).
27‐11‐2016

Resisting flow separation: laminar versus turbulent boundary layer Resisting flow separation: laminar versus turbulent boundary layer Resisting flow separation: laminar versus turbulent boundary layer
Turbulent boundary layer can easier withstand adverse pressure gradient and therefore Turbulent boundary layer can easier withstand adverse pressure gradient and therefore Turbulent boundary layer can easier withstand adverse pressure gradient and therefore
delays flow separation: velocity profile is “fuller” and has more energy. delays flow separation: velocity profile is “fuller” and has more energy. delays flow separation: velocity profile is “fuller” and has more energy.
Example: circular cylinder: laminar boundary layer separates at 82° and turbulent Example: circular cylinder: laminar boundary layer separates at 82° and turbulent
boundary layer only at 125° boundary layer only at 125°
Re = 105 - Laminar BL Re = 106 - Turbulent BL
Separation (on average) around 82° Separation (on average)
around 125°

Velocity magnitude
Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating)
Low Reynolds number: 1 < Re < 4 Low Reynolds number: 4 < Re < 40
• Symmetrical flow pattern • Two small attached or “standing” vortices occur downstream of the cylinder
• Not very pronounced transient behavior • Flow in the wake is fully laminar
• No clear separation • Vortices behave like “rollers” over which the main flow occurs
• Vortices get more elongated as Re increases
Re = 1 Re = 10

Velocity magnitude

Velocity magnitude
Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating)
Low Reynolds number: 80 < Re < 200 Low Reynolds number: 200 < Re < 5000 High Reynolds number: Re < 3 x 105
• Vortex street that interacts with the pair of attached vortices. • Vortex street becomes unstable and irregular • Boundary layer remains laminar but wake can be fully turbulent
• Periodic vortex shedding causes an oscillating lift force. • Flow within the vortices themselves becomes chaotic • Laminar boundary layer separates at 82° from the forward stagnation point
• Frequency n is given by Strouhal number: St = nD/U (= 0.21 for circular cylinder for • However still with clear frequency component with St = 0.21 • Pressure in wake is nearly constant and lower than upstream pressure
wide range of Re). • Drag coefficient remains constant at about CD = 1.2
• Vortices in the wake are laminar, down to very large distance downstream. Re = 105 - Laminar BL
Re = 1000 Re = 1000
Re = 200
Velocity magnitude

Vorticity magnitude

Velocity magnitude
Velocity magnitude
27‐11‐2016

Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating)
High Reynolds number: 3 x 105 < Re < 3 x 106 High Reynolds number: 3 x 105 < Re < 3 x 106 High Reynolds number: 3 x 106 < Re
• Laminar boundary layer becomes unstable and experiences transition to turbulence • Laminar boundary layer becomes unstable and experiences transition to turbulence • Separation point slowly moves upstream with increasing Re, causing increase in CD
• Turbulent boundary layer separates at 125° from the forward stagnation point • Turbulent boundary layer separates at 125° from the forward stagnation point
• Pressure in wake is higher than with laminar boundary layer • Pressure in wake is higher than with laminar boundary layer
• Drag coefficient suddenly drops to CD = 0.33 • Drag coefficient suddenly drops to CD = 0.33
Re = 106 - Turbulent BL

Comments:

Velocity magnitude
• Recr at which transition from laminar to turbulent occurs is strongly influenced by
roughness of the surface and intensity of fluctuations in the free-stream, which
decrease Recr.
• Recr = 3 x 105 is for smooth cylinder with low level of fluctuations in free-stream.

Two counter-intuitive aspects (Kundu & Cohen 2004) Two counter-intuitive aspects (Kundu & Cohen 2004) Two counter-intuitive aspects (Kundu & Cohen 2004)
1) Small causes can have large effects. Consider a given body (d) and speed (U): 1) Small causes can have large effects. Consider a given body (d) and speed (U):
 no boundary layer  very steep boundary layer  weak slope Zero viscosity  Low viscosity  High viscosity
 zero drag  non-zero drag  higher drag  no boundary layer  very steep boundary layer  weak slope
 zero skin friction  high skin friction  lower skin friction  zero skin friction  high skin friction  lower skin friction

1 = 0 2  0  3 > v2 4 >> 0
U Inviscid Highly turbulent Moderately turbulent Laminar
d

Two counter-intuitive aspects (Kundu & Cohen 2004) Two counter-intuitive aspects (Kundu & Cohen 2004) MODULE QUESTION
Two movies of separated flow around a circular cylinder at a certain (but not yet
1) Small causes can have large effects. Consider a given body (d) and speed (U): 2) Symmetric problems can have asymmetric solutions communicated) Reynolds number. Which statement is correct?
Zero viscosity  Low viscosity  High viscosity Also addressed briefly in Module 4: A) Flow (1) and (2) are both laminar
 no boundary layer  very steep boundary layer  weak slope B) Flow (1) and (2) are both turbulent
 zero skin friction  high skin friction  lower skin friction Forcing symmetry in numerical simulations will not provide a realistic solution. C) Flow (1) is laminar and flow (2) is turbulent
D) Flow (1) is turbulent and flow (2) is laminar
(1) Re = 1000 (2) Re = 105
1 = 0 2  0  3 > v2 4 >> 0
Inviscid Highly turbulent Moderately turbulent Laminar

Velocity magnitude
27‐11‐2016

In this module, we have learned about: In the next module, we will focus on:

• The concept of flow separation • The effect of flow separation on aerodynamic drag
• How flow separation is influenced by the type of body (bluff body versus streamlined) • How boundary layers and boundary layer separation influence form drag and skin
friction drag
• How flow separation is influenced by the type of boundary layer (laminar versus
turbulent) • An interesting counter-intuitive aspect about aerodynamic drag
• How the flow around a circular cylinder changes as a function of the Reynolds
number
• Two interesting counter-intuitive aspects on boundary layers and flow separation

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  MODULE QUESTION


A ball with a smooth surface is launched at a flow Reynolds number of about
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any  400,000. When the same size of ball but with a rougher surface will be launched
means without the prior written permission of the author. at the same flow Reynolds number, this rougher ball:
A) Will fly less far than the smooth ball
B) Will fly equally far as the smooth ball
C) Will fly farther than the smooth ball

LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 9 Consequences of flow separation Consequences of flow separation

At the end of this module, you will: For bluff body, due to separation For a streamlined body:
• Understand the effect of flow separation on aerodynamic drag
Often: form drag >> skin friction drag Often: skin friction >> form drag
• Understand how boundary layers and boundary layer separation influence form drag
and skin friction drag
• Understand an interesting counter-intuitive aspect about aerodynamic drag
27‐11‐2016

P-P < 0
Consequences of flow separation Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating)
Pressure distribution P-P > 0
Pressure distribution
Example: cyclist in time-trial position: U
1 P-P > 0 1

93% form drag U  U 

7% skin friction drag 0 P-P < 0 0


Re = 7 x 105 (Turbulent)
P P P P Better pressure
²
0.5ρU∞ ²
0.5ρU∞ recovery in turbulent
-1
Re = 2 x 105 (Laminar) -1
Re = 2 x 105 (Laminar) case!
P-P < 0

-2 P-P > 0 -2
U
irrotational irrotational
-3 -3
0° 45° 90° 135° 180° 0° 45° 90° 135° 180°
Angle  (° from upstream stagnation point) Angle  (° from upstream stagnation point)

Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) P-P < 0 Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating)
Pressure distribution P-P > 0 Drag coefficient Drag coefficient
U
1
100 Two reasons for this drop:
U 
U
0 1) Narrower wake in turbulent case because of later flow
Re = 7 x 105 (Turbulent) 10 Transition of boundary
P P separation
D layer from laminar to
²
0.5ρU∞ CD = 
² d turbulent
-1 0.5ρU∞
Re = 2 x 105 (Laminar)
1
P-P < 0

-2 P-P > 0
U
0.1
0.1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106
irrotational
Re = Ud/
-3
0° 45° 90° 135° 180°
Laminar Turbulent
Angle  (° from upstream stagnation point)

Flow around a circular cylinder (non-rotating) Flow around a sphere (non-rotating) Flow around a sphere (non-rotating)
Drag coefficient Behavior of boundary layer is similar to circular cylinder: transition to turbulence occurs
at Recr  5 x 105
Two reasons for this drop:
Separation point moves upstream for postcritical Re, causing increase in CD.
1) Narrower wake in turbulent case because of later flow No vortex street, but ringlike vortex at low Re that starts oscillating and breaks off for
separation higher Re.
2) Better pressure recovery in the turbulent wake

 Skin friction is higher in turbulent boundary


layer but aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies is
mainly form drag with only a small part of friction
drag!
27‐11‐2016

Flow around a sphere (non-rotating) MODULE QUESTION Counter-intuitive aspect (Kundu & Cohen 2004)
Drag coefficient A ball with a smooth surface is launched at a flow Reynolds number of about Rougher surfaces can have a lower drag
400,000. When the same type of ball but with a rougher surface will be launched
100 at the same flow Reynolds number, this rougher ball: For a range of Re, roughening the surface of a bluff body can decrease its form drag
U and also the total drag.
A) Will fly less far than the smooth ball
B) Will fly equally far as the smooth ball This holds for bluff (non-streamlined) bodies, where form drag is much larger than friction
10
Transition of boundary C) Will fly farther than the smooth ball drag. Reason  transition of the boundary layer from lam. to turb.
CD layer from laminar to
turbulent  Lower form drag due to turbulent Reasons: rougher surface  turbulent boundary layer:
1
boundary layer 1. Narrower wake
2. More complete pressure recovery in this wake.
0.1
Both effects reduce the drag.
0.1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106
Re = Ud/

MODULE QUESTION EXTRA QUESTION In this module, we have learned about:


 Reason why a golf ball with dimples flies farther Why have bicycle time-trial helmets with dimples (which were very popular at • The effect of flow separation on aerodynamic drag
some time) now almost completely disappeared?
Turbulent boundary • How boundary layers and boundary layer separation influence form drag and skin
Separation layer Possible reasons: friction drag
Separation • Reynolds numbers could be too high so boundary layer is turbulent anyway:
Transition • An interesting counter-intuitive aspect about aerodynamic drag
Re = (18 m/s x 0.3 m) / (1.46 x 10-5 m²/s) = 3.7 x 105
• Surface of helmet is only very small fraction of
total surface of cyclist and bicycle.
• For stream-lined components, form drag becomes
relatively smaller and friction drag higher: than
Laminar dimples could have a negative effect.
boundary layer Laminar
boundary layer

ebay.co.uk

In the next module, we will focus on:

• Some basic aspects about the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)


• The concept of neutral stratification
• The typical profiles of mean wind speed and turbulence intensity in the neutral ABL
• How the aerodynamic roughness length can be practically estimated
27‐11‐2016

© 2014, Bert Blocken, Eindhoven University of Technology.  MODULE QUESTION LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR MODULE 10


The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer where the atmosphere is At the end of this module, you will:
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any  directly influenced by the surface of the earth (by friction and thermal effects).
means without the prior written permission of the author. Which statement is correct? • Understand some basic aspects about the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)
A) The ABL is higher during the day than at night • Understand the concept of neutral stratification
B) The ABL is equally high during day and night
C) The ABL is higher during the night than during the day • Understand the typical profiles of mean wind speed and turbulence intensity in the
neutral ABL
• Understand how the aerodynamic roughness length can be practically estimated

References Neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over a uniformly rough, level surface Definition
Only some very basic aspects on the ABL are given in this module, i.e. those most and The atmospheric boundary layer
directly relevant to Sports & Building Aerodynamics. More information can be found in or planetary boundary layer (PBL) is
many excellent books, e.g. (non complete list): the lowest part of the atmosphere
which forms due to the direct
• Garratt, J.R. 1994. The atmospheric boundary layer. Cambridge University Press. interactions between the atmosphere
• Kaimal, J.C., Finnigan, J.J. 1994. Atmospheric boundary layer flows: their structure and the underlying surface (land or
and measurement. Oxford University Press. sea) over time scales of one day or
• Stull, R.B. 1988. An introduction to boundary layer meteorology. Kluwer Academic less.
Publishers.
• Panofsky H.A., Dutton, J.A. 1984. Atmospheric turbulence: models and methods for Lowest part (10%) of the
engineering applications. Wiley. troposphere
• Plate, E. 1982. Engineering meteorology: fundamentals of meteorology and their
application to problems in environmental and civil engineering. Elsevier.

http://ds9.ssl.berkeley.edu
Profiles of mean wind speed over different terrain (Davenport 1967)

Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics


Depth: 100 m – 3 km Depth: 100 m – 3 km Depth: 100 m – 3 km
 0.01% of earth radius (thin shell)  0.01% of earth radius (thin shell)  0.01% of earth radius (thin shell)
 Varies in space and time  Varies in space and time  Varies in space and time
Temperature: varies diurnally, unlike Temperature: varies diurnally, unlike
in free atmosphere above in free atmosphere above
Surface forcing: by friction and heat Surface forcing: by friction and heat
fluxes at the ground (land/sea) fluxes at the ground (land/sea)
• Day: solar radiation heats up
earth surface and then also ABL Turbulence: generated by wind
• Night: nocturnal radiation cools shear and generated or suppressed
earth surface and then also ABL by temperature gradients

www.grc.nasa.gov
Courtesy of John Garratt Courtesy of John Garratt
27‐11‐2016

Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics: ABL versus free atmosphere


Depth: 100 m – 3 km Cfr. Prandtl’s concept of the boundary layer: the layer in which the fluid speed Atmospheric boundary layer Free atmosphere
 0.01% of earth radius (thin shell) increases from zero near or at the surface to a maximum (and almost constant value).
 Varies in space and time This height is called “gradient height”. At this height: geostrophic wind. Depth Variable between 100 m – 3 km in Less variable between 8 – 18 km
time and space with diurnal and slow variations
Temperature: varies diurnally, unlike variations over land
in free atmosphere above Mean wind speed Near-logarithmic in surface layer Nearly geostrophic
Surface forcing: by friction and heat Turbulence Present over entire depth Laminar to low/sporadic
fluxes at the ground (land/sea) turbulence

Turbulence: generated by wind Vertical transport Turbulence dominated Mean wind flow dominated (slow
vertical transport)
shear and generated or suppressed
by temperature gradients Dispersion Rapid in vertical and horizontal Molecular diffusion. Rapid
direction due to turbulent mixing horizontal transport by mean wind
Presence of clouds: (fair-weather
cumulus, stratocumulus and fog) CC SA 2.0 – Michael Jastremski Profiles of mean wind speed over different terrain (Davenport 1967)

Diurnal variation of the ABL Diurnal variation of the ABL Diurnal variation of the ABL
(clear sky) (clear sky) (clear sky)
End of night: Start of day: End of day:
• Shallow nocturnal BL in which • Solar radiation heats up earth • Sunset stops heating of the ABL
mixing is caused by wind friction. surface which heats up the ABL • New NBL develops
• Depth depends on wind velocity from below
and surface roughness • Convective motions override wind-
• Depth generally below 300 m shear turbulence  convective
• Air above NBL is lightly stratified BL that develops upward
due to heat loss to space during • Wind-induced turbulence is much
night weaker than convection-induced
turbulence except in the surface
layer
• Surface layer: more or less equal
intensity of wind-induced and
Adapted from Garratt (1992) convection-induced turbulence Adapted from Garratt (1992) Adapted from Garratt (1992)

Diurnal variation of the ABL MODULE QUESTION Meteorological scales


(clear sky)
The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer where the atmosphere is directly 1. Synoptic scale (L > 2000 km)
So what about strong winds? influenced by the surface of the earth (by friction and thermal effects). Which
• In strong winds, the thermal statement is correct? 2. Mesoscale -  (200 km < L < 2000 km)
effects are generally negligible. Set of well-known
A) The ABL is higher during the day than at night 3. Mesoscale -  (20 km < L < 200 km)
• This the important and very meteorological spatial scales
basic concept on which almost all B) The ABL is equally high during day and night 4. Mesoscale -  (2 km < L < 20 km)
wind tunnel testing in Wind C) The ABL is higher during the night than during the day
5. Microscale (L < 2 km) (L < 5 – 10 km)
Engineering relies, and most CFD
simulations in Computational Wind
Engineering.

Adapted from Garratt (1992)


27‐11‐2016

Meteorological scales Meteorological scales Meteorological scales

Synoptic scale (L > 2000 km): Scale of largest cyclones Mesoscale (2 km < L < 2000 km): Weather systems between synoptic scale and larger Microscale (L < 2 – 10 km): Atmospheric phenomena such as small cloud structures,
than microscale: mesocyclones, orographic effects, land-sea breezes, … mixing and dilution, surface heat and mass transfer between soil/vegetation/water surface
and atmospheric, near-ground turbulence effects, …

earthobservatory.nasa.gov Mesoscale cyclone in Mediterranean-Adriatic sea (www.storm2k.org) (Janssen, Blocken, van Hooff 2013)

Meteorological scales Meteorological scales Meteorological scales

Microscale (L < 2 – 10 km): Atmospheric phenomena such as small cloud structures, 1. Synoptic scale (L > 2000 km) 1. Synoptic scale (L > 2000 km)
mixing and dilution, surface heat and mass transfer between soil/vegetation/water surface
and atmospheric, near-ground turbulence effects, … 2. Mesoscale -  (200 km < L < 2000 km) 2. Mesoscale -  (200 km < L < 2000 km)
Set of well-known Mesoscale Meteorological
3. Mesoscale -  (20 km < L < 200 km) 3. Mesoscale -  (20 km < L < 200 km)
meteorological spatial scales Models (MMM)
4. Mesoscale -  (2 km < L < 20 km) 4. Mesoscale -  (2 km < L < 20 km)
Microscale Meteorological
5. Microscale (L < 2 km) (L < 5 – 10 km) 5. Microscale (L < 2 km) (L < 5 – 10 km)
Models (CFD)
6. Building scale (L < 100 m) 6. Building scale (L < 100 m) Building Energy Simulation
Models (BES)
Additional scales in building
7. Building component scale (L < 10 m) physics 7. Building component scale (L < 10 m) Building Envelope Heat-Air-
Moisture Transfer Models (BE-
8. Building material scale 8. Building material scale HAM
(Blocken et al. 2009)

Meteorological scales Meteorological scales Neutral ABL over uniformly rough, level terrain
(Schlünzen et al. 2011,
1. Synoptic scale (L > 2000 km) based on Orlanski 1975)
2. Mesoscale -  (200 km < L < 2000 km)
Mesoscale Meteorological
3. Mesoscale -  (20 km < L < 200 km)
Models (MMM)
4. Mesoscale -  (2 km < L < 20 km)
Microscale Meteorological
5. Microscale (L < 2 km) (L < 5 – 10 km)
Models (CFD)
6. Building scale (L < 100 m) Building Energy Simulation
Models (BES)
7. Building component scale (L < 10 m) Building Envelope Heat-Air-
Moisture Transfer Models (BE-
8. Building material scale HAM
27‐11‐2016

Neutral ABL over uniformly rough, level terrain Neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over a uniformly rough, level surface Neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over a uniformly rough, level surface
In absence of substantial thermal processes (adiabatic lapse rate), the ABL is called u ABL  z  z 0  How to determine z0 and  ?
neutral or neutrally stratified. Mean wind speed in the surface layer can then be Uz   ln 
described by the simple log law or the power law: κ  z0  Surface z0 (m)  zG
Log law Power law α Rough sea 0.003 0.11 250
U(z)  z 
u ABL  z  z 0  U(z)  z 
α
   Prairie, farmland 0.03 0.16 300
Uz   ln     U ref  z ref 
κ  z0  U ref  z ref  Forest, suburbs 0.3 0.28 400
City centres 3 0.40 500
where U(z) = wind speed at height z
u*ABL = friction velocity How to determine z0 and  ? From A.G. Davenport, Boundary-Layer Wind-Tunnel Laboratory, UWO, Canada

= von Karman constant ( 0.4 – 0.42)


z0 = aerodynamic roughness length
Uref = reference wind speed at reference height zref
= power-law exponent

Roughness classification by Davenport, updated by Wieringa (1992) Practical assessment of roughness category Neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over a uniformly rough, level surface
α
• Based on land use u ABL  z  z 0  U(z)  z 
• Based on upstream distance of 5 – 10 km Uz   ln    
κ  z0  U ref  z ref 
• Example:
Important comments/limitations:
- Log law is strictly only valid for flow over uniformly rough terrain. In reality: never
uniformly rough
- Log law is not valid for flow around individual roughness elements (obstacles) such as
buildings

Neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over a uniformly rough, level surface Neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over a uniformly rough, level surface ABL flow over a 2D roughness change
α (a)
u ABL  z  z 0  U(z)  z  A C
Uz   ln     Turbulence intensity profiles:
κ  z0  U ref  z ref  WIND transitional region D H
• Strong decrease with height
Important comments/limitations: • Example for  = 0.125: see figure IBL
E G
- Log law is strictly only valid for flow over uniformly rough terrain. In reality: never B F
uniformly rough roughness length y0,1 O roughness length y0,2 << y0,1
- Log law is not valid for flow around individual roughness elements (obstacles) such as
buildings y y
(b) A
- Log law is only the average representation of the wind speed over rough terrain U(y) U(y) C
- Log law provides the profile of mean horizontal wind speed over irregular, rough u *ABL,1(y)
surfaces (e.g. towns, forests) above a certain height where there is no influence D
u*ABL,1(y)
anymore of the individual roughness elements on the flow
E
- Log law describes the vertical wind profile that is formed after having experienced a
U(y) U(y)
rough terrain with a fetch of at least 5 km. B
u*ABL(y)
F
u*ABL(y)
u*ABL,2(y)
27‐11‐2016

ABL flow over a 2D roughness change Wind velocity measurements in the ABL Wind velocity measurements in the ABL

Jensen et al. (1984) proposed the following formula for the IBL height hIBL: Standard measurements Time resolution and averaging/reporting intervals

x 
0.8 Increase of wind speed with height  measurements over open terrain are taken at a Settings: 1 minute to much less than 1 second (1 Hz)
h IBL
 0.3    standard height of z = 10 m (WMO)
y 0  y0  Averaging: mean wind speed: 10 min to 1 hour: wind speed power spectrum
Standard measurements are: (Van der Hoven 1957)
- Mean horizontal wind speed (m/s)
where y0+ is the largest of the two roughness lengths and x is the downstream distance. - Wind direction (degree clockwise from north)
(= the direction from which the wind blows!)
For example, if y0+ = 0.5 m, a downstream distance of 1.7 km is required before the IBL
reaches a height of 100 m.

In this module, we have learned about: In this week on “Basic aspects of fluid flow”, we have learned about:
• Some basic aspects of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) • Important physical properties such as density and viscosity
• The concept of neutral stratification • Why the location of the velodrome is important for world hour records in cycling
• The typical profiles of mean wind speed and turbulence intensity in the neutral ABL • Why turbulent flows are so complex, and why there is not yet a good definition of
turbulence
• How the aerodynamic roughness length can be practically estimated
• Boundary layers, including the special case of the atmospheric boundary layer, in
which Sports & Building Aerodynamics take place

 This week provided the basic background for the rest of the course “The roots of education are bitter,
but the fruit is sweet.”

Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), Greek


philosopher and polymath

In the next week (Week 2),


we will focus on:

Wind-tunnel testing