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[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

Question 1
Civil Engineering road construction works are scheduled for the extension of a Highway located 35km to the
north of the city’s central business district. This State Government Main-Roads Public-Works-Department
project addresses the following activities: bus-bay provision; intersection work with requisite slip-lanes;
commuter-shoulders for cyclists; temporary works to maintain reasonable property access/egress; a
pedestrian passage-way that allows access across the road; kerbing; associated lighting works; reasonable
protection/reinstatement of native flora; and community consultation as appropriate. Given the above,
attempt the following questions:

(a) If the Principal favours a traditional tendering process, explain briefly what documents are required
to be produced and what purpose they serve.

Among the documents required to be produced are the:

 Program Plan (Time Scehdule)
 Health Safety Environmental (HSE) Plan or OHS Plan
 QA / QC Plan

Design or construct contract only

 General Conditions: It is a legal agreement between the parties to a construction project,

determining the allocation of tasks, responsibilities, cost, risks and etc.

 Special Conditions of Contract: It is a legal supplementary agreement regarding the clauses that
did not mention is General Condition of Contract. In the event of an inconsistency, these Special
Conditions of Contract shall take precedence over the General Conditions of Contract to the
extent of that inconsistency.
o Sub-contractor (AS 4000: Clause 9)
o Variation scopes

 Time schedule: The ordering of the processes required to ensure timely completion of the
project. Scheduling consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration
estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.

 Working Drawings: It is finalized drawings that provide all the information, both graphic and
written, about the project. Detailed information is given about everything in the project. Beam,
column, Walls, windows, doors, demolition and so on, is all specified. Graphic symbols are used
to represent walls, doors, furniture, etc. Dimensions are used to define the location of these
components. Text is used to further describe them or to point specific elements of the design.

 Specifications: are written documents that describe the materials and workmanship required for
a development. They do not include cost, quantity or drawn information. It is necessary
information to obtain a desired quality of material used in the project. It contains instruction for
operation, inspection and testing during construction. In this road project, here are the
specifications of construction component need to be determined:

o Standard Specifications, Roads Construction

o Standard Specifications, Sewer Construction
o Standard Specifications, Cyclist commuter shoulder Construction
o Standard Specifications, Pedestrian passage way
o Standard Specifications, Kerbing and Landscape Construction
o Standard Specifications, Streetlighting
o Standard Specifications, Protection of native Flora

 Bill of Quantities (AS4 000: Subclause 2.2, 2.3): is a document often prepared by a quantity
surveyor that provides measured quantities of the items of work identified by the drawings and
specifications in the tender documentation. The quantities might be measured in number,
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

length, area, volume, weight or time. Preparing a bill of quantities requires that the design is
complete and a specification has been prepared.

 Occupational, Health and safety plan (OHS): is a commitment to health, welfare and safety for
employers in the workplace by providing a clearly written statement of intent and plan of
action for the prevention of accidents and occupational illness and injury. Some examples of
OHS activities are: Risks and Hazards assessment, emergency plan, Staff orientation and

 Quality management system (QMS): Part of the organization’s management system that
focuses on the achievement of results, in relation to quality objectives, to satisfy the needs,
expectation and requirements of interested parties as appropriate.

(b) Discuss, using standard form of contract clauses, whether the Principal may seek a security provision
to protect themselves against possible poor performance by a chosen builder.

Yes. JKR is asking for a 5% retention bond. According to Clause xxx, the Principal can seek a
security provision. The General form of Contract mentions that there will be a security bond but it
will be released after the liability period of the project (not after the issuance of the practical
completion certificates)
Extra: the practical completion certificate allows the Contractor to obtain full payment for the
project, and the date of the defect liability warranty period starts. The Principal will also be held
responsible for the site (and not the Contractor) Basically the Practical Completion Certificate will
mention about the rights of the Contractor.

The principal may seek security to ensure the performance level of contractor is proper. The security
shall be in form of cash, bonds or inscribed stock issued by the Australian Government, or insurance
company or other form approved by the part having the benefit of the security (AS 2124: Clause 5).
In Malaysia, Jabatan kerja Raya (JKR) is asking for a 5% retention bond. The General form of
contract mentions that the security bond will be release after the liability period of the project.

(c) The Main Contractor finds that a site survey of physical conditions supplied by the Principal
contains inaccuracies, and decides to use this document to justify a claim for additional money. Use
a standard form of contract to determine the Superintendent’s response.

Clause EoT and Additional Monies.

The site survey of physical conditions considered a latent condition (AS 2124: Subclause 12.1
(a)(iii)). Latent condition is a qualified event for Extension of Time (AS 2124: Subclause 35.5
(b)(iii)). Therefore, the contractor is entitled to EoT for practical completion. The contractor shall
give the Superintendent a written claim within 28 days after the delay occurs.
There is a change required for site survey, since it is inaccurate. This is considered as variations to
work (AS 2124: Subclause 40.1(b)). The cost caused by this variation, shall be valued according to
Valuation, subclause 40.5, as it is clearly mentioned under Pricing the Variations, subclause 40.3.
Therefore, the superintendent shall afford the variation as contractor prepares all the measurements
and other evidence of cost (AS 2124: Subclause 40.5).

(d) Use standard form of contract clauses to assess whether there are any limits on the Principal’s
(Superintendent) power to order the Main Contractor to carry out a variation.

If the job is within the scope, (like adding a door to the room or etc) then the Contractor is obligated
to do the variation order. The order will be compensated by additional monies and also an extension
of time.
If the job is not within the scope, (like adding One more Floor to the building) then the Contractor is
not obligated to accept the variation order. However, the Contractor will be allowed to negotiate the
price of the project and provided extension of time.
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

Extra : According to JKR Sarawak, maximum variation is 20% of contract value or RM100,000. In
Australia, there will be a supplementary Contract that defines the scope of the variation.

Work under contract (WUC): Means the work which the contractor is or may be required to execute
under the contract and includes variation, remedial work, constructional plant and temporary works.
Therefore, contractor is obligated to carry out a variation, as long as it is within the general scope of
WUC (AS 2124: Subclause 40.1). If the demanded variation is outside of the WUC scope, then the
variation considered as a “New Task”. Thus, it requires a new contract or need to be included under
the Special Condition of Contract. Since it is a new contract, the contractor has a right to accept or
reject it. In addition, if contractor accept the variation, he is entitled to EoT and additional claim for

(e) Use standard form of contract clauses to assess whether a Contractor, working to a scheduled-
programme submitted at tender, is entitled to an extension of time if the Principal causes a delay, but
the Contractor can still complete by the original contract date for completion?

Since the delayed caused by the principle, the contractor is qualified for Extension of Time (AS
2124: Subclause 35.5 (b)(i)). The EoT is usually issued only within 28 days after date of completion.
Therefore, if the contractor is unable to complete WUC within the original contract date, then he/she
can apply for EoT by giving the Superintendent a written claim within 28 days after the delay occurs
(AS 2124: Subclause 35.5).

(f) A Pressure-Group argues that there is no native fauna/animal access/passage way/culvert from one
side of the road to the other and successfully wins an injunction until installation is instigated. Use
contract clauses to explain if this means that the contract has been frustrated?

If a contract is made, and due to unforeseen events later becomes impossible to for one party to
perform their obligations, then we it is frustration. Frustration is about subsequent impossibility.
This does not mean the contract frustrated. The state government did not address regarding native
fauna/animal access, only addressed about the native flora. In order to proceed with project, needs to
instigate the passage way construction. This is a task outside the general scope of WUC (AS 2124:
Subclause 40.1). Therefore, a new contract is required. As new contract, the contractor is qualified
for EoT and additional claim for cost.

(g) The Contractor submits to the Principal an underground animal culvert designed by a competitor
without permission. Use a standard contract to assess if a breach has occurred.

A breach of contract has occurred as the design used is not legal. If the permission or copyright is
given by the competitor, then the design can be used and is not a breach of contract.

Using others (e.g. competitor’s) design, material, documents and method of working with NO
permission is considered as breach. The contractor infringed the right of the competitor and not
permitted to employ the design (AS 2124: Subclause 13).

(h) Main Contractor employees are living in site caravans on-site. Use standard form of contract clauses
to assess if a breach has occurred.

The contractor shall not use the site or allow it to be used for without superintendent prior written
approval as follows: Camping, residential purposes, any purpose connected to the WUC (AS 2124:
Subclause 27.4). Therefore, living in the site-caravans on-site is a breach, if the contractor did not
obtained the Superintendent written approval.
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

Question 2
As a practicing engineer, you are assigned to lead a team of construction workers. You and your team are
responsible of installing false-work and form-work, laying reinforcing bars, pouring concrete slabs, stripping
the form and providing temporary propping to support the slab after the form is removed. Answer the
following questions:
(a) Describe your management plan for the tasks. (5 marks)

The management plan has to relate back to the structural drawings which specify the amount of quality or
finishing required in the construction. The project should comply with the quality management plan and the
technical specifications provided.

Here is the General QMS requirement:

 Establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve
its effectiveness in accordance with the ISO requirements.
 identify the processes needed for the quality management system and their application throughout
the organization
 determine the sequence and interaction of these processes,
 determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and control of these
processes are effective,
 ensure the availability of resources and information necessary to support the operation and
monitoring of these processes,
 monitor, measure and analyze these processes, and
 Implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement of these

The graph below is quality control for concrete. (It is for the reference only, it needs to be modified.
The formwork and falsework can be added in because they almost have the same quality planning)
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

(b) List out what types of specifications you will need to perform the tasks. (5 marks)

Answer: Before Concrete, During Concrete, After Concrete

Specification of Concrete Grade Class 2 or Class 3 concrete finishing.
Specification of reinforcement spacing
Specification of reinforcement detail
Specification of concrete cover
Specification of compaction
Specification of curing
Check workability of concrete
Formwork and falsework has to be checked for stability
Cleanliness of the formwork should be ensured

Type of Specifications:
 Materials
o Concrete
 Grade
 Strength
 Modulus of elasticity
 Mix design
 Control Test (compressive test, etc)
 Curing
 Cover
o Reinforcement bars
 Size
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

 Yield Strength
 Modulus of elasticity
 Ductility
 Testing
 Spacing
 Details
o Formworks
 Drawing Dimensions
 Grade and sizes of Ply
 Plywood need to be seasoned
 Free of defects
 Withstand the concrete pressure
 Workmanship
o Use of material
o Fabrication into the structure
o The method and order of installation
o The quality of personnel required
o The standard of workmanship
o Tolerances permitted
o Safety precautions
 Performance
o Suitable for mechanical and electrical equipment
o Usually the finished products are under contractor responsibility based on the
contract (usually up 5 years)
 Standard brand, Proprietary Commodities (not applied in this case)
 Design
o Approved drawings
o Detailed calculations
o Bill of quantities
o Environmental factors
o Maintenance
o Safety

(c) Explain how your management system will help you to handle non-conformances and any future
disputes regarding the quality of your work. (5 marks)

Can refer to ISO 9001:2000 Subclause 8.3

 Accept as it is
 Modify
 Repair
 Reject altogether, redo

Question 3
In a feasibility study for a road construction project, you are investigating aspects of occupational health and
safety in the four stages of project life-cycle, which are planning, design, construction and post-construction.
Answer the following questions:
(a) Describe a possible occupational health and safety plan for each stage of the project life cycle. (10

 The clients commitment to a strong culture of safety
 A dedicated team committed to safety culture
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

 Clarification of roles and responsibilities

 Project safety objectives and targets for all stakeholders

 A framework for monitoring safety through the design stage is provided
 Tenders that do not comply with safety requirements can be excluded from further consideration
 All tenders contain complete and detailed safety information and pricing based on a realistic estimate
to submit an attractive proposal in a competitive environment showing understanding of importance
of safety management for the project.
 The selected constructor should have a clear understanding and competence to safety management
for the project

 Responsibilities for safety management;
 Details regarding management of subcontractors;
 Resources to be allocated to safety management;
 Communication plan;
 Incident/accident reporting procedures;
 Safety monitoring (audits and inspections)and reporting processes;
 Processes for employer/employee consultations;
 Injury management and rehabilitation;
 Statutory obligations;
 Safety training needs analysis and plans;
 Safety requirements for proposed plant and equipment;
 Approach to management of identified major areas of hazard/risk and proposed plant and equipment;
 Dangerous goods and hazardous substances management;
 Traffic management arrangements;
 Safety equipment and protective clothing;
 Arrangements for protecting the public‐including visitors to the site;
 Site security
 Arrangements for deliveries to the site, and emergency preparedness and response plans.

 A nominated officer responsible for the commissioning stage of the project – to act as a champion
for this stage of the project;
 A commissioning risk assessment which identifies and evaluates potential commissioning safety
 A communication plan to inform all stakeholders on commissioning issues;
 Safety monitoring (audits and inspections) and reporting processes;
 Legal and statutory obligations such as obtaining of certificates and clearances and appropriate
 Approach to management of identified major areas of hazard/risk and proposed control measures,
 Management of dangerous goods and hazardous substances.

(b) Based on lessons-learnt through site-visit, case-study, or tutorial participation, list the 5 most
important strategies to be adopted for safety practices of the project. Provide your answers in bullet-
point form with a short –explanation related to the road construction. (5 marks)

Here is the all the safety management criteria in construction tender (Just select 5 of them and relate it to the
road construction):
 Establish a project Safety Management Framework;
 Appoint a Project Safety Leadership Team (identify safety champions);
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

 Carry out project hazard identification, risk assessment and control (Job Safety Analysis (JSAs)/
Safe Work Method statement (SWMSs); e.g. need to consider all the risks regarding to the
construction, workers, and environment.
o In case if the false work or formwork failure during a construction of a bridge, what is the
contingency plan and risk assessment? The Can Tho bridge failure in Vietnam is a good
example. The contractor did not consider the safety of workers and construction. They
removed the false-work too early without assessing the possible failure risk. The concrete
did not reach the designated strength. Therefore, the 90m ramp from 30m above ground
collapsed, 59 people killed, 140 injured and loss of 42.6 million dollars.
o What would be the effect to construct a road near the national park or native bushes?
Required to consider environmental impact and recommend a damage prevention program.

 Develop OH&S procedures and instructions, understand and apply general and detailed legislative
OH&S requirements;
 Develop Project Safety Charter,
 Develop Project Safety Master Plan,
 Record safety risk information in the Project Risk Register,
 Select ‘Safe’ Contractor
 Deliver site/workplace – specific induction and training and toolbox talks (management to make site
visits during toolbox talks);
 Give formal OH&S presentation to management and participate in site safety committee (If an
employer has twenty or more workers an OHS committee must be established);
 Carry out formal incident investigations;
 Carry out basic project OH&S audits (formal inspection of the workplace and work tasks) and
prepare reports on OH&S issues, performance and improvement strategies;
 Monitor sub-contractor’s activities, include related OH&S requirements into sub-contractor’s
packages and evaluate sub-contractor’s OH&S performance;
 Assist with return to work and rehabilitation processes;
 Understand workers compensation requirements;
 Administer first aid to injured persons.

Question 4
Given that the construction industry is increasingly addressing quality management through continuous
improvement, total-quality management activities such as lean production systems, just-in-time materials
planning, materials requirement planning and kanban-systems for efficient materials resourcing and
scheduling, answer the following:
(a) Perth-Torsion is a local steel connection manufacturer, producing metal-joist-hangers who use
kanban-container systems to assist inventory requests. How many kanban-containers are needed by
one of Perth-Torsion’s clients given: a daily demand of 2755 joist hangers, a production lead time of
3.5 days, a safety stock of not less than 1.5 days and a kanban container size of 125 joist hangers.
Comment on the need for a 3.5 day lead time.

No of Kanban container?

Daily demand: 2755 joist

Lead time: 3.5 days = Production lead/lag time
Safety Stock: 1.5 days
Container size: 125 joist

No of containers = ((daily demand x lead time) + Safety Stock) / size of container

No of containers = ((2755 x 3.5) + (1.5 x 2755) / 125 = 110.2 ≈ 111 no of containers required
[CEPQL 463 PAST YEAR] January 1, 2012

(b) Discuss the variables for methodology to assist Perth-Torsion to minimize the total number of
hours it will take their available steel component production machineries to complete a requisite
number of tasks in the production of their metal joist hangers.

Lead time: The time between the initiation and completion of a production process.

The number of kanban should be decreased over time. Minimizing the total number of kanban is the best
way to uncover areas of needed improvement. By constantly reducing the total number of kanban,
continuous improvement is facilitated by concurrently reducing the overall level of stock in production.
Another method is to reduce the lead time. 3.5 days is a long time to assemble the joist hanger. Reducing the
lead time, would reduce the no of container significantly. It can be achieved by hiring more operators to
work on concurrently (cost considerations), reducing set-up times, or redesigning processes.