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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership / M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324 Integrating Technology into Education

Name:_Zeynep Nesibe Nur SAGDIK__ Date: ___07.14.2019____________

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Waxman, H. C., Boriack, A.W., Lee, Y.H., MacNeil, A. (2013), Principals’ Perceptions of
the Importance of Technology in Schools. Contemporary Educational Technology,4(3),


Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is
the theoretical background or overarching theme):
- What are principals’ perceptions of the importance of technology?
- Do principals’ perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and gender?

Purpose of the research:

The purpose of the research is to find out what principals think of the importance of
technology and if their attitude towards technology is affected by their gender and years
of experience.


What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the
issue? Provide information regarding the following:
Participants:310 principals from the southwest of the United States were included in
the study. 126 of them were males and 184 of them were females. Their years of
experience are as follows:
104 participants: 0-3 years , 82 participants: 4-7 years,
55 participants : 8-11 years, 32 participants: 12-15 years, 31 participants : more than 15
years. Participants were chosen using convenience sample.

Procedures: Participants were given a cognitive questionnaire and it contained both

qualitative and quantitative questions. The questionnaire was administered by the
graduate students of a college.

Data Collection Methods/Data Source: A cognitive questionnaire.

Data Analysis: Firstly the data reduction process took place. Then it was coded
into categories. After that another researcher coded 10% sample of the
responses to check the accuracy of coding. The results proved to be consistent
with one another.


Findings or Results (or main points of the article): 35% of the participants said that
technology was used as a primary communication tool. 28% of them indicated that
technology was integrated into teacher’s instruction in the classroom. 14 % of the
principals said the technology was used for data sharing and management. 15% agreed
that technology was used as a resource to find information. 10% said technology is used
for administrative tasks and finally the other 10% thinks technology was used for student
In terms of the principals’ genders the findings are as follows. The percentage of
technology used for communication for males is 33 whereas for females it is 36.
Technology used for instruction is 33% for males and for females 25%. For males using
technology as a resource is 16% ,for data sharing and management 15% , for
administrative tasks 12% and for student learning 10%. For females using technology for
data sharing and management 15% , as a resource 14%, for student learning 12% and
for administrative tasks 9%.
Finally principals’ perception of technology in terms of their experience years were
explored. For principals who had 0-3(39%), 4-7(33%) and 8-11(31%) years of
experience think that the main use of technology for them was communication. Then for
them the function that comes in the second place is instruction (24%,30%,24%). For
principals with 12-15 (31%)years and more than 15 years of experience (39%) the most
common usage purpose of technology is instruction. For them, the second reason is
communication (28%, 36%)


Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):

(Yu & Durrington, 2006). MacNeil and Delafield (1998) found that when administrators
are capable of using technology and lead their staff in this path, the teachers and
students use technology more efficiently. But most of them do not possess the
necessary knowledge to use technology and far from being a leader in that field as well.
(Ertmer, Bai, Dong, Khalil, Park, & Wang, 2002).


Student’s Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your

school/work): School principals are the key to use successful use of technology in their
schools. If they are capable and willing to be technology leaders, the students and staff
will more quickly adopt and use technology in everyday classroom tasks. The principals’
perception of use of technology differs according to their gender and years of
experience. They must first be aware of the fact that technology has changed a lot in
today’s generations’ lives and see the need the keep up with the latest developments.
We now live in the age of technology and if we don’t keep up with it eventually we will
have to face the consequences. In order for a principal to be considered as a successful
one in today’s world, one must be familiar with the use of technology in the schools and
be a technology leader as well.