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Mathematics in the Modern

World
What is mathematics? Where is
mathematics? What role does
mathematics play in your world?
Mathematics
- science that deals with the logic of shape,
quantity and arrangement

*math is all around us, in everything we do


*math is the building block for everything in our
daily lives, including mobile devices,
architecture (ancient and modern), art,
money, engineering, and even sports
Mathematics in the Modern World
- is about mathematics as a system of knowing
or understanding our surroundings
- deals with nature of mathematics,
appreciation of its practical, intellectual, and
aesthetic dimensions, and application of
mathematical tools in daily life
Course Outline
1 Nature of Mathematics
1.1 Patterns and Numbers in Nature and the World
1.2 The Fibonacci Sequence
1.3 Mathematics for our World

2 Speaking Mathematically
2.1 Variables
2.2 The Language of Sets
2.3 The Language of Relations and Functions
Course Outline
3 Problem Solving
3.1 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
3.2 Problem Solving with Patterns
3.3 Problem-Solving Strategies
4 Statistics
4.1 Measures of Central Tendency
4.2 Measures of Dispersion
4.3 Measures of Relative Position
4.4 Normal Distributions
4.5 Linear Regression and Correlation
Nature of Mathematics
Patterns and Numbers in Nature and the World

• PATTERNS
- are regular, repeated, or recurring forms or
designs

*we see patterns every day


*studying patterns help students in identifying
relationships and finding logical connections
to form generalizations and make predictions
What do you think will be the next face in the
sequence?
What is the next figure in the pattern
below?
What is the next figure in the given
pattern?
What number comes next in

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ____ ?
What number comes next in

1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ___ ?


Symmetry
- Indicates that you can draw an imaginary line
across an object and the resulting parts are
mirror images of each other
LINE or BILATERAL SYMMETRY
*evident in most animals, including humans
*There are other types of symmetry depending on the
number of sides or faces that are symmetrical

Spiderwort with three-fold symmetry This starfish has a five-fold symmetry

ROTATIONAL SYMMETRY
- if you rotate the spiderwort and starfish above by
several degrees, you can still achieve the same
appearance as the original position
Angle of rotation
- the smallest angle that a figure can be rotated
while still preserving the original formation

Angle of rotation = 360⁰


n

where n= order of rotation


= number of folds
Snowflake
What is the order of rotation and angle of
rotation of a snowflake?
Honeycomb
Packing Problems
-involve finding the optimum method of filling up a given
space such as cubic or spherical container
Prove that using hexagonal packing will cover a
larger area than using square packing.

Percentage of the square or hexagon’s area


covered by circles
= area of the circles x 100%
area of the square
Tigers’ Stripes and Hyenas’ Spots
Sunflower

This arrangement allows the sunflower seeds to occupy the


flower head in a way that maximizes their access to light and
necessary nutrients
The Snail’s Shell
Equiangular spiral
- follows the rule that as the distance from the spiral center increases
(radius), the amplitudes of the angles formed by the radii to the
point and the tangent to the point remain constant
Flower Petals

Buttercup Ragwort
Trillium Clematis
World Population
• Formula for exponential growth

A=P
where:

A = size of the population after it grows


P = initial number of people
r = rate of growth
t = time
e = Euler’s constant with an approximate value of 2.718
Example (Population Growth)
The exponential growth model
describes the population of a city in the
Philippines in thousands, t years after 1995.
a. What was the population of the city in
1995?
b. What will be the population in 2017?
Exponential Decay
The formula for exponential growth can also be
used for exponential decay, with the rate “r”
being a negative value. The time “t” should
coincide with the given rate, i.e. if the time is
in years, then the growth rate should also be a
yearly growth rate.
Sequence
- an ordered list of numbers, called terms, that
may have repeated values
- the arrangement of these terms is set by a
definite rule
Generating a Sequence
Analyze the given sequence for its rule and
identify the next three terms
a. 1, 10, 100, 1000
b. 2, 5, 9, 14, 20
c. 16, 32, 54, 128
d. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8
The Fibonacci Sequence
- a special sequence named after the Italian
mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, who was
better known by his nickname Fibonacci
*He is said to have discovered this sequence as he looked at how
a hypothesized group of rabbits bred and reproduced. The
problem involved having a single pair of rabbits and then
finding out how many pairs of rabbits will be born in a year,
with the assumption that a new pair of rabbits is born each
month and this new pair, in turn, gives birth to additional
pairs of rabbits beginning at two months after they were born
He noted that the set of numbers generated from this problem
could be extended by getting the sum of the two previous
terms.
Patterns which contain Fibonacci
numbers
- spiral arrangement of sunflower seeds
- the number of petals in a flower
- shape of a snail’s shell
*It is interesting to note that that the ratios of
successive Fibonacci numbers approach the
number ɸ (Phi), also known as the
Golden Ratio. This is approximately equal to
1.618.
• The Golden Ratio can also be expressed as the ratio between
two numbers, if the latter is also the ratio between the sum
and the larger of the two numbers. Geometrically, it can also
be visualized as a rectangle perfectly formed by a square and
another rectangle, which can be repeated infinitely inside
each section.
* Shapes and figures that bear this proportion are generally
considered to be aesthetically pleasing. As such, this ratio is
visible in many works of art and architecture such as in the
Mona Lisa, the Notre Dame Cathedral, and the Parthenon.
The Parthenon is said to exhibit the application
of the Golden Ratio.