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• EDGARDO C. GARCES • ROSELYN C. NIEBRES • CHERIZALYN M.

UNABIA DPWH | Bureau of Construction


Scope of Works in Building Construction
A – Mobilization

B – Earthworks

C – Termite control & wood preservation

D – Foundation Works

E – Damp Proofing / Moisture Control

F – Concrete Works

G – Masonry Works
Scope of Works in Building Construction
H – Carpentry Works

I – Fabricated Materials and Hardware

J – Roof Framing Works

K – Roofing Works

L – Painting/Varnishing

M – Water Proofing

N – MEPF Works
NO. 1
•Is best described as the
deployment of resources
at the project site.
MOBILIZATION

Is best described as the deployment of resources at the project site. This


also involves any work that is necessary to provide access to the site
including, but not limited to, grading, clearing and grubbing.

MANPOWER MATERIALS EQUIPMENT


For DPWH projects…
Mobilization and Demobilization
• shall not exceed 1% of the Estimated Direct Cost of civil
works items with time duration as prescribed in D.O. 44,
Series of 2012.

ESTIMATED DIRECT COST OF THE PROJECT TIME DURATION


Up to P5 Million 10 c.d.
Above P5 Million up to P20 Million 15 c.d.
Above P20 Million up to P50 Million 20 c.d.
Above P50 Million up to P100 Million 25 c.d. Allocated duration
P100 Million up to P150 Million 30 c.d. for mob and demob
EARTHWORKS

Involves clearing and


grubbing, excavation,
backfilling, embankment,
gravel bedding of all EARTHFILL
structural foundation
footings for columns, walls, F.G.L
FINISH FLR. LINE

stairs and other structural N.G.L


members EXCAVATION

BACKFILL

GRAVEL BEDDING
EARTHWORKS
1. Locate the boundaries of the construction site.
1 Layout 2. Clear the site of any obstructions.
3. Determine the building set back from the road line.

STAKING AND BATTER BOARD LAYOUT


(Conventional Method)

NYLON CHORD

PLUMB BOB

BATTER BOARD

STAKES

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


EARTHWORKS

1 Layout 4. Fix the intersections or corners at 90 degrees


ESTABLISHING THE SQUARE

5. Verify the measurement 1/2" x 4’ x 8’


in the plan. PLYWOOD
BOARD

a c

b d

2” x 3”
BATTER BOARD
a) Center to Center, 2” x 2”
b) Center to Outer Side STAKES
c) Outer to Outer side
d) Inside to inside.
EARTHWORKS

1 Layout Layout and Staking with the Aid of Instrument


NO. 2
•A process wherein the
soil is treated with
chemical solutions to
control and prevent the
entry of termite into the
structure.
TERMITE CONTROL & WOOD PRESERVATION
-are methods to prolong and protect wood products and
structures from termite infestation.

Soil poisoning UPPER LOCATION: WOOD PRESERVATION


A process wherein the soil is treated
with chemical solutions to control
and prevent the entry of termite into
the structure

Wood preservation
a process wherein the wood is also
treated with chemical solution and
are applied directly either external
or internal on wood surfaces. LOWER LOCATION : SOIL POISONING

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


1 Soil Poisoning Pre-Construction Treatment

Bottom surface and the


sides of the excavation
made from masonry
foundations and
basements shall be
treated with termicide
concentrate specified
by the product data

Treatment for Foundation Pits


Soil Poisoning

1 Treatment Procedures

Treatments for Masonry Foundation, Reinforced Concrete Foundation


2 Soil Poisoning Post-Construction Treatment

Soil Treatment

 Cordoning Method
- When there is no visible evidence
of termite infestation

Drenching Method
- When the soil shows termite
infestation

Drenching Method along the


perimeter of the building
Soil Poisoning

2 Treatment Procedures
 Cordoning Method

- Trenches in concentric circles, squares or rectangle are dug 150mm to


220mm wide and at least one meter apart and applied with liquid termite
concentrate working solution at the rate specified by the product data.

Drenching Method

- The building area shall be thoroughly drenched with liquid termite


concentrate at the rate specified by the product data. When powder
termicide is to be applied to eradicate subterranean termites, careful
application and precaution shall be given considering that this toxicant is
fatal to animal and human lives.
Soil Poisoning

2 Treatment Procedures Post-Construction Treatment

Drilling Service

- done in order to treat the soil


under cemented floor slabs.

Termicide solution is injected through


soil injector using the power machine
deep under the surface to penetrate
the hidden areas susceptible to
subterranean termites
3 Wood Preservation Pressure Treatment Method

Pressure treating is a process that forces


a chemical preservative deep into the
wood. The wood product is placed into
a humongous cylindrical holding tank,
and the tank is depressurized to remove
all air. The tank is then filled with the
preservative under high pressure,
forcing it deeply into the wood. The
tank is then drained and the remaining
preservative reused. The wood is
removed from the tank and prepared
for shipment to your local lumberyard.
3 Wood Preservation Non-pressure Treatment Method

- Hot-Cold Bath, Vacuum Process,


Double Diffusion, Cold Soaking,
Superficial Methods
NO. 3
•It is the chief means
of supporting a
building usually
called the foundation
FOUNDATION WORKS

1 2 Main Structures

Superstructure

Substructure
FOUNDATION WORKS

2 Types of Foundation

Shallow Foundations Deep Foundation


FOUNDATION WORKS

2 Types of Foundation

Jet Grouting
FOUNDATION WORKS

3 Considerations

Soil Condition

Depth if it complies with plans

Alignment and distances

No footing shall rest on fill


FOUNDATION WORKS

• All footings and tie beams shall rest on a


well compacted gravel bed.

• Backfill shall be placed in layers at 200 mm


thick and shall be compacted to 95 %
Maximum Dry Density.
NO. 4
•Is a process designed to
contain and eliminate the
penetration of moisture
discharged by the earth/soil on
the building structure.
DAMP PROOFING/MOISTURE CONTROL
CONCRETE WORKS
Rebar Works
1 Resources

Materials Manpower Equipment


a. Deformed a. Leadman a. Bar cutter
reinforcing b. Steelman b. Bar bender
steel bars
c. Labor c. Minor tools
b. Tie wires
Rebar Works
2 Common Practices

Proper splicing,
Proper cutting,
Fabrication Installation spacing,
bending
terminating,
anchoring
Quality
Control &
Assurance

Proper
splicing

spacing
Terminating/
anchoring
Rebar Works

a. Bending
• All reinforcements
shall be bent cold

• Reinforcement
partially embedded in
concrete shall not be
field-bent
Rebar Works

 Helps save valuable man-hours by


bending rebar up to 32 mm Grade 60
rebar 180 degrees in only 8 seconds
 With dial-type angle selector to set
angle of ben
 With emergency stop switch

Heavy-duty portable rebar bender


NO. 5

What do you call this type of connecting reinforcements?


SPLICE

Lap Splice Mechanical Splice


Rebar Works

a. Splicing
Splice length and
locations shall be as
prescribed in the
general notes of the plan
or as per provision of the
code (NSCP)
Splice top bars at or near support

NO. 6
A
Splice bottom bars at midspan
Splice top bars at midspan

Splice bottom bars at or near support

Choose the proper splice location for continuous beam


Rebar Works
Splice top bars at or near support

A
Splice bottom bars at midspan
Splice top bars at midspan

Splice bottom bars at or near support

Splice location for continuous beam


Rebar Works
Splice location on suspended slab

Splice location for continuous beams

a.1 – Splice Locations


Rebar Works
Splice location for cantilever beams

a.1 – Splice Locations


Rebar Works
Splice location for columns

a.1 – Splice Locations


Rebar Works

 Lightweight and has a compact,


easy to hold grip

 Designed to tie bar as fast as the


operator can pull the trigger

Portable electric rebar tying tool


Formworks and Falseworks

Formworks of good quality sufficient


to confine and mold the fresh
concrete

Where workers can manage to pour


concrete without directly standing on
the reinforcements and submerging on
the poured fresh concrete.

Installed formworks and falseworks for concrete footing


(Construction of 4 Storey CSC Resource Center Bldg, 2014)
Formworks and Falseworks
Formworks and Falseworks

Minimum %
Minimum Time
Design Strength
Centering under girders,
14 days 80%
beams frames or arches
Forms shall not be Floor slabs 14 days 70%
removed without the Walls 1 day 70%
consent of the Columns 2 days 70%
Engineer. Sides of beams and all
1 day 70%
other vertical surfaces

Forms and falsework shall not be released from under the


concrete without first determining if the concrete has gained
adequate strength without regard to the time element. In the
absence of strength determination, the forms and falsework
are to remain in place until removal is permitted by the
Engineer.
Concreting
1 Resources

Materials Manpower Equipment


a. On-site or a. Leadman a. Mixer
Ready b. Mason b. Pumpcrete
Mixed
Concrete c. Unskilled c. Vibrator
Labor d. Minor tools
b. Admixture
d. Carpenter
Concreting
2 Common Practices

Providing Concrete Protection

Mixing and Delivery

Conveying or Transporting

Depositing of Concrete
Concreting
2 Common Practices

Compacting

Providing Construction Joints

Curing
NO. 7

That clear distance is known as ________________.


Providing concrete protection
Structure Minimum cover (mm)
A. Footing, Footing Tie Beams 75 mm
B. Beams and Columns (to stirrups and ties) 40mm
C. Walls, side of FTB (cast against forms) 40mm
D. Suspended Slab 20mm
Mixing and Delivery

Concrete may be mixed at the site of construction


or at the batching plant.
Mixer Capacity Mixing Time
1.5m3 not less than 60 seconds
Greater than 1.5 m3 not less than 90 seconds

Delivery of concrete shall be timed and regulated.


In no case shall such gap exceed 30 minutes.

 Retempering of concrete will not be permitted.


Conveying or Transporting
Buckets or Hoppers Chutes

Manual or Motor
Propelled Buggies
Conveyor Belt
Conveying or Transporting

Pumps and Pipes


Drop Chute NO. 8

What is the advisable


maximum drop height
of concrete?

Depositing of concrete in column


Depositing of Concrete

Drop Chute

Maximum
Drop Height

1.50 meter or less

Proper Improper
Depositing of Concrete
a. Column

PROPER IMPROPER
Source: JICA Construction Handbook
Depositing of Concrete
b. Slab
PROPER
To dump concrete into
the face of concrete in
place

IMPROPER
To dump concrete away
from concrete in place

PROPER

Source: JICA Construction Handbook


Depositing of Concrete
c. Wall

PROPER – Compacting the poured concrete with tamping in


regular succession

Source: JICA Construction Handbook


Depositing of Concrete
c. Wall

IMPROPER – Segregation or formation of cold joints

Source: JICA Construction Handbook


NO. 9 A B

Choose the proper methodology in compacting concrete


COMPACTION OF CONCRETE

Haphazard random penetration Vertical penetration of vibrator a


of the vibrator at all angles and few inches into previous lift at
spacing without sufficient depth systematic regular intervals

Improper Proper
Compacting of Concrete
• Shall be done by
mechanical vibration

• Shall visibly affect a


mass of concrete
with a 3 cm slump
over a radius of at
least 50 cm
Compacting of Concrete

The radius of action


will be greater with a
larger poker and more
workable concrete
Compacting of Concrete
Backpack Vibrator

 Ergonomically designed where the


engine weight is properly supported by
the operator’s hips

 Improves productivity by delaying


operator fatigue and discouraging
injury-prone postures
Compacting of Concrete

Spin Screed

 Lightweight machine tool


 Used on stiff low slump concrete
and easier on wetter concrete
 Make the concrete of durability
higher than the one which uses
vibrating screed
Providing construction joints

Source: JICA Construction Handbook


Providing construction joints

Source: JICA Construction Handbook


CONCRETE WORKS
NO. 10

What are these structures?


MASONRY WORKS

Stiffener
Column

Lintel Beam
MASONRY WORKS

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MASONRY WORKS

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MASONRY WORKS

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MASONRY WORKS
Methods
Block laying after the
concreting of tied column

Concreting of column after


block laying of walls

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MASONRY WORKS

Proper handling of Concrete Hollow Block Laying of Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB)

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MASONRY WORKS

Maintaining the level while laying the CHB Application of Mortar

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MASONRY WORKS

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DPWH | Bureau of Construction
The advised roof fastener for
standard school buildings

NO. 11 J-BOLT
ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roof Framing
• Lifting and placement

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roof Framing

Assure proper alignment

• Erection
Upon placement, check plumbness

Provide enough temporary bracings to


hold the each truss firmly
DPWH | Bureau of Construction
ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roof Framing

• Connection between the truss and supporting


concrete structure shall be a base plate with
embedded anchor bolts.
• Anchorage
• No truss/rafter shall be anchored to supports
with extended vertical reinforcing bars from
reinforced concrete column.

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roof Framing
• Cross Bracings

• No turn buckle shall be directly


welded to the truss.

• Cross bracing rods are provided with


ear where turn buckles are hooked.

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roof Framing
• Purlins
Or welded

Common
Mistake

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ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roof Framing
• Sag Rod

WELDED!
Or
staggered
but welded

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


NO. 12

What is the required end lap and


side lap in the installation of
corrugated G.I. Sheet?

Side Lap – 2 ½ Corrugations


End Lap – minimum of 250 mm
ROOF FRAMING & ROOFING WORKS
1 Roofing

b. Drilling

After lay outing, drilling points should be located at the crown every two other corrugations
of the roofing material (G.I. Sheet)
DPWH | Bureau of Construction
CARPENTRY AND JOINERY WORKS
1 Drywall Partition

Vertical and horizontal alignment

Material specification

Complete installation of electro-mechanical rough-


ins

Rigidly connected to the flooring, walls and at the


bottom of the ceiling frames
DPWH | Bureau of Construction
CARPENTRY AND JOINERY WORKS

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


CARPENTRY AND JOINERY WORKS
2 Ceiling Works
Dimension and alignment

Material specification

Complete installation of electro-mechanical rough-ins

Properly anchored to the carrying metal channel/wood runner

Complete installation of roof framing and roofing

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


CARPENTRY AND JOINERY WORKS

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Fabricated Materials and Hardwares

1 Windows

2 Doors

3 Blackboards

4 Cabinets

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Fabricated Materials and Hardwares

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NO. 13
Is a method of making a part
of a structure impervious to
water to protect the structure’s
integrity.
Waterproofing
WATERPROOFING

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


NO. 14

Tile Spacer

What do you call this material?


FINISHES
1 Tile works

1. Layout 2. Apply a bond coat mix (Tile Adhesive)

3. Lay tiles true to profile 4. Keep straight w/ tile spacer


DPWH | Bureau of Construction
FINISHES

Grouting and Pointing

Tiles shall have been


laid in place for at
least 24 hours before
grouting of the joints
is started

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FINISHES
2 Plain
Cement

1 2

3
DPWH | Bureau of Construction
FINISHES
2 Cement Plaster

1. Roughen surface to improve adhesion


of cement plaster

2. Clean surface to receive cement


plaster

3. Apply mortar mix with sufficient


pressure

4. Trowel finish

DPWH | Bureau of Construction


NO. 15
1 2

3 4 5

What is the appropriate sequence of activities?


3. Pebble Washout Finish

1 4 3

5 2
PAINTING
1 Surface Preparation

Surface preparation
Surface preparation for
for Concrete &
Boards and Drywalls
Masonry Surface
NO. 16
What’s wrong in
this site?
NO. 16 Use of monkey
ladder! UNSAFE!
What’s wrong in
this site?