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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)

ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]


*Rashmi V N, **Varun Kumar G, ***Rashmi S,

* Student, Dept. of Industrial Engg. &ManagementJSS Academy of Technical Education, Bengaluru - 560060
**Student, Global Academy of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bengaluru – 560098
***Assistant Professor, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Dept. of Industrial Engg. &Management, Bengaluru


A dual clutch transmission (DCT) is a type of automatic transmission featured with a dual-clutch module and two
input shafts. A DCT is able to provide a high-quality gear shifting with a gear pre-selection procedure and
overlapping of clutch engagement. The gear pre-selection procedure means that the synchronization of the
oncoming gear has been completed before the actual gear shifting procedure starts. And due to the overlapping
mechanism of the two clutches, torque is transferred from the engine to the driving wheels without interruption
during gear shifting. Therefore, it provides a rapid gear shifting without sacrificing fuel efficiency and riding
comfort. In addition, with a precisely computed and accurately controlled slippage of the dual-clutch module, the
DCT is able to provide a fast and smooth gear shifting. The performance of a DCT during gear shifting relies on a
well-designed clutch engagement controller which should be able to achieve fast clutch-to-clutch shifting and
smooth gear shifting without noticeable torque disturbance.

Keywords—Dual, Clutch, Transmission, Synchronizer, clutch to clutch shift, paddle

Engine known as heart of automobile system produces the power required to drive the automobile. But every time the
complete power generated by the engine cannot be utilized to the fullest to run the automobile at a constant speed. If
so were to be used then the automobile should be driven at a constant speed from the start, which is a contradictory
situation. While driving an automobile lot of power (torque) is required to initiate from rest. Hence it starts at low
speed and when the Speed from the start, which is a contradictory situation. While driving an automobile lot of power
(torque) is required to initiate from rest. Hence it starts at low speed and when the Vehicle attains sustainable
momentum the speed of the vehicle increases without requirement of much torque. This can be analysed from Eq. 1,

Power=Torque x Speed (1)

Hence to control the application of power from engine rotating at thousands of RPM in order to control the speed
available at the vehicle wheels and to transmit power through right angle drive, because the crankshaft and rear axle
are normally at right angles to each other the transmission system plays a vital role. [1]

A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages the transmission of power from the engine to the

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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)
ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]


Basically the transmission system is of three types:

• Manual transmission

• Semi-automatic transmission

• Automatic transmission

2.1 Manual transmission: Manual transmission is the most widely used system in automobiles. The major
reasons for this are- it is cheaper, can be easily manufactured, flexible, faults can be detected and rectified easily etc.
comparatively to other systems. In this system a clutch pedal is facilitated for the driver in order to change the speed
of the vehicle by disengaging the transmission system from the engine and shifting among various gears in order to
achieve various gear ratios. During the shifting of gears there is an interruption of power (torque gap) from the engine
causing uncomfortable in the drive. The typical block diagram of manual power transmission system is as shown

Fig. 1.Manual transmission

The transmission system in brief is a speed varying mechanism, which is a compact arrangement of combinational
gears mounted on several shafts coupled with clutch.

2.2 Automatic transmission system: Automatic transmission system is the most advanced transmission system
in automobile field. In this system unlike manual transmission there is no clutch pedal. The shifting of the gears takes
place automatically according to the speed and torque controlled by sensors, actuators, hydraulic systems. Unlike
manual transmission system in automatic transmission system the same set of gears produces all of the different gear
ratios. The planetary gear set is the device that makes this possible in an automatic transmission. The block diagram of
automatic transmission system is shown below

Fig. 2.Automatic transmission

2.3 Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT):DCT is also termed as semi-automatic / automated manual / clutch less
manual transmission. The credit of inventing dual clutch transmission goes to Adolphe Kegresse. This is the type of
transmission intermediate between automatic and manual transmission system. The problem of power interruption
(torque gap) is overcome in this system. Typically this system consists of two clutches either dry or wet, one
controlling odd gears and the other even gears with the idler. In addition to this the clutch pedal is eliminated whose
job is done by electro-hydraulic actuator system. The main advantage of this system is the synchronization of the
upcoming gear before changing and there by transmitting continuous power to the drive system. The block diagram of
dual clutch transmission is shown below. [2]

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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)
ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]

Fig. 3.Dual Clutch Transmission


A dual clutch transmission system consists of the following main parts
3.1 Multi plate clutches:
Similar to the manual transmission system the DCT also consists of clutch plates. They are two in number which are
either dry or wet in a single housing coupled to driven shafts. DCTs currently on the market use wet multi-plate
clutches. A "wet" clutch is one that bathes the clutch components in lubricating fluid to reduce friction and limit the
production of heat.

3.2 Drive shafts :

Unlike other transmission which consists of single solid shaft connecting the transmission system and wheel axle the
DCT system holds two shafts from the transmission system to the wheel axel concentrically. Among the two shafts
one being solid (inner shaft) and the other being hollow (outer shaft). The solid shaft transmits power from engine to
the odd gears and the hollow shaft transmits to the even gears or vice versa according to the design of the clutch and
gear housing.

3.3 Gear arrangement :

Gears being the most useful component of transmission system are required in order to extract high torque from high
speed engine to overcome gradient resistance and during starting even though they are performed at low speeds.
When the vehicle is running at high speed it does not require much torque because of the momentum gained from

This mechanism of controlling the speed and torque according to the road conditions is done by gear
arrangements by maintaining the suitable gear ratios. The basic relation used in designing the gears and maintain the
appropriate ratio is given in Eq. 2.

N2/N1=T1/T2 (2)

If N₁ and N₂ are the speed of driver and driven respectively and T₁ and T₂ are the number of teeth on driver and
driven respectively, to obtain a specific speed at the driven (wheels) from the engine (driver) rotating at high speed
the driver gear is designed with a less number teeth compared to the driven gear in order maintain T₁/T₂ ratio less
than unity.

3.4 Synchronizers:
Synchronizers are the key elements and centralized components in the Double Clutch Transmission systems featuring
interfaces to the output. In common to synchronize means to adjust the speed of shaft and gear wheel. The
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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)
ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]

synchronization process always follows a predefined sequence of instructions. While shifting the gear the sleeve on
the shaft is moved by the shift fork towards the gear to be engaged. As long as there is a speed difference between the
sleeve and the gear wheel the sleeve is blocked by the blocker ring and the synchronizer rings create a friction torque.
Once the speeds are synchronized the sleeve moves further and engages into the next gear train. This whole
mechanism is controlled by electro-hydraulic actuator system. However, the shifting of gear can be made completely
automated or manual by including paddle shifts according to convenience. [3]


The dual clutch transmission is mounted between the engine and the final drive. The dual clutch transmission
transfers power from the engine to the driving wheel while providing desired gear ratios.

A 6-speed Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) is as shown in Figure-1. There are two power transfer path formed by two
clutches and corresponding shafts, synchronizers and gears.

Fig. 4.6 Speed DCT. [7]

When the dual clutch transmission is working in a specific gear, only one of the clutches and corresponding
synchronizers are engaged. Therefore only one power path transfers power in that working condition. While in gear
shifting transients, the oncoming clutch starts to engage and the off-going clutch begins to disengage. So before the
gear shifting is completed, the power paths both transferring power at the same time. As a unique feature of a dual
clutch transmission, the next gear is preselected and the corresponding synchronizers are engaged before the actual
gear shifting starts. In this way dual clutch transmission is able to perform a fast gear shifting.

The dual-clutch module, that gives name to the transmission, is mounted between the engine flywheel and the two
coaxial input shafts of the transmission, one for odd gears and one for even gears. Therefore, the dual-clutch module
in the DCT provides the powertrain with two routes from the engine to the driving wheels. The dual-clutch module
can be single disk or multi-disk, dry or wet type, depending mainly on the amount of power needed to be transferred
and the available speed. A dual clutch transmission as typically implemented on an automobile is as shown in figure-
2. The coaxial input shafts consist of a solid shaft and a hollow shaft. The solid shaft carries the 2nd gear, the 4th
gear and the reverse gear. The hollow shaft carries the 1st gear, the 3rd gear and the 5th gear. Synchronizers are
located in a way similar to a traditional manual transmission. The synchronizers are located on the two intermediate
shafts. The synchronization is completed before gear shifting starts, and this leads to a faster gear shifting operation.

Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1.026 www.sretechjournal.org 38

International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)
ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]

Fig. 5.DCT implemented on an Automobile [7]


When in a specific gear, the corresponding clutch and synchronizer are engaged and torque is transferred from the
engine to the driving wheels through a particular path. Meanwhile, the other clutch is disengaged and the remaining
gears freewheel (rotate freely on the splined shaft). In the gear shifting process, there is a period that both clutches are
transferring torque from the engine to the gearbox. This clutch overlapping process involves the engagement of the
oncoming clutch and the disengagement of the off-going clutch. This mechanism is shown in figure3. The clutch
overlapping mechanism ensures no interruption of the power transmission occurs between the engine and the driving
wheels during gear shifting procedure. To achieve a fast and smooth clutch-to clutch shifting, a sophisticated control
of clutch slippage is performed.
The clutch-to-clutch control of gear shifting between two consecutive gears is described as following. Consider
the gear shifting from even gear to odd gear as shown in figure 3. The clutch-to-clutch shift is automatically
controlled by the Electrical Control Unit (ECU) and implemented by the relevant actuators.

Fig. 6.Shifting from 4th to 5th gear in a DCT [7]

Before the slippage of the two clutches starts to change, the clutch pressures in the two clutches are changed to meet
the pressure threshold when the torque capacity of the oncoming clutch starts to be positive and the torque capacity of
the off-going clutch decreases to the critical level that the off-going clutch begins to slip. This procedure eliminates
the time delay that could bring an undesirable impact to the clutch-to-clutch shift quality. After that, the torque
capacity of the oncoming clutch continuous to increase in a pre-programmed manner and the torque capacity of the
off going clutch is controlled to decrease at a rate that ensures the output torque of the transmission tracks the
demanded level. The torque capacity is controlled by the clutch pressure applied by the related actuators. This

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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)
ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]

concurrent process eliminates the power transmission interruption that happens in manual transmissions, automated
manual transmissions and classic automatic transmissions during gear shifting. Therefore, the clutch-to-clutch control
process allows both rapid gear shifting accomplishment and continuous torque transfer to the driving wheels. A
similar process is repeated whenever gear shifting between another two consecutive gears occurs. [5]

A dual clutch transmission shows different dynamic characteristic from an automatic transmission. The distinctive
feature of a dual clutch transmission system is to allow torque transferring from engine to the drive wheel without
interruption. But, this phenomenon can be achieved in Continuously Variable Transmission also. And the manual
transmission remains inferior to the former ones’.
In automatic transmissions to achieve this uninterrupted flow of power, torque converters are used. Whereas in
dual clutch transmission no such torque converter setup is used that dampens the shift transient. The absence of
torque converter makes dual clutch transmission more sensitive to input torque indifference.
Here, torque difference is the difference between the desired output torque and the actual output torque. Hence, in
order to minimize the gear shifting time and reduce the output torque difference of a dual clutch transmission an
advanced control law for dual clutch module during clutch to clutch shift controller is needed. This unique
mechanism is performed by the combined operation of dual clutches, electro-hydraulic unit and synchronizers. The
two clutches are engaged alternatively in different gears (odd and even). A typical gear shifting involves the
engagement of oncoming clutch and disengagement of off going clutch. Thus, the clutch-clutch shifting enables fast
gear shifting without power interruption. [6]


• In dual clutch transmission the clutch pedal is replaced by computers, solenoids and hydraulics. But, even without
a clutch pedal, the driver can still instruct the computer to take action through paddles, buttons or a gearshift.

• DCT offers the most dynamic acceleration of any vehicle on the market which is approximately 8 milliseconds for
upshift of gear.

• It certainly offers smooth acceleration by eliminating the shift shock that accompanies gearshifts in manual
transmissions and even some automatics.

• The most compelling advantage is that, the power flow from engine to transmission is not interrupted which
subsequently improves the fuel efficiency. According to experts six-speed DCT can deliver up to a 10 percent
increase in relative fuel efficiency when compared to a conventional five-speed automatic.

• Dual clutch transmission systems are lighter and fit easily into spaces engineered for a common manual


The various applications of DCT are listed in Table 1.

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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT)
ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]

Table 1 Application of DCT in Automobiles [8]

Sl. Applications
No Manufacturer Model Specification
1 Porsche 956 & 962C 6-speed

2 Audi sport Quattro 6-speed

3 lambhorgini huracan 6-speed
4 BMW M3 5-speed
5 Volkswagen Golf , Mk4 5-speed
6 Ford fiesta 5-speed

We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help
of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I am highly indebted to our Principal, HOD, Mr. Sharath and Mr. AmithGangadhar (Assistant professors,
Mechanical Engg. Dept, Global Academy of Technology, Bengaluru) for their guidance and constant supervision as
well as for providing necessary information regarding the paper submission & also for their support in completing the

I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & member of global academy of technology for their
kind cooperation and encouragement which help me in completion of this technical paper.

My thanks and appreciations also go to my professors who have helped me in doing this work directly and
indirectly and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.

[1] Ranbir Singh, “A brief review of transmission in automobiles”, International Journal of Latest Research in
Science and Technology. Vol.1,Issue 2 :Page No.D222-D226 ,July-August(2012)
[2] Zhewang, “Improved clutch-to-clutch control in a dual clutch transmission”, a thesis presented to the graduate
school of the University of Florida, 2014
[3] HOERBIGER Antriebstechnik GmbH (Germany), “Basics of synchronizers”, Jamuary 2013.

[4] Henrik Isernhagen Clemens Gühmann, “Modelling of a Double Clutch Transmission with an Appropriate
Controller for the Simulation of Shifting Processes”, Technische University Berlin.
[5] Jinsung Kim, Kwanghyun Cho and Seibum B. Choi, “Gear Shift Control of Dual Clutch Transmissions with a
Torque Rate Limitation Trajectory”, American control conference, June 29 – July 01, 2011.
[6] Kirpalsingh , “Automobile engineering - vol 1”, 10 edition, ISBN: 818014-099-7, 2007.

[7] https://www.google.co.in/search?q=dual+clutch+transmission&biw=102
[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dual-clutch_rransmission

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